Open Source Software for Libraries

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					                                   NEXT GENERATION LIBRARY
                                   -- A conference sponsored by the
                                   Southeastern NY Library Resources Council

            Open Source for Libraries
            Making rational choices between open source
                 and traditionally licensed software

Marshall Breeding
Director for Innovative Technologies and Research
Vanderbilt University
         Program Description
Marshall Breeding will set the tone by examining
 the opportunities as well as the challenges that
 are encountered when embracing open source
 technologies. In the last couple of years, open
 source has entered the library automation scene
 in a big way. Breeding will talk about the major
 issues that libraries need to consider as they
 weigh open source and traditionally licensed ILS
 products, exploring the relative cost and risks of
 each alternative. He will give a brief overview of
 the products and companies that comprise this
 new sector of the ILS industry.
Open Source Software
     Broad Trends
Open Source Infrastructure
               IT Infrastructure
 Linux
 Apache
    – Lucene
    – Solr
 MySql
 PostgreSQL
                   Web Server deployment

Source: Netcraft
Operating System Market Share
 IDC figures for OS on new server
  shipments 3Q 2007:
 Windows Server: 67.1%
 Linux:            22.8%
    – Slight gain for Windows/loss for Linux over
      previous quarter
 Open Source Software well established in
  for general IT infrastructure
 Linux emerging as the dominant flavor of
 Commercial options continue to prosper
Open Source Library Software
General Infrastructure Components
   Index Data
    – YAZ toolkit
        Z39.50
        SRU/W
    – Zebra XML Search Engine
    – Metaproxy
        ―metasearching proxy front end server for
         integrating access to multiple back-end Z39.50-
         compliant databases‖
    – MasterKey federated search engine
Open Search Federated
 Open source federated search
 Built-in OpenURL resolver
 3-teired caching
 Customizable interface
 Developed by the University of Oregon
 Open source federated search utility
 Developed at Simon Frasier University
 Developed by Index Data
 Highly optimized, multithreaded searching
  of many databases
 Faceted browsing of results
 Demo:
    Open source software from OCLC
 Several OAI utilities
    – OAIcat
    – OAIHarvester
 OpenURL 1.0
 Pears: text storage and indexing
Digital Repository Applications
 Open source digital repository engine
 Not an out-of-the-box solution
    – Many organizations have developed their own
      interfaces and applications built on top of
 VTLS Vital product based on Fedora
 Supported by Fedora Commons
 Institutional Repository Application
 Originally developed by Hewlett Packard
  and MIT
 Widely deployed by Universities for
  institutional repository projects
 Developed by Index Data
 Open source digital repository application
    – Digital content management
    – Federated search
    – OAI harvesting
    – Link resolver services
Open source discovery
AKA: Next Generation Catalogs
      VUFind – Villanova
Based on Apache Solr search toolkit
            eXtensible Catalog
 University of Rochester – River Campus
 Financial support from the Andrew W.
  Mellon Foundation
    – Just received a second round of funding from
        $283,000 (April 2006)
        $749,000 (October 2007)
    – Wider institutional participation
 Initially developed Dan Scott Laurentian
 Further work by Casey Durfee at the
  Seattle Public Library
 Based on:
    – Solr
    – Django (Python-based Web application
 Formerly WPopac
 OPAC based on WordPress
Open Source in the ILS arena
        Products and trends
     Open Source ILS enters the
 Earlier era of pioneering efforts to ILS
  shifting into one where open source
  alternatives fall in the mainstream
 Off-the-shelf, commercially supported
  product available
 Still a minority player, but gaining ground
Tracking the Open Source
 Through Marshall’s articles and
   March 2002: Open source ILS: still
          a distant possibility
  ―I do not, however, expect to see such victories
   of Open Source software over commercial
   products in the integrated library system arena.
   Both broad historical and recent trends argue
   against a movement toward libraries creating
   their own library automation systems—either in
   an Open Source or closed development
  Early open source efforts included Avanti,
   Pytheas, OpenBook, and Koha
  3 out of 4 now defunct

