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Oil Rig Safe Loading

VIEWS: 61 PAGES: 165

worker safety

More Info
									Danger when working near or around rig or oilfield Equipment

             H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure
      Hydrogen Sulfide is highly toxic, colorless, and heavier
      than air. It has the odor of rotten eggs, initially.
      Most frequently encountered in the production and refining of high sulfur
      petroleum and in natural gas. It burns with a blue flame and produces Sulfur
      Dioxide.


      It forms an explosive mixture with air. The LFL is 4.3%
      and the UFL is 45.5%.

                                                                                     51
  H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure
Hydrogen Sulfide – characterized by an odor
of rotten eggs. A very small concentration
can be fatal. When encountered, employees must wear
approved type masks when their work requires them to be
exposed to the gas,in any way.




                                                          50




  H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure
 Its odor is NOT a reliable warning signal because
    higher concentrations of the gas temporarily
   destroys the sense of smell. This is the primary
  reason for employees not detecting the presence
      of H2S and consequently inhaling a lethal
   amount. The only positive means is by testing
 with an approved H2S detector. DO NOT RELY
      SOLELY ON THE SENSE OF SMELL!
                                                          52
Or any of the Above Combinations
Sow with two 60 ton Cranes on Site.
                                    Rig Component Balancing on Roll Bar




Bed Truck Hauling a Crown Section on Free Floating Trailer Dolly

It just a short move, honest!




                                         Not Secured from Movement;
Half is not Better than None!




   All Done Properly and Secured From Friction
The Truth of Matter is!
Light Plant:
Also check how much fuel this plant is carrying, they are allowed only
certain quantities of diesel everything after that is a overload plus a
Dangerous Goods Violation if you are so appointed. *Always check flow
quantities and sheets*




               Pump Hose
             Note: “Large Plumbing Hole at rear of Tank”
             Half the Kelly
                   and
        B.O.P. (chained to matting)



 Matting Secured with Synthetic Webbing




And Roll Pins on the Side of the Truck Deck
 Everything on and Below the Cat walk Must be Secured




Including the Tongs, Elevator Hooks, Kelly and Kelly Pipe
       Above and Below “No Exemptions”
This includes All Matting and Cribbing Materials
SIZE WEIGHT GRADE         TOOL
                         JOINTS
2-3/8   6.65    S-135    2-3/8 IF
2-7/8   6.85    S-135   2-7/8 AOH
2-7/8   6.85    S-135    HT-26
2-7/8   10.40   S-135   2-7/8 PAC
2-7/8   10.40   S-135   HT-PAC
2-7/8   10.40   S-135    HT-26
2-7/8   10.40   S-135   2-7/8 AOH
2-7/8   10.40   S-135    2-7/8 IF
3-1/2   13.30   S-135    HT-34
3-1/2   13.30   S-135    3-1/2 IF
3-1/2   13.30   S-135    HT-38
3-1/2   15.50   S-135    3-1/2 IF
   4    14.00   S-135    HT-40
   4    14.00   S-135    HT-38
   4    14.00   S-135    NC 40
4-1/2   16.60   S-135    NC 46
4-1/2   16.60   S-135    XT-M40
4-1/2   20.00   S-135    XT-M40
4-1/2   20.00   S-135    XT-M46
   5    19.50   S-135    NC 50
   5    25.60   S-135    NC 50
5-1/2   21.90   S-135   5-1/2 FH
5-1/2   21.90   S-135    HT-55
5-1/2    24.70      S-135        5-1/2 FH
5-1/2    24.70      S-135         HT-55
5-1/2    24.70      S-135        XT-M57
5-1/2    38.00      S-135         HT-55
5-7/8    23.40     S-135T         XT-57
5-7/8    23.40      V-150         XT-57
6-5/8    27.70      S-135        6-5/8 FH
6-5/8    34.02     S-135T        6-5/8 FH



Structural Casing

4 1/2", 5", 5 1/2", 6 5/8", 7", 7 5/8", 8 5/8", 9 5/8", 10 3/4", 11 3/4", 13 3/8", 14", 16", 18",
20",22", 24", 30", 36" and 48".

Wall size ranges from .125w - .500w.




                            Specialized Equipment Haulers

                                                                            Average
                                                        Average Legal         Legal
                         Equipment Type
                                                      Acceptable Weights   Acceptable
                                                                           Dimensions


                                                                           L - 40' - 53'
                                                           40K-48K         H - up to 9'
                                                                            W - 8' 6"



                                                                           L - 40' - 75'
                                                           40K-44K         H - up to 9'
                                                                            W - 8' 6"



                                                                           L - 35' - 37'
                                                           40K-46K         H - up to 10'
                                                                             W - 8' 6"



                                                                           L - 37' - 60'
                                                           37K-40K
                                                                           H - up to 10'
                                                           40K-44K
                                                                             W - 8' 6"
                                              L - 24' - 30'
                                              H - up to 11'
                                    35K-40K
                                                   8"
                                                W - 8' 6"


                                              L - 26' - 50'
                                              H - up to 11'
                                    35K-40K
                                                   8"
                                                W - 8' 6"


                                              L - 24' - 30'
                                    36K-42K   H - up to 12'
                                                W - 8' 6"


                                                 L - 42'
                                                W - 8' 6"
                                              H - up to 10'
                                                   6"
                                              WGT - 40K -
                                                  75K

                                                 L - 55'
                                                W - 8' 6"
                                              H - up to 10'
                                                   6"
                                              WGT - 40K -
                                                  75K

                                                 L - 25'
                                                W - 8' 6"
                                              H - up to 12'
                                              WGT - 35K -
                                                  44K

                                                 L - 25'
                                                W - 8' 6"
                                              H - up to 12'
                                              WGT - 40K -
                                                  90K

                                                 L - 25'
                                                W - 8' 6"
                                              H - up to 12'
                                              WGT - 40K -
                                                  90K

                                                 L - 25'
                                                W - 8' 6"
                                              H - up to 12'
                                              WGT - 40K -
                                                  150K




Some of the over 61 major parts hauled in
             every rig move
             Who’s in Charge of this Tub?
Oil Company/Operator – Has control of the casing and the
mud program being followed drilling the well.
Drilling Contractor – Head of drilling operation. Determines
the overall safety practices/policies and the manner in which a
safety program is carried out by the various supervisors.
Drilling Superintendent – Represents top management of the
drilling contractor. Supervises the operations of several rigs in
the area.
Tool pusher – Directly responsible to the drilling superintendent
for carrying out work assigned to the rig. Supervise all
personnel, ensures machinery is in a safe operating condition.
Investigates each accident or injury to determine its cause.



                                                              16




      Always Check the Mud Tanks for Left over Materials
Drilling Rig Components

Click on the name below or a
number on the graphic to see a
definition and a more detailed
photo of the object.

   1. Crown Block and Water
       Table
   2. Catline Boom and Hoist
       Line
   3. Drilling Line
   4. Monkeyboard
   5. Traveling Block
   6. Top Drive
   7. Mast
   8. Drill Pipe
   9. Doghouse
   10. Blowout Preventer
   11. Water Tank
   12. Electric Cable Tray
   13. Engine Generator Sets
   14. Fuel Tank
   15. Electrical Control House
   16. Mud Pumps
   17. Bulk Mud Component
       Tanks
   18. Mud Tanks (Pits)
   19. Reserve Pit
   20. Mud-Gas Separator
   21. Shale Shakers
   22. Choke Manifold
   23. Pipe Ramp
   24. Pipe Racks
   25. Accumulator

Additional rig components not
illustrated at right.

   26. Annulus                    Equipment used in
                                       drilling
   27. Brake
   28. Casing Head
   29. Cathead
   30. Catwalk                    48. Ram BOP
   31. Cellar                     49. Rathole
   32. Conductor Pipe             50. Rotary Hose
   33. Degasser                   51. Rotary Table
   34. Desander                   52. Slips
   35. Desilter                   53. Spinning chain
   36. Drawworks                  54. Stairways
   37. Drill Bit                  55. Standpipe
   38. Drill Collars              56. Surface Casing
   39. Driller's Console          57. Substructure
   40. Elevators                  58. Swivel
   41. Hoisting Line              59. Tongs
   42. Hook
      43. Kelly                             60. Walkways
      44. Kelly Bushing                     61. Weight Indicator
      45. Kelly Spinner
      46. Mousehole
      47. Mud Return Line




Masts
    Triples
     Hookload of 280,000 lb to 1,000,000
     lb
    Doubles
     Hookload of 280,000 lb to 420,000 lb
    Double Telescopic
     Hookload of 165,000 lb to 320,000 lb
    Slant/Range 2 & 3 Singles
    Stiff Singles
Substructures
    Step Down
    Box on Box
    Slingshot
    Pony Subs
    Capacities to 1,000,000
    One-piece or pinnable subs
     are available
    Can include hydraulic
     leveling jacks




Drawworks
    Skid mounted to button to
     Substructure
    Available in 400 HP to 1,000
     HP
    Various braking solutions
     available
Catwalks
    Conventional Style
    Powered style complete with
     kickers, indexes, and shoe to
     remotely move drill pipe from
     the pipe tubs to the drilling
     floor and back again.
    For range 2 and range 3 pipe




Mudtanks
    Fabricated from ¼"
     crimped plate on
     oilfield type skid
    Optional sloped floor
     to facilitate clean out
    Volumes of 400 to
     600 bbls
    Complete with hard
     plumbed degasser
     mixing house,
     suction tank, premix
     settling tank, trip
     tank
    Three pump system,
     two desander cones,
     mixing hopper, two
     7 ½ HP agitators, pill
     tank, 4" clean out
     vacuums, two
     skimmers and
     shaker
    Provision for 2nd
     shaker
    Customized rig-up to
     suit your
     requirements




Pumphouses
    Steel building on Oilfield type
     skid
    Cross broken panels
    Fixed or removable panels
    Accommodates a full range of
     mudpumps and power supply
    Customized rig up to suit your
     requirements




Combination
Buildings
    Steel building
     on oilfield type
     skid
    Cross broken
     panels
    Fixed or
     removable
     panels
    Accomodates a
     full range of
     generator sets
     and
     accumulators
    Storage
     cabinets,
     lockers in the
     change room.




