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					MM Produktion 2: Interaktionsdesign   VO 2.0 – 187.163




          ID: Weitere Aspekte
       Design für Kollaboration und
             Kommunikation

                     26.05.2004

                    Hilda Tellioğlu




                                                     1
Design für Kollaboration und Kommunikation

   Social mechanisms in communication & collaboration
    ⋯   Conversational mechanisms & designing collaborative technologies
        to support conversation - to facilitate the flow of talk & help
        overcome breakdowns during it
    ⋯   Coordination mechanisms & designing collaborative technologies
        to support coordination - to allow people to work & interact
        together
    ⋯   Awareness mechanisms & designing collaborative technologies to
        support awareness - to find out what is happening, what others
        are doing & to let others know what is happening
   Conceptual frameworks
    ⋯   Language/action framework
    ⋯   Distributed cognition



                                                                         2
Social mechanisms – Conversational mechanisms

   Various mechanisms and rules we follow to hold a
    conversation
    ⋯   mutual greetings
         A: Hi there
         B: Hi!
         C: Hi
         A: All right?
         C: Good, How’s it going?
         A: Fine, how are you?
         C: OK
         B: So-so. How’s life treating you?
   turn taking to coordinate conversation
    A: Shall we meet at 8?                    A: Shall we meet at 8?
    B: Wow, look at him?                      B: Um, can we meet a bit later?
    A: Yes what a funny hairdo!
    B: Um, can we meet a bit later?
                                                                                3
Social mechanisms – Conversational mechanisms

   back channeling to signal to continue & following
    ⋯   Uh-uh, umm, ahh
   farewell rituals
    ⋯   Bye then, see you, yer bye, see you later….
   implicit & explicit cues
    ⋯   e.g. looking at watch, fidgeting with coat and bags
    ⋯   explicitly saying “Oh dear, must go, look at the time, I’m late…”
   three basic rules by Sacks et al. (1978)
    ⋯   Rule 1: the current speaker chooses the next speaker by asking an
        opinion, question or request
    ⋯   Rule 2: another person decides to start speaking
    ⋯   Rule 3: the current speaker continues talking



                                                                            4
Social mechanisms – Conversational mechanisms

   Breakdowns in conversations
    ⋯   when someone says something that is misunderstood
        −   speaker will repeat with emphasis
               A: “this one?”
               B: “no, I meant that one!”
        −   also use tokens
              Eh? Quoi? Huh? What?
   Kinds of conversations
    ⋯   argument, discussion, heated debate, chat, ...
    ⋯   formal communication - involves assigning certain roles to people &
        prescribing a priori the types of turns that people are allowed to take in
        a conversation, e.g. a board meeting
    ⋯   informal communication - the chat that goes on when people socialize,
        happens when people bump into each other & talk briefly, can occur in
        corridors, at the coffee machine, when waiting in the line, walking down
        the street, ...
                                                                                5
Social mechanisms – Conversational mechanisms

   Designing to support conversations
    ⋯   How to support conversations when people are at a distance from each
        other?
    ⋯   Many applications have been developed - email, video conferencing,
        video phones, computer conferencing, chatrooms, collaborative virtual
        environments (CVE), media spaces
    ⋯   How effective are they?
    ⋯   Do they mimic or extend existing ways of conversing?
    ⋯   Do same conversational rules apply?
    ⋯   Are there more breakdowns?
    ⋯   How do people repair them? Phone? Email? SMS texting? Chat?
    ⋯   Different types of CMC (computer mediated communication) systems
        −   Synchronous communication
        −   Asynchronous communication
        −   CMC combined with other activity

                                                                            6
Social mechanisms – Conversational mechanisms

   Synchronous CMC
    ⋯   Conversations are supported in real-time through voice and/or typing
    ⋯   Examples: video conferencing, chatrooms
    ⋯   Benefits
        −   Can keep more informed of what is going on
        −   Video conferencing allows everyone to see each other providing some support
            for non-verbal communication
        −   Chatrooms can provide a forum for shy people to talk more
    ⋯   Problems
        −   Video lacks bandwidth so judders and lots of shadows
        −   Difficult to establish eye contact with images of others
        −   People can behave badly when behind the mask of an avatar