Source: Information Technologies and Libraries, Mar 2002
       Oct 2002: An update on Open
                Source ILS
    ―the open source systems such as the
     three mentioned above are but a small
     blip on the radar. Compared to the
     thousands of libraries that acquire
     automation systems from commercial
     vendors each year, the handful that use
     open source systems cannot yet be noted
     as a trend. ―
     – Discussed Koha, LearningAccess ILS, Avanti
Source: Information Today, Oct 2002
… then the world changed
       Mar 2007: On update on Open
                Source ILS
 ―As I look back at my 2002 column on open source ILS, I see that I
    mentioned both Koha and the Learning-Access ILS. Over this 4-year
    time period I have seen Koha usage increase from a single library
    system to two or more library systems plus a few individual public
    libraries and a large number of other small ones. The
    LearningAccess ILS is used in 15 libraries. Evergreen currently
    represents the largest group of libraries sharing a single open
    source ILS implementation.
 Over the same time period, well over 40,000 libraries have purchased a
    commercial ILS. So, relative to the entire library automation arena,
    those using an open source ILS still represent a minuscule portion
    of the whole.
 That said, conditions are ripe for a more rapid adoption of open source
    ILS than we have seen in the past. ―

Source: Computers in Libraries, Mar 2007
   Mar 2008: Making a business case
         for Open Source ILS
 We’re living in a phase of library automation characterized
  by an increased interest in open source-not just in
  back-end infrastructure components but also in the
  mission-critical business applications such as the
  integrated library system. Open source library
  automation systems, including Koha and Evergreen,
  have been propelled into the limelight. Recent survey
  data fails to corroborate broad interest that libraries are
  ready to adopt open source ILS. The success of early
  adopters of open source ILS now serve as a
  catalyst for others. Paths now exist with more
  mature systems and professional support options.
  As the open source movement matures, these system
  will need to compete on their own merits and not solely
  on a philosophical preference.
Source: Computers in Libraries, Mar 2008
          Apr 2008: Automation System
    ―Last year marked the launch of the open source
      ILS into the mainstream; it received major
      attention in the press and at library conferences.
      From a business perspective, open source ILS
      contracts represented a very small portion of the
      library automation economy. The success of
      early adopters' implementations has already
      diminished skepticism. Many indicators suggest
      that open source ILS contracts will displace
      larger percentages of traditional licensing
      models in each subsequent year.
Source: “Automation System Marketplace: Opportunity out of Turmoil”
April 1, 2008
       An industry in turmoil
 Disruptions and business decisions to
  narrow options have fueled the open
  source movement
 Benefit to libraries in having additional
 Traditionally licensed and open source ILS
  alternatives will coexist in the ILS arena
     Open Source vs Traditional
 Taking sides?
 Both viable options
 Avoid philosophical preference
 Which best supports the missions of
 Which approach helps libraries become
  better libraries
Current Open Source ILS
    Product Options
    Koha: first Open Source ILS
 Koha + Index Data Zebra = Koha ZOOM
 Components:
    – Perl
    – Apache
    – MySql
    – Zebra: search engine option for larger
Libraries committed to Koha
   300+ libraries
   Horowhenua Library Trust
   Nelsonville Public Library
    – Athens County, OH
   Crawford County Federated Library System
    – 10 Libraries in PA
   Howard County, MD
    – Service area population: 266300
    – 4.7 million circulation transactions in 2006
    – 1 million volumes
   Central Kansas Library System
   Santa Cruz Public Library
    – Central, 9 branches
    – 2 million volumes
   Near East University Library
 Developed by the Georgia Public Library
 Small development team
 June 2004 – development begins
 Sept 5, 2006 – live production
 Streamlined environment: single shared
  implementation, all libraries follow the
  same policies, one library card
     Libraries using Evergreen
   Georgia PINES
   Georgia PINES:
    – 1 Installation
    – 54 Public Library Systems
    – 260+ library facilities
    – Does not include municipal systems: Atlanta-Fulton County,
      Cobb County
 Province of British Columbia in Canada –
  Northern PINES
 Kent County, MD
 Under consideration by academic libraries in
   Open source Automated Library System

   Developed and Supported by Media Flex
    – Harry Chan
    – Original developer of Mandarin
    – Installation ($250) and Hosting services ($750)
 South Central Organization of (School) Libraries
 consortium of K-12 school libraries in NY
               Libraries using OPALs
     Dutchess County BOCES School Library System Union Catalog
     Rockland County BOCES School Library System Union Catalog
       – manage as many as half a million unique titles and close to a
          million holdings.
     South Central Organization Of (School) Library Systems
       – 1.7 million titles and more than 3 million holdings for 300
     24 school libraries in Rockland County use OPALS open source
      software to manage the daily operations of their libraries
     In New York State, 15 BOCES School Library Systems provide
      interlibrary loan services and building level management services to
      900 school libraries using OPALS open source software