Boiler
Buildings
    Steel building on
     oilfield type skid
    Cross broken panels
    Fixed or removable
     panels
    Accomodates a full
     range of boilers
    Customized cabinets
     including sample
     racks




Doghouse-
Watertank
Combinations
    Hydraulic or cable-pull raising
     systems
    Steel buildings with cross
     broken panels on oilfield type
     skid
    Doghouse typicallyincludes
     work bench, sitting bench,
     tool rack, cabinets outside
     tool room complete with
     overhead handling equipment
    Watertank typically includes
     access stairs to doghouse,
     fuel tank, oil storage tanks,
     and glycol tank




Pipe Tubs
    Conventional style or
     complete with hydraulic
     raising system
    To suit variety of drill pipe
     including range 2 and range 3
    Optional junk baskets on one
     end
    Hydraulic system has
     independent controls for each
     corner to compensate for
     unlevel locations




    Triples 280,000# to 1,000,000# hook load, masts and subs
    Doubles 280,000# to 420,000# hook load, masts and subs
    Double Telescopic 165,000# to 320,000# hook load, masts and subs
    Service Rig Masts Singles and Doubles
      Slant/Range 2 & 3 Single Masts and Subs
      Stiff Single or Telescopic Masts
      Hydraulic Pipe Tubs, Combination Catwalk Manifolds, Boiler buildings (self contained units).
      Complete Pump House Rig Ups, Complete Mud Tank Units, Combination Light Plant Buildings,
       Doghouse/Water Tank combinations.
      Catwalk complete with automatic pipe handling system. Can be ordered separately or turnkey.




Service
Rigs
A complete line of service
rigs including carriers,
pump trucks, stake trucks,
mobile doghouses,
mudtanks, and catwalks.

This is just one of many
designs.




Service Rig
Mobile Doghouse and Fluid Tank




                    Koch Suckers
        Loose Loads can Be Environmentally Unfriendly
Disclaimer
WARNING: These pages are for general reference and educational purposes only and MUST NOT be relied
upon as a sole source to determine regulatory compliance or where matters of life and health are concerned.
This site and the author do not warrant or guarantee the accuracy or the sufficiency of the information
provided and do not assume any responsibility for its use.

To ensure regulatory compliance when transporting hazardous materials or dangerous goods, one must
receive proper training and certification from a qualified instructor




Tank Types

TC 406/306 low pressure, oval shaped, highway tank for general flammable liquids
including gasoline, crude oil and diesel. They operate at about atmospheric pressure or
21 kPa (3 psi).
It should be noted that TC 306 Crude and TC 406 Crude tanks differ from units used for
gasoline and other flammable liquids because they do not have the internal automatic
safety shut off valves. These units are marked “TC 306 Crude” or “TC 406 Crude” and
are to be used solely for the purposes of transporting crude oil, tars, asphalts, oils,
bitumen and cutbacks.
Safety features on these tanks include rollover protection by means of a trough at the top
of the tank to prevent damage to manholes and vents. Other features include high
strength bumpers, safety relief vents and internal baffles to minimize liquid surge and
provide added strength to the barrel of the tank.
                                                         TC 306/406 Crude Tank
                                                            for crude oil only




       TC 306/406 Tanks for gasoline and
                    diesel



Some tanks have more than one compartment. A “void” section often separates these
compartments to prevent contamination between compartments. These voids must be
open to atmosphere. There is a hole at the top and bottom of the void, which must not be
plugged. Sometimes the presence of a plug indicates damage to the internal integrity of
the tank. A plug should never be removed in service; it could result in the loss of the
contents of the tank.
TC 407/307 circular tank. These tanks are capable of operating at pressures higher than
those set down for 406/306 tanks at 138 kPa (20 psi). They can take all flammable
liquids including the more volatile Packing Group I liquids, sour crude oil and some
corrosives such as CORROSIVE LIQUIDS N.O.S (HYDROCHLORIC ACID).




                                 TC 307/407 Tanker for sour crude and
                                     extremely flammable liquids




TC 412/312 circular tank. These tanks are capable of operating at pressures higher than
those set down for 406/306 tanks. Some are steel with large outer stiffening rings and
are often lined. The type of lining may prevent the construction of internal baffles in these
units and hence they are usually long and narrow to minimize surging. Some tanks may
be manufactured from fibreglass reinforced plastic. This type of tank is often used in dual
service because it can handle both corrosive liquids and, with suitable grounding
capabilities, flammable liquids such as crude oil.




         TC 312/412 Lined Steel Tanker                       TC 312/412 Fibre Glass Tanks
          for acids and caustic material                        for acids and crude oil
TC 331 is a high pressure tank designed for liquefied gases such as propane and
anhydrous ammonia. They are designed for pressures above 1723 kPa (250 psi).
Additional features on these tanks include the capability of remotely shutting off all the
valves in the event of a failure during loading or offloading.




                               TC 331 Tank for propane and
                                   anhydrous ammonia




TC 338 cryogenic gas insulated highway tanks. These are used for cold liquefied gases
such as Nitrogen. A variation on this design is the TC 341, another cryogenic unit
generally used for Oxygen. Both these types of tanks are designed in a similar manner to
a “Thermos” bottle. They are engineered to keep the cold in and the heat out of the
product. They are not designed for high pressure service and operate at pressures of
about 345 kPa (50psi) and above depending upon the product. These units are designed
to periodically vent gases to maintain the pressure in the tank, especially on hot days.




                            TC 338 Tanker for nitrogen/carbon
                                    dioxide/oxygen
TC 407/412/350 vacuum truck. These tanks are commonly designed with a characteristic
large rear door, which opens for dumping. These are generally used for cleanup of
chemical spills, oil spills and cleanout of storage tanks but also haul crude oil. A unit
dedicated to hauling crude oil may be designated as a “TC 350 Crude” and the
certification plate on the tank would be marked accordingly. A full specification TC 350
tank must have a thermal and remote shutoff installed to remain in service after August
31, 2005 unless it is marked as a “TC 350 Crude”. As with TC 306/406 Crude tanks, only
crude oil or water from an oil well would be allowed in one of these units.




                         TC 350/407/412 Vacuum Tanker for wastes
                                 including oilfield wastes




TC 3AXM/3AAXM/3T tube trailers are specialized units that are designed to the CSA
B340 Standard used for cylinders. They hold gases, which cannot be easily liquefied,
such as natural gas, at very high pressure. These units are usually re-tested using
acoustic methods under permits issued by Transport Canada. U.S. DOT units are
allowed if they were constructed and in service in Canada prior to January 1, 1993.




                         DOT 3AXM Tube Trailer for hydrogen or
                                    natural gas
Identification Plates

All tanks used in the service of transporting dangerous goods must have a plate attached to the shell or an
integral part of the structure of the tank. The plate must be constructed of a metal that is not subject to
corrosion and it must be located on the left side of the tank near the front or, prior to 1 July 1985, on the
right side near the front. The plate must be legible.

A tank built after 1 July 1995 must be built to the CSA B620 standard and must have a plate attached to it
with the following information:

       Manufacturer

       Manufacturers serial number

       Specification e.g. TC 406 or TC 406 Crude

       Original test date

       Completion & Certification date
                                               This information may
       Design pressure
                                               not be found on older
       Test pressure                          US MC 306 tanks.
       Head material                          Companies checking
       Head thickness
                                               tank thickness on
       Shell material
                                               these units must use
       Shell thickness

       Weld material
                                               the tables set out in
       Lining material (if any)
                                               CSA B620.
       Capacity (by compartment)

       Maximum product load

       Loading limits (flow rate and/or pressure)

       Unloading limits (flow rate and/or pressure)



The following figure illustrates the type of plates that may be found on tanks that are in compliance with the
standard.
Tanks built prior to 1 July 1995 may not have been built to the standard or may not fully
comply with it because some aspects of the standard, such as rear bumper protection or
valve specifications, were not implemented.


Federal “Grandfathered” Tank Plates

The federal “grandfathering” clause for dangerous goods, other than flammable liquids
with a flash point in excess of 37.8C, Packing Group III, has now lapsed as of 2005 and
non specification tanks must not be used.

For non-spec diesel tanks the following information must appear on them:

      Non-spec Flammable Liquids Tank
      Not For Dangerous Goods Use after January 1, 2010
      The date of the first inspection or test
      The name of the registered facility that performed the inspection or test


Provincial “Grandfathered” Tank Plates

For non-spec tanks that are less than 15 years old operating solely in the Province of
Alberta the following information must appear on them:

      The words “Non-spec Tank”
      The date of the first inspection or test
      The name of the registered facility that performed the inspection or test

NOTE: Any tank with the above plate is not allowed in dangerous goods service after
June 30, 2010 or 15 years from the date it was built.
Tank Testing and Marking

All tanks must be tested on a periodic basis as shown in the following table taken from
CSA B620:


                                                                         Leakage
                    External         Internal              Lining                    Pressure, Hydro
       Type        Inspection      Inspection            Inspection                   or Pneumatic
                                                                           Test
 306/406             1 year          5 years                              1 year         5 years
 306/406 Crude     2.5 years         5 years                             2.5 years       5 years
 307/407             1 year          5 years                              1 year         5 years
 312/412             1 year          5 years                              1 year         5 years
 350               6 months           1 year                              1 year         2 years
 350 Crude           1 year           1 year                              1 year         2 years
 331                 1 year          5 years                              1 year         5 years
 338                 1 year                                                              5 years
                                    10 years (or
 341                 1 year                                                             10 years
                                alternative testing)
 51 Portable       2.5 years         5 years               5 years                       5 years
 56/57 Portable    2.5 years                                                            2.5 years
                                 4-8-10-12 years       4-8-10-12 years               4-8-10-12 years
 60 Portable        2 years
                                 then every year       then every year               then every year
 Types 1,2 and 3
                   2.5 years        2.5 years              5 years                       5 years
 Intermodal



Lined and unlined tanks in corrosive service must have an annual internal inspection. The
lined tanks must also have the lining checked at the same time interval. Unlined tanks in
corrosive service must have a thickness test done every 2 years.

All tanks (TC 407 and TC 412) with full opening rear heads that are designed to be
loaded by vacuum must be tested according to the TC 350 tank schedule.
For non-spec tanks under the provincial “grandfathering” rules the following tests apply:


                                                                  Leakage
                           External       Internal     Lining                Pressure, Hydro
          Type            Inspection    Inspection   Inspection               or Pneumatic
                                                                   Test

 Non Spec 306 type tank    2.5 year      5 years                  2.5 year       5 years

 Non Spec 350 (vacuum)
                            1 year        1 year                   1 year        2 years
 type tank



Each tank must be marked with the following letters, as applicable, to show that the
periodic tests have been carried out:


        Letter                             Test or Inspection

          V       External Inspection

           I      Internal Inspection

          P       Pressure Test

          T       Thickness Test

          L       Lining Test

          K       Leak Test

                  For TC 341 tanks only if a Cold Vacuum Retention test has been
          C
                  carried out instead of an internal.



The date the tests were carried out must also appear on the tank, for example:


                          10/2005 VIPK 746
shows that a visual, internal and pressure test and leak test were carried out in October
2005 (The digits 746 represent the last 3 in the registration number of the test facility that
is assigned by Transport Canada).
Usually Observed in Route to a Rig Move.
No they Can’t Walk down the roads with a Load!
                    Synthetic Slings and Cargo Tie-Down Assemblies

                          PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTIC OF WEBBING
                       Nylon                             xxx                        Polyester
The most widely used general purpose synthetic                 Used mainly where acid conditions are present or
web sling, is unaffected by grease and oil. It has             a minimum stretch is desired, polyester is
good chemical resistance to aldehydes, ethers,                 unaffected by common acids and hot bleaching
and strong alkalies, but is not suitable for use               agents. It is not suitable for use with
with acids and bleaching agents or at                          concentrated sulfuric acids, alkaline or at
temperatures in excess of 194 degrees F (90°                   temperatures in excess of 194 degrees F (90°
C). Stretch at rated capacity is approximately 8-              C). Stretch at rated capacity is approximately 3%
10%.                                                           (untreated).




