Magnet costs by yaoyufang

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									 Magnet costs



     L. Bromberg
      J.H. Schultz
ARIES Meeting & Review
 PPPL, October 3-4 2006
        Superconductor Options and Implications
•   Nb3Sn wind and react (most conservative)
     – Conventional design (ITER-like), but with                                                 Ceramic insulation
        high temperature inorganic insulation                                                    tape

     – Presently being tested for VLHC design (3-
        D winding in cos-q magnets)
                                                                                            Structure                         SC strands
•   Nb3Sn react and wind (less conservative)         Insulation

     – Thin cross section (low strain during
        winding)
     – MIT magnet for LDX (floating coil)
     – Low conductor current, internal dump                       He coolant                                 High RRR Support plate
•   High Tc (most aggressive)
     – Epitaxially deposited on structure
     – YBCO 2-generation superconductor
                                                                    QuickTime™ an d a

     – Potential for low cost (comparable to NbTi)              TIFF (LZW) decomp resso r
                                                             are need ed to see this picture .




                                                                                                         QuickTime™ and a
                                                                                                    TIF F (LZ W) decompressor
                                                                                                 are needed to see this picture.
                        Costing
• Magnet costing for the ARIES magnets
  substantially lower than that of present
  designs/machines
   – Cost savings due to
      • Conductor improvements
          – Nb3Sn and HTS (YBCO 2nd gen conductor)
      • Structure improvements
   – How do we evaluate “complexity?”
• Costing of superconductor in stellarator by kA/m,
  rather than energy or weight (because of multipole
  field configuration)
Cost of 10th of a kind vs 1st of a kind
• Stellarators coils are more complex than
  tokamak coils
  – Design, tooling, winding, position assurance
    much more costly for first of a kind stellarator
    than for tokamaks
     • Modern methods of design and manufacturing avoid
       many of the issues of fitting, with software that goes
       directly from design engineer to the floor (Pro-
       engineer in NCSX)
     • Difficulty thus relative to winding/tooling
                         Winding
• Winding in stellarators is 3-D, vs ~2D winding for
  tokamaks
• Additional time for winding
   – DB Montgomery: ~ 5 (guess)
   – High energy physics ~ 3 (winding solenoids vs cos-q
     dipoles)
   – J. Schultz: ~ 1.5 (from 2D to 3D)
      • Tokamaks already need 2-D winding
          – not winding in tension, which would result in cheaper winding
            operation
          – In ITER, winding to bring conductor into slots in radial plates
Tolerance Impact on Cost
Scaling Laws for Modeling Large Superconducting Solenoids, M. A. Green and A. D. McInturff, IEEE
TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. I I , NO. I , 2292(2001)
         Costing Methods for SC cable
           Raw materials
               data
            Conductor                             $/kg of strand
            geometry &
              specs

          Strand diameter                         $/m of strand

           Recent Jc(H)
           performance                          $/kA-m of strand
               data

                       Cabling cost                         $/m of cable


                                      $/kA-m of cable
Cost analyses of superconductors for
high-field magnets, Lance Cooley, LTSW 2003, Monterrey CA
                  PIT(Powder_in_Tube)
                                                       Nb3Sn       Bi2212      MgB2       H-Nb3Sn H-MgB2
                                                       4.2 K       4.2 K       4.2 K      4.2 K   4.2 K
              Conductor raw materials cost
LHC-NbTi        filament cost, $/kg
                                                       *  $500
                                                          $170       $400
                                                               ** $1,000           $500      $200      $50
                stabilizer cost, $/kg                       $5       $175
                                                                    $175             $5        $5       $5
                reactants cost, $/kg                      $200
                                                       * $500          $0
                                                                      $0             $0        $0       $0
                diffusion barrier cost, $/kg                $0         $0
                                                                      $0             $5      $420      $10
                ancillary material cost, $/kg               $0         $0
                                                                      $0         $1,000        $0      $20
    $66       Conductor raw cost, $/kg                  $83.50
                                                       $227.50  $342.11
                                                                 $214.21        $252.59    $83.50   $19.50
    27¢       Conductor raw cost, $/m                    $0.35
                                                         $0.96     $1.49
                                                                    $0.93         $1.01     $0.36    $0.06
                                                       * Reflects recent VAC/SMI bid and extruded tube quote
              Strand performance data
                                                   2   ** Reflects recent presentation by Hasegawa at MT-18
                non-stabilizer Jc at field, A/mm
                       5                                   6400         2400       1500     12650    4000
                       8                                   3600         2200        500      6820    1800
                      10                                   2550         2030        150      5100    1000
                      12                                   1780         2000         60      3150     500
                      15                                   1050         1900          2      1680     100
                      20                                    200         1800          0       425       0