Source: Harry Chan. MediaFlex
   ILS designed for the developing world
   Originally traditionally licensed, introduced 2003
   Transition to Open Source in Jan 2008
   122 Installations (India, Syria, Sudan, Cambodia)
   Collaborative project:
    – Kesavan Institute of Information and Knowledge Management
    – Versus Solutions
    – Versus IT Services Pvt. Ltd
        Learning Access ILS
 Learning Access Institute
 Turnkey Open Source ILS
 Designed for underserved rural public and
  tribal libraries
 Project continues but not expanding
LearningAccess ILS
              ILS Deployments
Unicorn            1704   Koha (Total)     200-300
Horizon            1612   Koha (LibLime)        90
Millennium         1289   Evergreen            272
Voyager            1183   OPALS            58 / 170
Aleph 500          1970
Library.Solution   700
Commercial Involvement
 Companies formed to support
 open source library products
The Open Source Business Front
   Index Data
     – Founded 1994; No ILS; A variety of other open source products to
       support libraries: search engines, federated search, Z39.50 toolkit, etc
   LibLime
     – Founded 2005. Provides development and support services for Koha
       ILS. Acquired original developers of Koha in Feb 2007.
   Equinox.
     – Founded Feb 2007; staff formerly associated with GPLS Pines
       development team
   Care Affiliates
     – Founded June 2007; headed by industry veteran Carl Grant.
   MediaFlex.
     – Longstanding school library automation company. Latest generation
       ILS developed in open source model
   Small, but growing, private company formed in
    early 2005
   Devoted to support of Koha and other open
    source software
   Launched by individuals involved with the Koha
    implementation at the Nelsonville Public Library
   Acquired the Koha activities of Katipo
    Communications (Feb 2007)
   Total of 20 FTE – Hiring industry veterans
    exiting from traditional ILS companies
           Equinox Software
 Small company
 Devoted to facilitating libraries implement
  Evergreen the open source ILS developed for
 Launched by individuals related to the
  development and implementation of Evergreen
  at the Georgia Public Library System
 Contracts to GPLS and other libraries for the
  ongoing development and support of Evergreen
             Care Affiliates
 Recently formed company to provide
  support for Open Source library
  automation products.
 Carl Grant – Former COO of VTLS,
  President of Ex Libris (USA), Innovative
  Interfaces, DRA, etc.
    Other Open Source Development
 Duke University leading effort to develop
  an open source or community source
  project to develop a new ILS for higher
 Sponsoring project to design/build an
  enterprise level automation system for
  libraries in higher education
 Project currently in the grant development
  phase, with likely start date of Summer
            Open Source Issues
 Explosive interest in Open Source driven
  by disillusionment with current vendors
 Seen as a solution to:
    – Allow libraries to have more flexible systems
    – Lower costs
    – Not be vulnerable to disruptions that come
      with mergers and acquisitions
 Beginning to emerge as a mainstream
 TOC (Total Cost of Ownership) still
                    Cost issues
   Costs shifted from traditional software licensing
    – No initial purchase of license or annual license fees
   Hardware costs (same as traditional)
   Vendor support costs (optional)
   Hosting services
   Conversion services
   Local technical support (may be higher)
   Development costs – vague models for next-
    generation development
                   Risk Factors
   Open Source still a risky Alternative
    – Dependency on community organizations and
      commercial companies that provide development an
      support services
   Commercial/Proprietary options also a risk
    – Opinions vary, but:
    ―the traditional ILS market is no longer a haven for the
      risk adverse.‖
    (Northern PINES talking points
    Open source ILS Benchmarks
 Most decisions to adopt Open Source ILS based
  on philosophical reasons
 Open Source ILS will enter the main stream
  once its products begin to win through objective
  procurement processes
    – Hold open source ILS to the same standards as the
      commercial products
    – Hold the open source ILS companies to the same
        Adequate customer support ratios, financial stability, service
         level agreements, etc.
   Well-document total cost of ownership
    statements that can be compared to other
    vendor price quotes
    Measuring Interest in Open Source

Source: Perceptions 2007: an international survey of Library Automation
      Open Source Market share
 Open Source ILS implementations still a small
  percentage of the total picture
 Initial set of successful implementations will
  likely serve as a catalyst to pave the way for
 Successful implementations in wider range of
    – State-wide consortium (Evergreen)
    – Multi-site public library systems (Koha)
    – School district consortia (OPALS)
        Open Source perspective
   Are open source ILS products taking library automation
    in a new direction, or are they open source versions of
    what we already have?
   Will current slate of companies be able to support
    increasing numbers of libraries without the same
    difficulties as the incumbent ILS vendors?
   The ILS landscape is forever changed by the open
    source alternatives
   Open Source ILS catching up with the Legacy ILS. Both
    moving headstrong into the past.
   Urgent need for a new generation of library automation
    designed for current and future-looking library missions
    and workflows.