                                      * Disintegrated by concentrated sulfuric acid.
                                 ** Degraded by strong alkalies at elevated temperatures.
                 For specific temperature, concentration and time factors, please consult Safeway Sling
           x
           Calculating Load Factors
           When you lift a load with a leg or legs of a sling at an angle,
           you can calculate the load per leg and the slings rated
           capacity by using the following formula example:
           1. Total Load is 1,000 lbs., divided by 2 legs = 500 lbs (load
           per leg)
           2. Suppose sling angle is 60°
           3. Multiple 500 lbs. x 1.154 (load factor from table) = 577 lbs.
           (actual load per leg)

           You will need a sling rated at 1154 lbs in basket capacity to
           safety lift this 1,000 lb. load.




                     Remove if you detect these damages

      (Note that for educational purposes these examples are overly explicit.
          In service remove for much less obvious or explicit damages)




Broken or worn stitching            Ripps and snags               Crushed webbing




      Missing tags                 Cuts and abrasion         Broken and crushed webbing




     Weld splatter               Heat damage / melting             Localised heat /
                                                                 open flame damage
Correct usage.
Wrong Way
Coil Tubing Units Although Most are self Contained
         they Still Have to Secure the Parts
Picker and Knuckle Vehicles Must Secure Loose Loads on
Decks and Especially the Chain and Boom Holders. Plus
           Leveling Plates for Stabilizer Legs
Service Rigs Have Self Contained Equipment but loose
tools hoses, dangerous goods and pail plus bagged
chemicals are frequently found by inspecting officers.
Front Boom Picker regardless of the Size or Axle configuration must always secure
the traveling block, “It can not travel freely in front or behind the vehicle. Most of
these trucks require special permits with noted conditions applied to road travel.




Service Rig Support Vehicles:
These vehicles have proper cribbing holders on the side of the tanks but
still locking straps and binders must be in place, plus the unit must be
secured to the truck main decking.




Large Bed Trucks and Sows (Like the one noted above)
Must be sweep clean of debris plus in 99.9% of the case
sows can not haul a legal load on a highway for weight.
Even under special permit they can only tow trailers to rig
sites.
  Large Oilfield Building Movers on top of the All the Permits and
Equipment needed are not exempt in the process of securing the loads
                            properly.


  Safety on Site or On the Road (‘YOU ARE YOUR
  BROTHERS KEEPER ALWAYS IN SAFETY”)
Setting Up the Substructure

Equipment is unloaded and positioned at or
near the exact location that it will occupy
during operations.

The substructure is assembled, pinned
together, leveled, and made ready for other
rig components on the floor.

Equipping the cellar begins but can be done
throughout the rigging up process. This
includes welding on a drilling nipple to the
conductor pipe and attaching a flow line.
                                                            Setting up the substructure
Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by the crane, load, truck, or forklift tipping.

      Pinched fingers when assembling equipment.

      Burns from cutting and welding on the drilling nipple.

      Temporary eye irritation from welding light flash.

      Falling from heights.

Possible Solutions:

      Instruct all workers in safety procedures and ensure that they are knowledgeable
       about job hazards. This can be done during pre-job safety meetings or JSA briefings.
      Instruct workers to stand clear and keep hands and other body parts away from pinch
       points.

      Wear proper long sleeve clothing to protect from burns.

      Wear proper welding eye/face protection.

      Avoid looking directly at the flame or arc when welding.

      Wear fall protection when working from heights. Fall Protection, Safety and Health
       Regulations for Construction – This includes Peace Officers inspecting equipment




                                                                      \
Once the substructure is set in place, the           . Raising the doghouse and rig floor
process of setting up the rig floor begins.
Begin by installing stairways and guardrails to
                                                                      \
allow access to the rig floor. Then, the                  . Setting mast on rig floor
drawworks is set in place and secured to the
substructure. On mechanical rigs, the engines
are set in place and the compound and
associated equipment connected to the                   Setting crown on derrick stand
drawworks. On electric rigs, the electric cables
(lines) are strung to the drawworks.

The bottom of the mast is raised to the rig
floor and pinned in place. The crown section is
then raised into place on the derrick stand.
The "A-legs" are raised and pinned into place.
The monkey board is pinned in place on the
mast and all lines and cables are laid out to
prevent tangling when the mast is raised. A
thorough inspection of the mast should be
made before raising the mast/derrick. The
mast is now ready to be raised. The engines
are started (see Installing the Power System),               Rigging up the mast
and the drilling line is spooled onto the
drawworks drum. Once the mast has been
raised and pinned, the remaining floor
equipment can be set into place. If the rig has
safety guylines, they must be attached to the
anchors and properly tensioned prior to
continuing the rigging up process. A derrick
emergency escape device is installed on the
mast.

Potential Hazards:

      Falling or tripping during rigging up.

      Falling from rig floor.
                                                               Raising the mast
          Being struck by swinging equipment.

          Being struck by falling tools.

          Being crushed or struck by equipment due to failure or overloading of hoisting
           equipment.

          Getting entangled in lines during raising of the derrick or mast.

          Failure to properly install derrick emergency escape device.




Possible Solutions:

          Install, inspect, and secure stairs and handrails.

          Do not use guardrails for anchor points or for lifting or supporting loads.

          Use fall protection when installing or removing guardrails.

          Use a tag line to guide equipment, rather than positioning yourself under suspended
           loads.

          Check the derrick for unsecured tools before raising it.

          Allow only the operator raising the mast to be on the rig floor.

          Uncoil all lines so that they are clear of all workers when the mast or derrick is raised.

          Attach safety lines to all tools hanging from the rig.

          Keep a safe distance from moving equipment.

           Install derrick emergency escape device properly in accordance with manufacturers
                                            recommendations.
                                              Installing the Power System




Installing the power system is usually done simultaneously with setting up the rig floor, because
power is needed to operate the equipment. Today there are generally two types of rigs being used
on land. A mechanical rig is powered by engines and compound. An electric rig is powered by
engines and generators. This type supplies power to electric motors, which drive the machinery.

All power cords, belts, and chains need to be connected to the machinery from their associated
power source. Simultaneously, the fuel lines and tanks need to be hooked up. Then, start the
engines.

Potential Hazards:

      Tripping on power cords and hoses.

      Slips and falls on slick walking services.

      Getting caught in pinch points.

      Exposure to chemical hazards.

      Being shocked or electrocuted.

Possible Solutions:

      Keep all cords and hoses orderly and clear of walking spaces.

      Clear and clean all walkways and walking surfaces of slipping hazards.

      Use caution around all chain and belt pinch point areas. Install all guards.

      Use proper PPE when working with chemicals. Toxic and Hazardous Substances: Hazard
       Communication. –

      Use proper lockout/tagout/ procedures. The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout).
       –

   Rigging Up the Circulating System

While one crew finishes preparing the rig floor, another crew might be rigging up the circulating
system.

The mud tanks and mud pumps are set into the predetermined location.

The mud lines are then connected and electric cords are strung.

Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by or crushed by equipment being set into place.

      Getting caught in pinch points.

      Being struck by crane, load, truck or forklift tipping.

      Being struck by hammer when connecting mud line unions.

Possible Solutions:

      Keep a safe distance from equipment that is coming together or moving.

      Maintain a safe distance from all pinch points.
 Stand clear of workers that may be swinging hammers.




Pipe, Slings and Things that should be properly secured and tied down




                                                        Tubulars on pipe racks
All remaining drilling and auxiliary equipment
must be set into place and installed where
needed.

The catwalk and pipe racks are positioned and
the pipe and drill collars are set on the racks.

Potential Hazards:
                                                              Pipe rack and v-door

      Getting struck or pinched by, or
       caught in between, tubulars being loaded onto racks.

      Having feet pinched or crushed when setting up the pipe racks and catwalk.

Possible Solutions:

      Keep a safe distance from equipment that is coming together.

      Use a tag line to guide the pipe racks and catwalks into position.




Inspecting the Rig

Perform a complete inspection of the rig
before operating. The driller and/or rig
superintendent/toolpusher/manager should
walk around the entire rig and inspect for
missing or loose pins and bolts, equipment
guards, adequate guard railings, proper line
and cable placement, and unclear walkways.

Potential Hazards:                                            . Inspecting the rig

      Falling from the rig.

      Tripping on power cords and hoses.

      Slipping and falling on slick walking
       services.

Possible Solutions:

      Use proper fall protection. Fall
       Protection, Safety and Health
       Regulations for Construction

      Keep all cords and hoses orderly and                Inspecting rig equipment
       clear of walking spaces.

      Clear and clean all walkways and walking surfaces of slipping hazards.
  Rigging Down Either on Site or Moved to a Short Storage Yard the Rules Apply!

  After production casing is run and
  cemented, the rig is taken down and
  moved to another site. The rigging
  down process is basically the reverse
  of rigging up.

  The hazards and solutions are
  similar to those for rigging




                                                         Loading doghouse onto trailer




                 Service Rigs are “No DIFFERENT”
Transporting Rig

After the drilling rig is removed, the well site is
cleaned and re-leveled for the service rig. A
workover rig is driven or transported to the site
and positioned at the well.

Potential Hazards:

       Working in unstable or slippery
        conditions on the lease road/drill site.

       Striking fixed objects such as power line
        poles.
                                                                  . Transporting Rig
       Contacting electrical service lines.

       Being involved in vehicular accidents.

       Getting caught between the rig and the wellhead.

       Being struck by a moving rig.

Possible Solutions:

       Inspect the route in advance for adequate vehicle access and satisfactory surface
        conditions.

       Ensure adequate driver training.

       Ensure proper vehicle maintenance.

       Establish and follow a specific procedure for positioning the rig.
      Use a ground guide while backing the rig.

      Keep all personnel clear of the moving rig.

      Always look up for safety and Measure all rigs for height requirements aways from
       power lines.




Before rigging up, guyline anchors are set into the ground and pull tested. The service rig is then
spotted over the well.

The truck- or trailer-mounted rig is stabilized and leveled by manual or hydraulic jacks. All guy
lines are uncoiled and laid out to remove kinks or knots.
The mast is readied for raising, then raised and guyed into place. The derrick emergency escape
device is rigged up and the work platform is readied for service operations.




Potential Hazards:

      Being electrocuted by overhead power lines.

      Slips, trips, and falls as a result of unstable or slippery conditions.

      Being caught between the mast and mast cradle or being struck by or caught in guy lines
       and cables when mast is being raised.

      Being struck by a toppling mast if the carrier shifts.