                                                                                      7
Social mechanisms – Conversational mechanisms

   Synchronous CMC
    ⋯   Will video be a success using G3 mobile phones?
        −       Will the judder, sudden jerks & shadows disappear?
        −       Will it be possible to establish eye contact & read lips on such a
                small image?
        −       Will people find it socially acceptable to talk to an image of
                someone in the palm of their hands?
    ⋯   New communication technologies
        −       Move beyond trying to support face-to-face communication
        −       Provide novel ways of interacting & talking
        −       Examples
            •
                  SMS texting via mobile phones
            •
                  Online chatting in chatrooms
            •
                  Collaborative virtual environments
            •
                  Media spaces



                                                                                     8
Social mechanisms – Conversational mechanisms

   Synchronous CMC – Collaborative virtual environments
    ⋯   The rooftop garden in BowieWorld, a Collaborative Virtual environment
        (CVE), supported by Worlds.com. Users take part by “dressing up” as an
        avatar. There are 100s of avatars to choose from, including penguins
        and real persons. Once an avatar has entered a world they can explore it
        and chat to other avatars. (Source: www.worlds.com/bowie)




                                                                             9
Social mechanisms – Conversational mechanisms

    Synchronous CMC – Video window system (Bellcore, 1989)
    ⋯   a shared space that allowed people 50 miles apart to carry on a
        conversation as if in same room drinking coffee together
    ⋯   3 x 8 ft picture window between two sites with video & audio
    ⋯   People did interact via the window but strange things happened (Kraut,
        1990)
    Synchronous CMC – Hypermirror (Morikawa & Maesako, 1998)
    ⋯   allows people to feel as if they are in the same virtual place even though
        in physically different spaces

                                                            (woman in white

           People in different                              sweater is in a

     places are superimposed                                different room to the

          on the same screen                                other three)

    to make them appear as if
               in same space.

                                                                                    10
Social mechanisms – Conversational mechanisms

   Synchronous CMC – Hypermirror (Morikawa & Maesako, 1998)
    ⋯   creating personal space in Hypermirror




        2) Two in this room are invading         3) Two in the room move
        the ‘virtual’ personal space             apart to allow person
        of the other person by appearing to be   in other space more ‘virtual’
        physically on top of them                personal space



                                                                                 11
Social mechanisms – Conversational mechanisms

   Asynchronous CMC
    ⋯   Communication takes place remotely at different times
    ⋯   Examples: email, newsgroups, computer conferencing
    ⋯   Benefits
        −   Read any place any time
        −   Flexible as to how to deal with it
        −   Powerful, can send to many people
        −   Can make saying things easier
    ⋯   Problems
        −   Flaming
        −   Spamming
        −   Message overload
        −   False expectations as to when people will reply




                                                                12
Social mechanisms – Conversational mechanisms

   CMC combined with other activity
    ⋯   People often talk with each other while carrying out other activities
        −   e.g. designing requires people to brainstorm together in meetings, drawing on
            whiteboards, making notes, using existing design
        −   teaching involves talking with students as well as writing on the board
    ⋯   Examples: meeting- & decision-support systems, networked
        classrooms, shared authoring & drawing tools
   Benefits
    ⋯   Allows multi-tasking
    ⋯   Speed & efficiency
    ⋯   Greater awareness
   Problems
    ⋯   WYSIYIS, difficult to follow others' actions
    ⋯   Floor control, e.g. file conflicts by synchronous access

                                                                                       13
Social mechanisms – Coordination mechanisms

   Coordination takes place
    ⋯   when a group of people act or interact together to achieve something
    ⋯   when there are interdependencies between the activities – flow, share,
        fit dependencies
   We need to figure out how to interact with one another to
    progress with our activities.
   Coordinating mechanisms we use
    ⋯   verbal & non-verbal communication
    ⋯   schedules, rules & conventions
    ⋯   shared external representations