              Strand raw performance index
              $/kA-m
                       5                                   $0.11
                                                           $0.30        $1.47
                                                                       $2.35    $0.90       $0.06   $0.03
                       8                                   $0.20
                                                           $0.53        $1.61
                                                                       $2.57    $2.69       $0.11   $0.07
                      10                                   $0.28
                                                           $0.75        $1.74
                                                                       $2.78    $8.96       $0.14   $0.12
   21¢ @ 5T           12                                   $1.08
                                                           $0.39        $1.77
                                                                       $2.82   $22.41       $0.23   $0.24
                      15                                   $0.67
                                                           $1.82        $1.86 $672.37
                                                                       $2.97                $0.43   $1.19
                      20                                   $3.51
                                                           $9.57        $1.96
                                                                       $3.14 >Hc2           $1.72 >Hc2
                 Powder in tube
                                      Nb3Sn     Bi2212      MgB2        H-Nb3Sn H-MgB2
                                      4.2 K     4.2 K       4.2 K       4.2 K   4.2 K
Strand raw cost, $/kg                   $83.50
                                       $227.50      $214.21 $252.59
                                                   $342.11               $83.50   $19.50
Strand raw cost, $/m                      $0.35
                                          $0.96       $0.93
                                                     $1.49      $1.01     $0.36    $0.06
  Strand cost relative to LHC Nb-Ti         1.3
                                            3.6         3.5
                                                       5.6        3.8       1.4      0.2

Production cost scaling factor            825%
                                         1205%       805%
                                                    805%       225%       225%     225%
  Relative to LHC Nb-Ti                     3.7
                                            5.4        3.6
                                                      3.6        1.0        1.0      1.0
Scaled strand cost, $/kg                $688.88 $1,724.39
                                      $2,741.38 $2,753.95    $568.33    $187.88   $43.88
  Recent purchase prices, $/kg
Scaled strand cost, $/m                  $2.90
                                        $11.53       $7.49
                                                   $11.96      $2.27      $0.82    $0.13
                                                               $0.50
  Cabling cost, $/m                      $3.00       $3.00
                                                    $3.00      $3.00      $3.00    $3.00
Scaled cable cost, $/m                 $107.31
                                       $418.10     $272.53
                                                  $433.45     $84.71     $32.53    $7.76


Cable final performance index
at field, $/kA-m
         5                               $2.06
                                         $8.03      $29.82
                                                   $47.43     $2.96       $0.32    $0.24
         8                               $3.66
                                        $14.27      $32.53
                                                   $51.74     $8.88       $0.59    $0.53
        10                               $5.17
                                        $20.15      $35.26
                                                   $56.08    $29.60       $0.78    $0.95
        12                               $7.41
                                        $28.86      $35.79
                                                   $56.92    $74.00       $1.27    $1.91
             Scanlan data               $28.94     $57.00                 $1.50
        15                              $12.56
                                        $48.92      $37.67
                                                   $59.91 $2,219.94       $2.38    $9.53
        20                              $65.92
                                       $256.85      $39.76
                                                   $63.24 (>Hc2)          $9.40 (>Hc2)
Conductor                     Self-supporting PF coils         Stellarator costing WP
        Strands                   25.4  IM           12.7
        Coat                         6  LCE            2.3
        Cabling                   13.6  LCE            5.2
        Waste                     11.3                   0
        Sheath                     5.3  LCE              2
        Encapsulation              3.7  LCE            1.4
        Additional material        0.9                   0
Conductor subtotal               66.3               23.8
       $/ kA m                                           1