      Being sprayed with oil if the hydraulic cylinder or hoses fail as mast is being raised.

      Twisting and falling of the mast if a guy line or anchor breaks or fails.

      Receiving strains and sprains.

      Getting hand, finger, and foot injuries during rig up.

      Getting the climbing assist counterweight tangled in the mast.

Possible Solutions:

      Identify all electrical hazards and maintain adequate clearances.

      Take appropriate precautions to mitigate slip, trip, and fall hazards.

      Stay clear of the unit while the mast is being raised, lowered, or telescoped.

      Uncoil and visually inspect all cables before starting to raise the mast. Stand to the side of
       lines and cables as the mast is being raised.

      Inspect the well pad and set additional foundation materials as appropriate.

      Inspect all high-pressure hoses and fittings.

      Ensure that the unit operator assesses the wind speed and direction to determine if the
       mast can be raised safely.

       Allow no personnel on the unit, other than the operator working at the

      controls, when raising or lowering the mast. All others stand clear.
   
        Inspect all anchors before rigging up the mast.
         Anchors should meet American Petroleum
         Institute (API) specifications for loads and
         guying patterns. Use proper lifting techniques.

        Use proper hand and foot placement. See
         general safety and health.

        Control the position of the counterweight by
         maintaining tension on the guywire to keep the
         weight away from the mast.


                                                            Installing guy line anchor




l   Look up always around rig sites

Set Up the Work Area




The work area is prepared by setting up all
relevant equipment for the job, including the
derrick emergency escape device.

Potential Hazards:

        Being struck by or caught between
         equipment.

        Receiving strains and sprains.

        Getting hand, finger, and foot
         injuries.

        Slips, trips, and falls.

        Failing to properly install derrick               Rig fall zone
         emergency escape device when
       personnel may be expected to work in the derrick.

      Getting burned or exposed to respiratory hazards due to ignition of flammable liquids,
       vapors, and gases.

Possible Solutions:

      Install guardrails as required.

      Inspect equipment integrity such as slings, tongs, and hand tools. Train crew to select
       and use the proper tools for the job.

      Instruct workers to stand clear of suspended loads.

      Use a tag line to guide equipment into position.

      Inspect hoses and connections before and after attaching to the tongs.

      Connect hoses   after the tongs have been positioned.

      Properly install derrick emergency escape device in accordance with manufacturer's
       recommendations.

      Proper equipment type and placement. See Well Site Ignition Sources.




 RAT HOLE OPERATIONS AND SIGHT DANGERS BEFORE THE
                    RIG ARRIVE

  Conductor Hole and Conductor Pipe
This is a large diameter hole, lined with pipe,
also called a starter hole, varies in depth
down of tens of feet to a few hundred feet
depending on the local geology.

Some sites do not require a conductor hole.

Potential Hazard:

      Being struck by hoisting line or
       suspended drill or casing.

Possible Solutions:

      Wear Personal Protective Equipment:
                                                     . Installing conductor hole casing
       hard hats, safety glasses, safety toe
       boots, and work gloves.

      Keep employees away if they are not working at this job.

Rathole

A rathole is a hole in the rig floor, 30 to 35
feet deep, lined with casing that projects
above the floor, into which the kelly is placed
when hoisting operations are in progress.

This is either done by the portable rig that
drills the conductor hole or can be done by
the primary rig after rigging-up.

Potential Hazard:

      Falling or stepping into an uncovered
       rathole.

Possible Solution:
                                                            . Rat hole - covered

      Cover the hole until it is lined with
       casing or other material during rigging-up.
                 Can’t have a rat with out a mouse hole.
Mousehole

A mousehole is a shallow bore hole under the
rig floor, usually lined with pipe, in which
joints of drill pipe are temporarily placed.

This is either done by the portable rig that
drills the conductor hole or can be done by
the drilling rig after rigging-up.

Potential Hazard:

      Falling or stepping into an uncovered
       mousehole.

Possible Solution:

                                                             . Mousehole - covered
      Cover the hole until it is lined with
       casing or other material during rigging-up




                   On the Road Again
Transporting Equipment by Truck

Equipment is loaded on trucks at the previous drill site or storage yard, secured and
transported to the new drill location.

Potential Hazards:
      At a newly prepared drill site, the soils
       may not be compacted sufficiently to
       support the incoming load. This could
       cause the load to become unstable.

      The load may not be secured properly,
       causing it to shift or the tie-downs to
       fail.

      In slick conditions, the truck may slide
       off the road.

                                                      Transporting derrick “A” Leg portion
Possible Solutions:

      Make sure that the access road and drill pad at the drill site has been properly
       prepared before attempting to drive on it.

      Drive slowly; always being cautious of shifting weight.

      Loads should be tied down with proper devices and inspected before and during
       transport. Department of Transportation, General rules for protection against shifting
       or falling cargo.
       Always drive with caution, whatever the conditions.




 Unload at Drill Site Short Hauls Still and Always have to Comply with Safety and
 Pemits. This includes the proper use of trailers, jeeps and boosters.

 Equipment is unloaded and placed
 approximately where it will be rigged
 up.

 Potential Hazard:

       Improperly secured loads
        could cause equipment to
        slide or collapse during
        unloading.

 Possible Solution:
                                                         Unloading doghouse

       Inspect loads before loading
        or unloading




  Although One of the Most Important Parts of the Rig. Always Always Always
check to see that the B.O.P. “IS NOT INSIDE THE SUBSTRUCTURE” It is part of
                                  a divisible load


 Installing BOPs, Accumulator, and Choke Manifold
                                                  Blowout Preventer (BOP)
  The blowout preventer (BOP),
  accumulator and choke manifold are
  installed by the rig crew after the surface
  casing is set and cemented. The
  accumulator and choke manifold have
  been set into place during rigging up and
  now need to be hooked up and tested.

  Potential Hazards:

            Being crushed by falling
             equipment if hoisting slings fail.

            Being struck by, pinched by or
             caught between equipment
             during installation.

  Possible Solutions:

            Ensure workers stand clear of     Choke manifold
             equipment being hoisted and tag lines are used where appropriate.

            Coordinate hoisting tasks with rig crew.

            Inspect the hoisting slings for wear before any hoisting operation.

            Ensure all personnel wear proper PPE.




The BOPs, accumulators, and choke
manifold should
be tested and properly maintained.

Potential Hazards:

          Being hit by hoses or
           sprayed by hydraulic fluid if
           there is a seal or hydraulic
           line failure during pressure
           testing.

Possible Solutions:
Ensure workers stand clear of
pressurized lines during testing
procedures.


                                                                 Choke manifold

  Maintaining Surface Control System
 Properly maintain the surface control system.

 Potential Hazards:

       Protruding pipes and objects

       Being struck by dropped objects.

       Slips, trips, and falls.

       Atmospheric hazards

 Possible Solutions:

       Wear appropriate personal protective equipment
        (such as hard hats, work gloves, safety shoes, and
        eye protection).
                                                                        BOP
       Implement injury awareness training (such as
        dropped objects, working from heights)

       Use appropriate fall protection.

       Ensure workers are aware of the slipping and falling hazards.

       Monitor for potential hazards (H2S, methane, O2 deficiency).



                Note location in Substructure Area




 These B.O. P. units big or small are left in
 the Substructure area for only on reason,
laziness, they come out just like any other
 rig part, the only time this is permited is
 by special permit and it must be properly
 secured from movement and 9 times out
     of ten they are just hung in place
                underneath
Conducting Drill Stem Test

To determine the potential of a producing formation,
the operator may order a drill stem test (DST). The
DST crew makes up the test tool on the bottom of the
drill stem, then lowers it to the bottom of the hole.
Weight is applied to the tool to expand a hard rubber
sealer called a packer. Opening the tool ports allows
the formation pressure to be tested. This process
enables workers to determine whether the well can be
produced.

Potential Hazards:

      Being pinched or struck by the drill stem test
       tools during floor operations.

      Swabbing the hole on the way out with the
       test tool could cause a kick to occur, which
       could result in a blowout leading to injuries
       and deaths.

      Being exposed to unexpected release of H2S or
       other gases or liquids.

      A packer seat failure or fluid loss to an upper
       formation could cause a kick that might result
       in a blowout causing injuries and deaths.

      Other hazards are similar to those encountered
       during trippingout/in.

Possible Solutions:

      Wear appropriate PPE.

      Instruct workers in handling and using the
       special tools required during drill stem testing.

      Keep a method for filling the hole in place at            Drill stem test assembly
       all times. Before any test starts, the rig
       management must ensure that the blow-out prevention system includes a kill system
       that is capable of pumping fluid into the well below the annular preventer and at least
       on-set of pipe rams.

      Run a pump-out-sub or downhole circulating device in the test string to to enable the
       system to be reversed.

      Ensure all workers on the location understand the dangers before starting any drill
       stem test. They should be fully informed of and trained in appropriate safety
       procedures, including the use of safety equipment and breathing apparatus. If in an
       H2S area, post a sign indicating the test in full view for the general public to see. Post
       reliable people to stop them from coming to the location. Define a minimum of two
       muster points with all vehicles parked in an appointed area.




Setting Production Casing

Production casing is the final casing in a well. It can be
set from the bottom to the top. Sometimes a production
liner is installed.

This casing is set the same as other casings, then
cemented in place.




                                                             Installing production casing




Installing Production Tubing
A well is usually produced through tubing
inserted down the production casing. Oil and
gas is produced more effectively through this
smaller-diameter tubing than through the
large-diameter production casing.
                                                                 Tubing on rack
Joints of tubing are joined together with
couplings to make up a tubing string. Tubing
is run into the well much the same as casing,
but tubing is smaller in diameter and is
removable.

The steps for this activity are:

      Tubing elevators are used to lift tubing
       from the rack to the rig floor.

      The joint is stabbed into the string,
       which is suspended in the well, with air
       slips.

      Power tongs are used to make-up
       tubing.

      This process is repeated until tubing
       installation is complete.
                                                                  Tubing head
      The tubing hanger is installed at the
       wellhead.



New technology allows tubing to be
manufactured in a continuous coil, without
joints. Coiled tubing is inserted into the well
down the production casing without the need
for tongs, slips, or elevators, which takes
considerably less time to run.

Potential Hazards:

      Getting pinched fingers and hands
       from tongs and slips.
                                                              Installing coil tubing
      Being struck by swinging tubing and
       tubing elevators.

      Getting caught between the joint and tongs or stump.

      Being struck by the tubing hanger wrench if it should slip.

      Getting fingers and hands pinched and caught between tubing hanger and tubing
       head.

Possible Solutions:

      Keep all fingers and hands away from pinch points.
       Instruct workers to be on alert when on the rig floor and pipe racking area.

       Avoid placing hands on the end of the tubing stump.

       Use the correct tools for each task.

       Inspect the tools before use.