                                                                                 14
Social mechanisms – Coordination mechanisms

   Designing to support coordination
    ⋯   Examples: shared calendars, electronic schedulers, project management
        tools, workflow tools, shared workspace system “POLITeam”, file
        locking, floor control, ...
    ⋯   Conventions are often violated because
        −   conventions require additional work
        −   conventions seen as unnecessary burden
        −   people forget to follow it all the time (productive laziness)
    ⋯   How socially acceptable are they to people?
    ⋯   Get the right balance between human coordination and system
        coordination
        −   too much system control & the users will rebel
        −   too little control & the system breaks down




                                                                            15
Social mechanisms – Awareness mechanisms

   involves knowing who is around, what is happening & who is
    talking with whom
   Peripheral awareness
    ⋯   keeping an eye on things happening in the periphery of vision
    ⋯   overhearing & overseeing - allows tracking of what others are doing
        without explicit cues
   Designing to support awareness
    ⋯   Provide awareness of others who are in different locations
    ⋯   Media spaces - “extend the world of desks, chairs, walls and ceilings”
        (Harrison et al., 1997)
        −   Examples: ClearBoard, Portholes, Cruiser
    ⋯   Notification systems
        −   Users notify others as opposed to being constantly monitored.
        −   Provide information about shared objects & progress of collaborative tasks
        −   Examples: Tickertape, Babble
                                                                                         16
Social mechanisms – Awareness mechanisms

   ClearBoard (Ishii et al., 1993)
    ⋯   A transparent board that shows other person's facial expression on your
        board as you draw
    ⋯   http://web.media.mit.edu/~ishii/CB.html




                                                                             17
Social mechanisms – Awareness mechanisms

   Portholes (Xerox PARC)
    ⋯   Regularly updated digitized images of people in their offices appeared
        on everyone's desktop machines throughout day and night.
    ⋯   http://www.webcollab.com/portholes/




                                                                                 18
Social mechanisms – Awareness mechanisms

   Tickertape (Segall & Arnold, 1997)
    ⋯   Tickertape is a scrolling one-line window, going from left to right.
    ⋯   Group name, sender's name & text message




                                                                               19
Social mechanisms – Awareness mechanisms

   Babble (IBM, Erickson et al., 1999)
    Circle with
    marbles
    represents
    people
    taking part in
    conversation in
    a chatroom.

    Those in the
    middle
    are doing the
    most
    chatting.

    Those towards
    the outside
    are less
    active in
    the
    conversation.




                                           20
Conceptual frameworks

   The language/action framework
    ⋯   Based on speech act theory (Austin, 1962; Searle, 1969).
    ⋯   People act through language (Winograd & Flores, 1986). It was
        developed to inform the design of systems to help people work more
        effectively through improving the way they communicate with one
        another.
    ⋯   five categories of speech acts
        −   assertives - commit the speaker to something being the case (Feststellungen,
            Versicherungen)
        −   commissives - commit the speaker to some future action (Ankündigungen,
            Drohungen)
        −   declarations - pronounce something has happened (Ernennung, Kündigung)
        −   directives - get the listener to do something (Aufforderungen, Bitten, Fragen)
        −   expressives - express a state of affairs, such as apologizing or praising
            someone (Klagen, Mitleidsbekundungen)
    ⋯   Conversation for action (Winograd & Flores, 1986)
    ⋯   The Coordinator - to facilitate communication in a variety of work
        settings, like sales, finance, general management, planning                          21
Conceptual frameworks

   Distributed cognition (Hutchins, 1995)
    ⋯   describes what happens in a cognitive system
    ⋯   explains the interactions between people, the artifacts they use, the
        environment they are working in
    ⋯   describes interactions in terms of how information is propagated
        through different media
    ⋯   how information is represented & re-represented as it moves across
        individuals & through the array of artifacts that are used during
        activities
    ⋯   Distributed cognition analysis involves examining
        −   the distributed problem solving
        −   the role of verbal & non-verbal behavior
        −   the various coordinating mechanisms used
        −   the various communicative pathways that take place as collaborative activity
            progresses
        −   how knowledge is shared & accessed

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