Winding pack
        Insulation                2.2   LCE            0.8
        Tooling                   4.2                    0
                                                             winding x 1.5   winding x 5
        Winding                 50.9    LCE          19.6               29.4            98
        Dummies                  7.1                    0
        Heat treatment           0.7    LCE           0.3
        Leads                    1.2    LCE           0.4
Winding pack subtotal          132.6                 44.9              54.7        123.3
       $/ kA m                                        1.9               2.3          5.2

         Support                 19.4   LCE            7.5
         Engineering             43.6                    0

Hardware/engineering           195.6                 52.4
Contingency                        58   20%          10.5
PAC E direct                   253.6                 62.9
PAC E G&A                       22.6    10%           6.3
OPEX                              8.7                   0
TOTAL in M$                      285                 69.2                79        147.6

Unit cost, $/kg                                        88               100           188
                               HTS                               QuickTime™ an d a
                                                             TIFF (LZW) decomp resso r
                                                          are need ed to see this picture .




                                                                                                      QuickTime™ and a
                                                                                                 TIF F (LZ W) decompressor
                                                                                              are needed to see this picture.




• Present cost of 1st gen wire ~ 100$ kA/m
  (BSSCO)
• Recent breakthrough in YBCO 2nd generation
  (344)
   – Multiple suppliers of tape (@77K)
       • Nominal current ~ 60 A, but have made 300 A, 100 m
         lengths (AMSC, SEI)
       • Extrapolation to ~ 500 A reasonable, 900A aggressive
         extrapolation
       • At 30 K, 12 T, expected current ~ 9 kA/tape
       • At 50 K, 12 T, expected current ~ 2.7 kA/tape
• Present cost 2nd gen ~ 50-100 $/kA m
                                                        YBCO World Record A-m vs. Time (s)
YBCO stuck at ~ 100 A-m
                                          100000
for nearly a decade
Oct 2005 – Nagoya Coated
Conductor Center (NCCC)                   10000
at ISTEC announces 50 kA-
m wire (245 A x 212 m,
PLD on IBAD-GZO), x 500                    1000

improvement

ARIES-AT: Requires tape      100
                               Jun-97 Jul-98 Aug-99 Oct-00 Nov-01 Dec-02 Jan-04 Feb-05 Mar-06
with ~ 5 MA-m,
x 100 over NCCC         Other commercial apps may only require
                        x 10-20 improvement
              Dependence of Jc on T and H




Multi-Scale Characterization: Evaluation of Microstructuraland
Superconducting Properties Across Multiple Length Scales in
                                                                 ORNL/RABITS Performance, 0.3 micron, 2000
2ndGeneration HTS Wire. Terry Holesingerand Leonardo
                                                                 Wire Development Workshop Proceedings, St.
Civale, Superconductivity Technology, ,Alamos National
                                                                 Petersburg, Florida, February 10-11, 2000
Laboratory DOE PEER Review 2006
                HTS costing
• At 64 K, 2 T:
  – 20 $/kA m


• At 30K, large field
  – 4 $/kA m, ~ independent of field
  – Still more expensive than Nb3Sn (~ 2$/kA/m)
    @ 5 T, but not at 15 T!
                    Summary
• There is a potential for VERY large decrease in
  the cost of SC magnets
• Development of superconductor has until recently
  been funded by OFES, mainly through SBIR’s
   – However, recent interest from the HEP community in
     high field devices (including VHLC)
   – Decrease in cost is associated both with improved
     conductor as well as improved conductor/winding
     concepts.

								
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