       Use coiled tubing.
       Note:




Starting Production Flow

Production flow is started by washing in
the well and setting the packer. Washing
in means to pump in water or brine to
flush out the drilling fluid. Usually this is
enough to start the well flowing. If not,
then the well may need to be unloaded.
This means to swab the well to remove
some of the brine. If this does not work
the flow might be started by pumping
high-pressure gas into the well before
setting the packer.
                                                          Starting production flow
If the well does not flow on its own, well
stimulation or artificial lift may need to be
considered.

Potential Hazards:

       A blowout may be possible whenever well pressures are changed.

Possible Solutions:

       Monitoring of well pressures and working blow out preventers (BOP's) are the best
        way to prevent blowouts.




Beam Pumping Units
  If the well doesn't produce adequately, a
  beam pumping unit may be installed.

  There are four basic types of beam
  pumping units. Three involve a walking
  beam, which seesaws to provide the up
  and down reciprocating motion to power
  the pump. The fourth reciprocates by
  winding a cable on and off a rotating
  drum. The job of all four types is to
  change the circular motion of an engine to
  the reciprocating motion of the pump.
                                                                       Beam pumping units
  The pump units are brought in
  disassembled on trucks and off-loaded
  onsite. The many parts of the pump unit
  include large heavy metal pieces that need
  to be assembled.

  Potential Hazard:


            Being pinched, struck, or crushed by
             falling or swinging parts during assembly.

  Possible Solutions:


            Ensure that the work crew understands
             the assembly procedures and hazards
             involved in the tasks.                             . Assembling beam pumping unit



            Always Always Always Wear appropriate PPE.

Removing the Horsehead (Pumping unit only)

Typically, the horsehead of a
pumping unit must be removed to
gain access to the wellhead
equipment.

Potential Hazards:

          Having the unit start up
           while working on
           equipment.

          Being struck by
           counterweights on the
           pumping unit.

Possible Solutions:

          Use lockout/tagout, to
           include mechanically

                                                          . Servicing horsehead and bridle
       securing the flywheel.

Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by dropped horsehead or caught between horsehead and walking beam.

      Getting fingers and hands pinched and caught between tools and/or equipment.

      Being struck by falling tools or equipment.

      Falling from an elevation.

Possible Solutions:

      Inspect all slings before use.

      Use tag lines to position the horsehead when removing or lowering and to keep
       personnel clear of suspended load.

      Use the correct tools for each task.

      Inspect the tools before each use.

      Keep fingers and hands away from pinch points.

      Secure tools from falling and keep the area below clear of personnel.

      Use proper PPE and fall protection as required.

   




Removing the Wellhead

To begin the process, the wellhead must be
removed from the casing flange.

Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by released pressure or
       flying particles.

      Being struck by the wrench or hammer
       while removing bolts and fittings.

      Getting caught between wellhead,
       hydraulic wrenches, and wellhead
       fittings.                                          Wellhead on flowing well

      Getting fingers and hands pinched and
       caught between flanges or valves.

      Slips, trips, and falls.

      Entering into well cellars.

Possible Solutions:

      Stand clear of valves and fittings when removing fitting or bleeding off pressure.

      Check wellhead pressure and bleed pressure off before removal.

      Use the correct tools for each task.

      Inspect the tools before each use.

      Wear proper PPE including safety glasses.

      Keep fingers and hands away from pinch points.

      Cover open cellars.

      Wear fall protection as appropriate.

      Implement a confined space entry program.




Pulling and Running Rods
     Sucker rods




Rod elevator and tools
To service, repair, or replace
the rods or pump, the sucker
rod string must be pulled out of
the hole. Pulling rods refers to
the process of removing rods                          . Manual rod wrench
from the well. Running rods
refers to the process of
replacing rods in the well.

Potential Hazards:

      Falling from heights.

Possible Solutions:

      Wear appropriate fall
       protection including a
       full body harness. For
       Fall Protection guidance,
       consult:

              Fall Protection
               when working
               from platforms.

              Fall Protection
               guidelines.

              Walking-Working
               Surfaces.
      Never disconnect
       personal fall arrest                         Hydraulic tong operator
       systems while working
       in the derrick.

Potential Hazards:

      Getting fingers or hands pinched in or between rod wrenches, rod elevators, power
       tongs, rod hook, rod transfer, and rod fingers.

Possible Solutions:

      Ensure that workers are instructed in proper hand and finger placement when making
       and breaking rod connections or setting rods on the rod fingers.

      Ensure that workers are instructed in proper latching procedures while pulling and
       running rods.

Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by dropped objects.

Possible Solutions:


      Wear the proper Personal Protective Equipment such as:
          Hard hat

          Work gloves

        Safety-toed footwear
   Use extra caution while people are working overhead.

   Avoid carrying tools while climbing the derrick ladder. Raise tools with a line to any
    worker above the derrick floor.
   Ensure that all tools and equipment being used are secured with the proper safety
    lines.




       
Pulling and Running Tubing

Among the reasons for pulling tubing includes
replacing a packer, locating a tubing leak, or
plugged tubing.

Raising or Lowering Traveling Block and Elevator

Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by the elevators and traveling
       block as they are raised or lowered.

      Getting fingers and hands pinched between
       elevators and tongs or tubing collar.

Possible Solutions:

      Instruct workers to stand clear of tong and
       slip area when lowering the elevator and
                                                                   Tubing rig
       traveling block.

      Use handles on elevators as they are descending into place over the tubing.

Latching or Unlatching Elevators onto the Tubing

Potential Hazards:

      Pinching hands or fingers in the elevators.
      Being struck by elevators not securely latched.

Possible Solutions:

      Ensure that workers are instructed in proper latching procedure.

      Inspect and maintain elevators.




Removing the Wellhead

To begin the process, the wellhead must be
removed from the casing flange.

Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by released pressure or
       flying particles.

      Being struck by the wrench or hammer
       while removing bolts and fittings.

      Getting caught between wellhead,
       hydraulic wrenches, and wellhead
       fittings.                                          Wellhead on flowing well

      Getting fingers and hands pinched and
       caught between flanges or valves.

      Slips, trips, and falls.

      Entering into well cellars.
Possible Solutions:

      Stand clear of valves and fittings when removing fitting or bleeding off pressure.

      Check wellhead pressure and bleed pressure off before removal.

      Use the correct tools for each task.

      Inspect the tools before each use.

      Wear proper PPE including safety glasses.

      Keep fingers and hands away from pinch points.

      Cover open cellars.

      Wear fall protection as appropriate.

      Implement a confined space entry program.




       You can’t Check it IF YOU DON”T
       KNOW WHAT THEIR HAULING
Wireline Operations
Fig. 2. Wireline hazard zone




Fig. 3. Fishing junk basket
All wireline operations require
special precautions. Wireline
operations may include slick
line and electric line
operations. Operations
completed through the use of
wireline include logging,
perforating, setting of
downhole tools, fishing,
bailing, and swabbing.

Note: The special service
supervisor should hold a pre-
job meeting with the special
service crew and other
involved personnel to review
responsibilities and to
coordinate the operations to
be performed.

Potential Hazard:

      Being struck by
       wireline due to line
       failure.                                     Fig.4. Fishing magnet

Possible Solutions:

      Keep all non-essential
       workers out of the
       immediate work area.

      Inspect wireline, rope
       sockets, and cable
       heads for defects
       before use.

      Operate the wireline
       at a safe speed.

      Use an appropriate
       method to determine
       the end of line
       location.
                                                   Fig. 5. Fishing overshot
Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by
       wireline, lubricator, sheaves, or other equipment.

      Getting caught in wireline.

Possible Solutions:

      Keep all non-essential workers out of the immediate work area.
      Inspect all slings, chains, pins or other attachment devices before lifting or suspending
       tools or equipment.




Potential Hazards:

      Pinching hands and fingers.

      Getting sprains, strains or suffering from overexertion.

Possible Solution:

      Minimize manual handling of lubricators and other equipment.

      Use proper hand placement and tag lines to avoid pinch points.

Potential Hazards:

      Falling from a height.

      Receiving burns or being exposed to a respiratory hazard due to a fire.

Possible Solutions:

      Use proper fall protection.

      Position the unit properly with respect to wind direction and distance from potential
       gas or vapor sources.

Potential Hazard:

      Being exposed to an unexpected release of pressure.

Possible Solutions:

      Install a pressure release valve in the lubricator sub.

      Bleed pressure from lubricator sub before breaking connections.

      Check for an unusually tight connection that may indicate that pressure has not been
       released.

Potential Hazard:

      Toppling mast or boom.

Possible Solution:

      Install foundation, outriggers, and guying according to the manufacturer's
       recommendations.
      SAFETY IS NOT A GAME, YOUR ON DUTY SMARTS AND EDUCATION ARE PARAMOUNT
       IN PROTECTING OTHERS “CONSTABLE”.




Well Logging

Well logging is used to identify formation and other
downhole properties of the well bore.

Logging tools can include radioactive, electric,
mechanical, and sonic tools, among others.

Note: See also Wireline Operations and Perforating for
descriptions of additional hazards.

Potential Hazards:

      Being exposed to radiation.

Possible Solutions:

      Keep non-essential workers away from the rig
       floor and marked-off areas where radiation
       hazards may be present.                                 Radioactive logging tool

      Wear appropriate personnel protective equipment
       (PPE).

      Allow only authorized and qualified logging
       company personnel to handle the logging tools.

      Report any damage to radioactive logging tools.

Potential Hazard:                                                 Radiation symbol


      Getting injured due to an unexpected release of
       pressure.

Possible Solutions:

      Check for the presence of trapped pressure before opening the tool housing.

      KNOW YOUR DANGEROUS GOODS LEGISLATION AND RADIATION SAFETY….
Potential Hazards:

      Surface detonation of explosives.

Possible Solutions:

      Keep all non-essential personnel out of the immediate work
       area.

      Post warning signs and prohibit the use of radios,
       telephones, or navigational systems.

      Shut down non-essential electrical systems during gun-
       arming operations.

      Perform operations involving explosives under the direct
       supervision of the special services supervisor.

      Report any suspected remnants of explosives to the special
       services supervisor.

Additional Information:

      Have Your Officer Safety Dangerous Goods Manual in your
       cruiser at all times.
                                                                    Charges perforating the casing



Cementing
Cementing and pumping operations may be performed by
specialized pumping services or in conjunction with well
servicing operations (such as, casing, squeezing, and zone
isolations). The hazards involved will vary with mode of dry
cement delivery and mixing as well as the primary designed
function of the pumping equipment.

Note: The special service supervisor should hold a pre-job
meeting with the special service crew and other involved
personnel to review responsibilities and coordinate the
operations to be performed.

Rig Up - Spotting and assembly of equipment to perform
cementing or pumping operations.                                         Cementing truck


Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by moving vehicles.

      Being exposed to potential ignition and respiratory hazards.

      Overexerting, or getting sprains and strains.

      Being exposed to pinch points (for example, hammer union wings and hammers,
       pump iron and racks).

      Being hit by flying particles.

      Falling from heights.

      Slips, trips, and falls.

      Being struck by falling equipment.

Possible Solutions:

      Preplan equipment locations and use a spotter(s) to position equipment out of fall lane
       of the derrick and upwind of vapor and gas sources.

      Use mechanical lifting aids, proper lifting techniques, and team lifting where
       appropriate.

      Use proper hand and body positioning.

      Wear proper PPE including fall protection and respiratory protection where
       appropriate.

      Conduct a pre-job inspection to identify, then eliminate or correct hazardous work
       surfaces.

      Require all non-essential personnel to stand clear.

      Secure all elevated lines.

Pumping - Executing the job
Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by high pressure lines or unexpected release of pressure (due to,
       mismatched or excessively worn hammer unions, line failure).

      Being exposed to chemical hazards (such as, silica, toxic liquids, and gases).

      Being exposed to high noise levels.

      Slips, trips, and falls.

      Overexerting, or receiving sprains and strains while handling materials (such as sacks
       and buckets).

Possible Solutions:

      Direct all non-essential personnel to stand clear.

      Require pump operator to stay by the controls.

      Conduct adequate pressure tests on pump(s) and lines before pumping. Hobble high-
       pressure lines properly.

      Use proper equipment inspection techniques to include hammer unions (Note: This is
       a particular problem with 602 and 1502, as they will couple but will not hold beyond
       the lower pressure rating number).

              High Pressure Lines And Hammer Unions.

      Wear proper personal protective equipment (for example, respiratory, skin, and
       hearing) as appropriate for the hazards present.

      Conduct a pre-job inspection to identify, then eliminate or correct hazardous work
       surfaces.




      Use mechanical lifting aids, proper lifting techniques, and team lifting where
       appropriate.

Rig Down - Disassembly and demobilization of equipment

Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by moving vehicles.

      Being exposed to potential ignition and respiratory hazards.

      Overexerting or receiving sprains and strains.

      Being exposed to pinch points (such as, hammer union wings and hammers, pump
       iron and racks).
      Being hit by flying particles.

      Falling from heights.

      Slips, trips, and falls.

      Being struck by falling equipment.

Possible Solutions:

      Use a spotter(s) to direct equipment movement.

      Use mechanical lifting aids, proper lifting techniques, and team lifting where
       appropriate.

      Use proper hand and body positioning.

      Wear proper PPE including fall protection and respiratory protection where
       appropriate.

      Conduct a post-job inspection to identify, then eliminate or correct hazardous work
       surfaces.

      Require all non-essential personnel to stand clear.

   
Stimulation




                  Hobbled high-pressure line




              . Connecting blender up to manifold
Well stimulation involves
techniques to optimize well
performance. This may
include pumping of acids,
energized fluids, and various
other chemicals to improve
formation flow characteristics.

Note: The special service
supervisor should hold a pre-
job meeting with the special
service crew and other
involved personnel to review
responsibilities and to
coordinate the operations to
be performed.                                           . Frac Equipment

Note: When pumping
energized fluids (such as,
carbon dioxide or liquid
nitrogen) substantial
increased hazards exist
related to asphyxiation,
temperature extremes, and
unexpected pressure
releases. Use special
procedures to ensure the
safety of personnel.

Rig Up - Spotting and                                      . Frac truck
assembly of equipment to
perform stimulation
operations.

Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by moving vehicles.

      Being exposed to potential ignition and respiratory hazards.

      Overexerting or receiving sprains and strains.

      Being exposed to pinch points (such as, hammer union wings and hammers, pump
       iron and racks).

      Being hit by flying particles.

      Falling from heights.

      Slips, trips, and falls.

      Being struck by falling equipment.

      Being injured due to potential ignition of flammable or combustible carrier or base
       fluids.
Possible Solutions:

      Preplan equipment locations and use a spotter(s) to position equipment out of fall lane
       of the derrick and upwind of vents, vapor and gas sources.

      Use mechanical lifting aids, proper lifting techniques, and team lifting where
       appropriate.

      Use proper hand and body positioning.

      Wear proper PPE including fall protection and respiratory protection where
       appropriate.

      Conduct a pre-job inspection to identify, then eliminate or correct hazardous work
       surfaces.

      Require all non-essential personnel to stand clear.

      Secure all elevated lines.

      Provide adequate bonding and grounding for blending, pumping and sand transfer
       equipment.

      Use hose covers or shielding for transfer or suction lines containing flammable liquids.

Pumping - Executing the job

Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by high-pressure lines or unexpected release of pressure (for example,
       mismatched or excessively worn hammer unions, line failure).

      Being exposed to chemical hazards (such as, silica, toxics, asphyxiants).

      Being exposed to high noise levels.

      Slips, trips, and falls.

      Overexerting or receiving sprains and strains while handling materials (such as sacks
       and buckets).

      Being exposed to temperature extremes.

      Being exposed to radiation associated with radioactive tracer materials.

Possible Solutions:

      Require all non-essential personnel to stand clear.

      Direct equipment operators to stay by their controls.

      Conduct adequate pressure tests on pump(s) and lines and ensure proper valve
       alignment before pumping. Install a check valve as close to the well head as possible.
       API RP54

      Hobble high pressure lines properly.
      Use proper equipment inspection techniques to include hammer unions (Note: This is
       a particular problem with 602 and 1502, as they will couple but will not hold beyond
       the lower pressure rating number).

      Wear proper personal protective equipment (such as respiratory, skin, and hearing) as
       appropriate for the hazards present.

      Conduct a pre-job inspection to identify, then eliminate or correct hazardous work
       surfaces.

      Use mechanical lifting aids, proper lifting techniques, and team lifting where
       appropriate.

      Keep non-essential personnel away from marked-off areas where radiation hazards
       may be present.

      Allow only authorized and qualified company personnel to handle radioactive tracer
       materials or radioactive densiometers.

      Prevent contamination and exercise proper personal hygiene when working around
       radioactive materials.

Rig Down - Disassembly and demobilization of equipment




Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by moving vehicles.

      Being exposed to potential ignition hazards, including flammable or combustible
       liquids or gases.

      Being exposed to potential skin and respiratory hazards.

      Overexerting or receiving sprains and strains.

      Being exposed to pinch points (such as, hammer union wings and hammers, pump
       iron and racks).

      Being struck by particles or fluid.

      Falling from heights.

      Slips, trips, and falls.

      Being struck by falling equipment.

      Being injured due to the unexpected release of trapped pressure.

Possible Solutions:

      Use a spotter(s) to direct equipment movement.

      Use mechanical lifting aids, proper lifting techniques, and team lifting where
       appropriate.
      Use proper hand and body positioning.

      Wear proper personal protective equipment (such as fall protection, respiratory, skin,
       and hearing protection) as appropriate for the hazards present.

      Conduct a post-job inspection to identify, then eliminate or correct hazardous work
       surfaces.

      Direct all non-essential personnel to stand clear.

      Follow procedures to release trapped pressure safely.

      If your tired of learning about rigs and rig safety, does that mean your tired to living.




Swabbing

Swabbing is the act of pulling fluid from the
well bore through the use of wire rope and
cup assembly. Swabbing equipment includes
a swabbing assembly, lubricator with an oil
saver, and shut-off valve on the well, also
called a swabbing valve.

General precautions during all swabbing
operations:

      Conduct swabbing operations during
       daylight hours.
                                                               Swabbing operation
      Keep all personnel clear of the derrick
       or within six feet (two meters) of the
       wellhead during swabbing operations.

      Locate swab tanks at least 100 feet
       (30 meters) from the well, where
       location allows.
                                                                 Swabbing rigs

Potential Hazard:

      Loss of well control.

Possible Solutions:

      Use appropriate equipment, rated for the expected pressures, to shut in the well.

      Inspect lubricators, swages, and unions for defects such as cuts, corrosion, and thread
       damage before use.

      Adjust oil savers by remote control with a hydraulic pump placed safely away from the
       wellhead.
      Train all personnel in emergency evacuation procedures.

Potential Hazard:

      Fire, explosive, or respiratory hazard from leakage or venting of oil or gas from tanks,
       lines or lubricator.

Possible Solutions:

      Place fire extinguishers in accessible positions.

      Move sources of potential ignition (such as, open fires for melting of babbitt) to
       designated areas at a safe distance from the wellhead or flammable liquid storage
       areas such as the swab tank before swabbing.

      Make provisions to contain spilled flammable liquids.

      Monitor the oil saver for wear and potential leakage.

      Remove all spillage of flammable liquids from equipment, cellars, rig floor, and ground
       area adjacent to the wellhead.

      Wear proper PPE, including respiratory protection, as required.




Potential Hazard:

      Being struck by a pressurized line.

      Being exposed to a high-pressure connection failure caused by mismatched or
       excessively worn hammer unions.

Possible Solutions:

      Avoid approaching, walking over or standing near pressurized lines.

      Securely anchor pressurized lines to prevent whipping or bouncing caused by pressure
       surges.

      Use proper equipment inspection techniques to include hammer unions (Note: This is
       a particular problem with 602 and 1502 and others, as they will couple but will not
       hold beyond the lower pressure rating number).

Potential Hazard:

      Being struck by pressurized fluids or the lubricator when removing the lubricator from
       the well.

      Getting strains and sprains from handling the lubricator.

Possible Solutions:
       Close the shut-off valve and bleed the pressure from the lubricator before removing it.

       Use a lubricator that will allow removal of the swab or other tools with the well shut in
        (valve closed).

       Use a dolly or other method to minimize manual handling of the equipment.

Potential Hazard:

       Pinching fingers between swab assembly and lubricator when changing swab cups or
        mandrels.

Possible Solutions:

       Use a winch line, where available, not the swab line, to handle the lubricator.

       Use a lubricator that will allow removal of the swab or other tools with the well shut in
        (valve closed).




Hot Oiling

A hot oil unit is designed to circulate heated
fluid into piping, tubing, casing, or tanks for a
variety of reasons, including the removal of
paraffin and tar-based oils.
Always check for Dangerous Goods and
Permits in Dangerous Goods


Potential Hazard:

       Fire or explosion hazard from contact
        with flammable liquids, vapors, or
        gases.                                                   Hot oiling truck




Possible Solutions:
      Locate hot oil trucks and tanks a safe distance (100 feet is recommended) from the
       well and out of the fall line of the derrick, if it is on site. Where impractical, use
       additional safety measures.

      Position hot oil units upwind or crosswind from potential sources of flammable liquids,
       vapors, or gasses. Wind direction indicator should be present and visible to the
       operator.

      Shut down hot oiling operation immediately if a leak occurs.

      Make fire extinguishers readily accessible to the hot oil operator.

      Avoid parking over or placing lines containing flammable fluids under trucks or other
       vehicles.

      Install check valve in the pump line as close to the well head as possible.

      Inspect all components of the hot oil unit before each use.

      Shut the burner down if the wind dies.

      Shut the burner down and reposition equipment if the wind changes direction so as to
       create a hazard.

Potential Hazard:

      Being burned by hot oil or hot oil line or frostbite injuries from contact with propane or
       propane lines.

Possible Solution:

      Wear proper personnel protective equipment such as heavy padded, insulated, leather
       gloves

Potential Hazards: Expert Review

      Unexpected release of pressure




Possible Solutions:

      Do not connect heavy joints of pipe to the small nipples on the pumping T.

      Secure all hot oil and discharge lines.

      Connect the hot oil line directly to the flow line if pump pressure exceeds safe limits
       (500 psi).

      Remain clear of pressurized lines.
Snubbing




              Snubbing rig




           Snubbing operations
Snubbing is the control of a tubing string
while running it in or out of a well bore
under pressure.

Note: The special service supervisor
should hold a pre-job meeting with the
special service crew and other involved
personnel to review responsibilities and to
coordinate the operations to be
performed.

Potential Hazards:

      Falling from heights.

      Being exposed to an unexpected
       release of pressure, and loss of
       well control.
                                               Snubbing rig with blow out preventer (BOP)

      Being burned by a fire and
       explosion.

      Having limited ingress and egress.

      Working in an unstable basket due to lack of guy wires.

      Being caught between the rig assist pull down and crows nest.

Possible Solutions:

      Ensure proper fall protection.

      Inspect and maintain all pressure control equipment prior to operations.

      Provide adequate means of access to and exit from the basket.

      Provide emergency escape method. API RP54

      Rig all equipment in accordance with equipment recommendations.

      Ensure proper body and hand placement.
Coil Tubing

Technology allows tubing to be manufactured
in a continuous coil without joints. Coiled
tubing is inserted into the well down the
production casing without the need for tongs,
slips, or elevators.

Potential Hazards:

      Pinching fingers and hands.

      Being exposed to an unexpected
       release of pressure.

      Getting struck by falling or shifting    Installing coil tubing
       objects (such as suspended injector
       heads).

      Falling from heights.

Possible Solutions:

      Keep all fingers and hands away from
       pinch points (such as tubing spool,
       rollers, injector head).

      Inspect the tools and equipment
       before use.
                                                  Coil tubing unit
      Rig up boom trucks in accordance
       with manufacturer's recommendations.

      Use fall protection.
Drilling Fluid Functions

Drilling fluid is an important
component in the drilling
process. A fluid is required in
the wellbore to:

       Cool and lubricate the
        drill bit,

       Remove the rock
        fragments, or drill
        cuttings, from the
        drilling area and
        transport them to the
        surface,

       Counterbalance                                  Drilling fluid (Mud)
        formation pressure to
        prevent formation fluids (such as oil, gas, and water) from entering the well
        prematurely (which can lead to a blowout), and

       Prevent the open (uncased) wellbore from caving in.


A LARGE PERCENTILE OF RIG TANKS MOVED ARE NOT
  DRAINED AND THIS HEAVY FLOOD IS STILL IN THE
TANKS, A LOT OF THIS MUD CONTAINS CAUSTIC SODA
 Drilling Fluid Types

 There are several types of drilling fluids used depending on the drilling conditions
 encountered:

       Water-based muds are used most frequently. The base may be either:

               fresh water, or

             salt water.
       Oil-based muds.

       Synthetic materials. The oil and gas extraction industry has developed many new
        oleaginous (oil-like) base materials from which to formulate high-performance drilling
        fluids.
        A general class of these fluids is called synthetic materials, such as

               The vegetable esters,

               Poly alpha olefins,

               Internal olefins,

               Linear alpha olefins,

               Synthetic paraffins,

               Ethers, and

               Linear alkylbenzenes, among others.

    Air and foam fluids may be used in drilling wells.

               These fluids are less dense than drilling muds.




 AND WHO’S GOING TO GET RID OF THE MUD YOU
ASK. ME AND MY VAC TRUCK IN SO LONG AS I HAVE
 A OVERLOAD PERMIT FOR THESE FLOATER TIRES
Drilling Fluid Additives
Drilling muds typically have several additives.
(Air and foam fluids typically do not contain
many additives because the additives are
either liquid or solid, and will not mix with air
and foam drilling fluids.) The following is a
list of the more significant additives:

       Weighting materials, primarily barite
        (barium sulfate), may be used to
        increase the density of the mud in
        order to equilibrate the pressure
        between the wellbore and formation
        when drilling through particularly                    Additive mixing hopper
        pressurized zones. Hematite (Fe2O3 )
        sometimes is used as a weighting
        agent in oil-based muds (Souders, 1998).

       Corrosion inhibitors such as iron oxide, aluminum bisulfate, zinc carbonate, and zinc
        chromate protect pipes and other metallic components from acidic compounds
        encountered in the formation.

       Dispersants, including iron lignosulfonates, break up solid clusters into small particles
        so they can be carried by the fluid.

       Flocculants, primarily acrylic polymers, cause suspended particles to group together so
        they can be removed from the fluid at the surface.

       Surfactants, like fatty acids and soaps, defoam and emulsify the mud.

       Biocides, typically organic amines, chlorophenols, or formaldehydes, kill bacteria and
        help reduce the souring of drilling mud.

       Fluid loss reducers include starch and organic polymers and limit the loss of drilling
        mud to under-pressurized or high-permeability formations.




Tripping Out - Setting Slips
The floor crew sets slips around the drill stem.

Potential Hazards:

      Getting fingers or other body parts
       pinched between slips or slip handles
       and rotary table.

      Receiving muscle strain from improper
       lifting technique.

Possible Solutions:

      Use proper hand placement when                            . Setting slips
       setting slips.

      Use proper stance and slip lifting techniques. Slips have three handles and should be
       lifted jointly by more than one person.

      Note these floor a extremely slippery and yes steel toed boots are a must constable.




Breaking Out and Setting Back the Kelly

Breakout the kelly and set it into the rathole.

Potential Hazards:

      Release of excess drilling mud resulting in skin
       contact, loss of footing, etc.

Possible Solutions:

      Shut down the mud pumps before breaking out
       the kelly.

      Close the mud saver valve on the kelly (if
       present).

      Use a mud bucket to divert flow of excess
       mud.

Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by the slip handles if the rotary
       table is used to spin the drill string.
                                                                  Kelly set into rathole

Possible Solutions:

      Stand clear of the rotary table when it is rotating.

      Consider other technologies (such as a pipe spinner, kelly spinner, or top drive unit) to
       eliminate this hazard.
Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by the kelly if the pullback line unhooks when kelly is being pulled toward
       the rathole.

Possible Solutions:

      Implement an effective pullback line attachment procedure.

      Ensure workers stand in a safe location away from the pullback line and rathole during
       this pullback operation.




Attaching Elevators to the Elevator Links

The crew attaches elevators to the
elevator links.

Potential Hazards:

      Being pinched by the
       elevator links while
       attaching elevators (or
       attaching elevator links to
       the hook).

      Being struck by the
       elevators.

      Receiving strains and
       sprains.
                                                         Red elevator links
Possible Solutions:

      Use proper hand placement when attaching elevator links.

      Ensure workers stand away from swing-path of the elevators and elevator links.

      Use lifting equipment and limit manual positioning of elevators.

      Use proper mounting procedures.




Latching Elevators to Pipe
The floor crew latches the elevators onto
the pipe.

Potential Hazards:

      Getting hands or fingers pinched in
       elevators.

      Being struck by elevators not
       securely latched.

                                                      Elevators latched onto the pipe
      Getting hands or fingers caught
       between elevators and stump.

Possible Solutions:

      Ensure workers are instructed in proper latching procedure, including the use of
       handles on elevators as they are descending into place over the stump or tool joint.

      Inspect and maintain elevators.

Additional Information:

      Inspection, Maintenance, Repair, and Remanufacture of Hoisting Equipment




Working on the Monkeyboard




                                                       Climbing Assist Device and PPE
The derrickman climbs up the derrick to the
monkeyboard. From here he unlatches the
elevators and guides the stands of pipe into
the fingerboard. The elevators are then
lowered and attached to the next stand of
pipe.

Potential Hazards:

      Falling while climbing up or down the
       ladder.

      Falling from monkeyboard or
       fingerboard.

      Slips, trips, and falls.

      Falling during an emergency descent.
                                                        . Derrickman on monkeyboard

Possible Solutions:

      Use climb assist device.

      Wear appropriate fall protection
       including a full body harness. For Fall
       Protection guidance, consult:
            Fall Protection when working
               from platforms.

              Fall Protection guidelines.

           Walking-Working Surfaces.
      Wear the proper Personal Protective
       Equipment such as:
           Hard hat

              Work gloves

            Safety-toed footwear
      Practice 100% tie-off while working in          Handling pipe from monkeyboard
       the derrick.

      Use slip-resistant coatings or materials on working surfaces.

      Train personnel in use of emergency escape device.

Potential Hazards:

      Being caught between pipe and other objects

      Receiving strains and sprains.

Possible Solutions:

      Practice proper hand placement and use of pullback (tail) ropes.
Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by dropped objects.




Possible Solutions:

      Implement a dropped objects program, such as tie-off for all tools.

      Use extra caution while personnel are working overhead.

      Do not carry tools while climbing the derrick ladder. Raise tools with a line to any
       worker above the derrick floor.

           




Breaking Out Pipe

The crew uses the tongs and cathead to
breakout the pipe. The rotary table may
be used to spin out the pipe after breaking
the connection.

Potential Hazards:

      Being struck by swinging tongs if            Using the tongs to breakout the pipe
       they break free from the pipe.

      Being struck by the slip handles if
       the rotary table is used to spin the
       drill string.

      Being struck by reverse backlash
       of tongs (backbiting) during
       breakout operations.

      Being struck by the tongs if a snub
       line breaks or the tongs come
       unlatched.

Possible Solutions:                                          Tong swing radius


      Implement an effective breakout
       pipe procedure:
            Personnel other than tong operators stand outside the tong swing radius when
              breaking pipe.

              No one should stand in the red zone. (see Diagram 1)
              Use proper tong latching techniques and use proper hand and finger placement
               on tong handles.

              Stand clear of the rotary table when it is rotating.

            Use special operational procedures when making high torque connections.
      Inspect tong dies and snub lines each tour.

      Maintain good communication between floor hands and driller.




Maneuvering Pipe to Racking Area

The stand is raised and maneuvered to the
pipe racking area.

Potential Hazards:

      Getting hands and fingers pinched
       between stands of pipe.

      Getting feet or toes crushed or
       amputated under a stand of pipe.

      Slips, trips, and falls.

      Receiving strains and sprains.

Possible Solutions:

      Keep hands and fingers from
                                                   Crew maneuvers stand into racking area
       between pipe stands.

      Position feet away from the bottom of the pipe stands.

      See Alberta Occupational Health and Safety Act and Codes if you are in doubt
       regarding your safety and the safety of others around you.




Tripping in - Latching Elevators to Top of Stand
The derrickman latches the elevators onto
the pipe from the monkeyboard.

Potential Hazards:

      Getting hands or fingers pinched in
       elevators.

      Being struck by elevators not
       securely latched.

      Getting hands or fingers caught
       between elevators and stump.
                                                  Derrickman latching elevators onto the pipe
Possible Solutions:

      Ensure workers are instructed in proper latching procedure.

      Inspect and maintain elevators.




    Looking for a New Home for Your nice New Rig

Heavy Equipment and Supplies have to be first moved
 in long before the rig gets there, So what about the
  Regulations on Hauling Heavy Equipment and the
   hundred and different types, makes and models

                       And the adventure continues.
Leveling Site

The site is leveled (if necessary) with a bulldozer and/or a grader.

Potential Hazards:
      Damaging buried pipelines and cables.

      Unpredictable weather changes can create unexpected
       hazards.

      Irritant and toxic plants, pollens, and other entrained
       materials.

      Uneven ground may cause bulldozers to roll over.

Possible Solutions:

      Perform a site line location survey.

      Plan for hazards due to unpredictable changing
       weather.

      After weather changes, conduct inspections for new           Leveling uneven ground
       hazards.

      Protect employees engaged in site clearing from hazards of irritant and toxic plants.
       Teach the employees about available first aid treatments. Provide rollover guards on
       all equipment used in site clearing operations.

      Provide overhead and rear canopy guards on rider-operated equipment.




Excavating and Trenching




                                                       Hug Drowning Hazard. Reserve pit
The scale and duration of excavating and
trenching are very minor and site-specific. On
some drilling sites, a below-ground-level cellar
may be excavated. This is where the main
borehole is to be drilled. A reserve pit and
settling pits may be excavated and are used
for water or drilling fluid (mud) discharges.

Potential Hazards:

      Dust and other airborne contaminants
       can cause respiratory problems or           Excavating at a drill site
       allergic reactions.

      Damaging buried pipelines and cables.

Possible Solutions:

      Wear appropriate respiratory protection.

      Perform a site line location survey.




This Stuff does Appear overnight on Site
             by “MAGIC”

                          PAPERS PLEASE
Everything Else needs a Special Permit.
Types of Permits available to the Trucking Industry on T.R.A.V.I.S..
                              Advance Rig Move Detail Permit
                                Field Crop Alberta Resident
                              Field Crop Albert (non resident)
                                   Fleet Tri-Drive Permit
                                    Foreign Bus License
                            Foreign Bus Permit – Multi Permits
                                High Load Corridor Permit
                             Log Haul Permit (Winter Weight)
                                 Long Combination Vehicle
                                  Monthly License Permit
                             Multi-trip Overweight Tow Truck
                                     Multi Trip Permit
                       Permit for hauling commodity on return trip
                               Public Entertainment Vehicle
                         Public Entertainment Vehicle Multi Trip
                          ROAD BAN EXEMPTION ( Multi-trip)
                         ROAD BAN EXEMPTION ( Single Trip)
                          Seasonal Log Haul Dimensional Permit
                                   Single Trip Dimension
                     Single Trip Dimensional Permit for Drilling Rigs
                                 Single Trip License Permit
                        Single Trip Overweight/Dimensional Permit
                   Single Trip Overweight/Dimensional for Drilling Rigs
                Single Trip Overweight/Dimensional for Empty Equipment
                           Single Trip Passenger Transportation
              Single Trip Pursuant Permit (Old Section 20 Permit Condition)
                                      Structure Permit
                                     Test Drive Permit
                 To Operate a TAC Vehicle OFF THE PROVINCIAL HIGHWAYS
                            Winter Log Haul Permit for resource roads




    Bottom line is no one moves without a permit from the municipality


          “Other than the Province who you going to call for help and
                                permits???????



                         Other Road Authorities
CITIES
                                       TELEPHONE               AFTER
CITY                                   NUMBER                  HOURS
AIRDRIE                                948-8892                -----
CALGARY             Bridge     Overload 268-3228               -----
                    (Overweight)
                                       3-1-1 (Within Calgary
                    Overdimensional    )    or     268-CITY
                                       (Outside of Calgary)

CAMROSE                                672-4428                672-4444
DRUMHELLER                             823-1308                823-2512
EDMONTON                               496-2680                496-1700
FORT McMURRAY                          743-7857                799-7930
FORT SASKATCHEWAN                      992-6248                439-7574
GRANDE PRAIRIE                         538-0378                532-4519
LEDUC                                  980-7107                -----
LETHBRIDGE                             329-7363                -----
                                       320-3092
LLOYDMINSTER                           825-6184                825-9807
MEDICINE HAT                           529-8471                -----
RED DEER                               342-8161                -----
SPRUCE GROVE        Ext. 106           962-2611                926-2222
                                                               RCMP
St. ALBERT                             459-1654                460-4000
WETASKIWIN                             352-3344                -----
                            COUNTIES
                                 OFFICE       TELEPHONE      AFTER
          COUNTY                LOCATION       NUMBER        HOURS
CTY. 1    GRANDE PRAIRIE     GRANDE PRAIRIE   539 - 6707   (24 Hours)
CTY. 2       VULCAN              VULCAN       485 - 6001   (24 Hours)
CTY. 3       PONOKA             PONOKA        783 - 3333   551 - 9777
CTY. 4        NEWELL             BROOKS       362 - 3504   362 - 3261
CTY. 5       WARNER              WARNER       642 - 3635   642 - 7555
CTY. 6       STETTLER           STETTLER      742 - 4441   323 - 0077
CTY. 7      THORHILD            THORHILD      398 - 3977     -----
CTY. 8      FORTY MILE          FOREMOST      867 - 3530   647-7674
CTY. 9        BEAVER              RYLEY       663 - 3730   663 - 3937
CTY. 10     WETASKIWIN         WETASKIWIN     352 - 3321     -----
CTY. 11     BARRHEAD            BARRHEAD      674 - 3331     -----
CTY. 12     ATHABASCA          ATHABASCA      675 - 2273     -----
CTY. 13     SMOKY LAKE         SMOKY LAKE     656 - 3730     -----
CTY. 14      LACOMBE            LACOMBE       782 - 6601   782 - 4343
CTY. 16     WHEATLAND         STRATHMORE      934 - 3321   934 - 5360
CTY. 17   MOUNTAIN VIEW         DIDSBURY      335 - 3311   335 - 3446
CTY. 18     PAINTEARTH           CASTOR       575 - 0894   575 - 0894
CTY. 19      St. PAUL            St. PAUL     645 - 3006   645 - 2417
CTY. 20    STRATHCONA        SHERWOOD PARK    417-7100     417-7100
CTY. 21     TWO HILLS           TWO HILLS     657-3358     657-2568
CTY. 22      CAMROSE            CAMROSE       672-4446       -----
CTY. 23      RED DEER           RED DEER      350-2156       -----
CTY. 24   VERMILION RIVER       KITSCOTY      846-2826       -----
                                              955-3555,
CTY. 25       LEDUC              LEDUC                       -----
                                               ext. 266
CTY. 26     LETHBRIDGE         LETHBRIDGE     328-5525     328-5525
CTY. 27      MINBURN           VEGREVILLE     632-2082     632-9364
CTY. 28    Lac Ste. ANNE        SANGUDO       785-3411     785-2960
CTY. 29     FLAGSTAFF          SEDGEWICK      384-3875       -----
CTY. 30      LAMONT             LAMONT        895-2547     764-2175
CTY. 31           PARKLAND               STONY PLAIN     968 -8888   (24 Hours)




                                 MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS
                                            OFFICE      TELEPHONE      AFTER
          MUNICIPAL DISTRICT              LOCATION       NUMBER        HOURS
MD   1             CYPRESS              MEDICINE HAT    526-2888     (24 Hours)
MD   6            CARDSTON                CARDSTON      653-4977     758-3482
MD   7            BADLANDS               DRUMHELLER     823-1200       -----
MD   8             BIGHORN                 EXSHAW       673-3611       -----
MD   9          PINCHER CREEK           PINCHER CREEK   627-3484       -----
MD 14               TABER                   TABER       223-3541     223-2814
MD 15            WOODLANDS               WHITECOURT     778-8400       -----
MD 16             GREENVIEW              VALLEYVIEW     524-3193       -----
MD 17            OPPORTUNITY               WABASCA      891-3778       -----
MD 19             BIRCH HILLS              WANHAM       694-3793       -----
MD 20            SADDLE HILLS            SPIRIT RIVER   864-3760       -----
MD 21             CLEAR HILLS              WORSLEY      685-3925       -----
MD 22          NORTHERN LIGHTS           PEACE RIVER    1-888-525-     -----
                                          MANNING          3481        -----
                                                        836-3348
MD 23             MacKENZIE               HIGH LEVEL    927-3718       -----
MD 26           WILLOW CREEK             CLARESHOLM     625-3351     549-2372
MD 31             FOOTHILLS               HIGH RIVER    652-2341     652-3115
MD 34               ACADIA              ACADIA VALLEY   575-0894     575 - 0894
MD 44             ROCKY VIEW               CALGARY      230-1401     (24 Hours)
MD 47             STARLAND                 MORRIN       772-3793     364-2227
MD 48              KNEEHILL              THREE HILLS    443-5541       -----
MD 52              PROVOST                 PROVOST      753-2168     753-2434
                                                        856-3654
MD 61            WAINWRIGHT              WAINWRIGHT     842-4024     842-4965
MD 66            RANCHLAND                 NANTON       646-3131     646-5676
MD 77              BRAZEAU             DRAYTON VALLEY   542-7711     (24 Hours)
MD 87             BONNYVILLE             BONNYVILLE     826-3951       -----
MD 90             STURGEON                MORINVILLE    939-4321       -----
MD 92            WESTLOCK                    WESTLOCK         349-3346   954-2420
MD 94           YELLOWHEAD                     EDSON          723-4800     -----
MD 99           CLEARWATER            ROCKY MOUNTAIN HOUSE    845-4444     -----
MD 124       LESSER SLAVE RIVER              SLAVE LAKE       849-7130     -----
MD 125           BIG LAKES                  HIGH PRAIRIE      523-5955   524-4779
MD 130          SMOKY RIVER                   FALHER          837-2221   837-2463
MD 131           EAST RIVER                 PEACE RIVER       624-6580     -----
MD 133          SPIRIT RIVER                SPIRIT RIVER      864-3500     -----
MD 135             PEACE                      BERWYN          338-3845     -----
MD 136            FAIRVIEW                    FAIRVIEW        835-4903   835-3643
                                       PECIAL AREAS
                                             OFFICE          TELEPHONE    AFTER
          SPECIAL AREA                     LOCATION           NUMBER      HOURS
            2, 3, & 4                     YOUNGSTOWN         575-0894     -----
                                  REGIONAL MUNICIPALITIES
                                             OFFICE          TELEPHONE    AFTER
          MUNICIPALITY                     LOCATION           NUMBER      HOURS
         CROWS NEST PASS                    COLEMAN          562-8833     -----
         WOOD BUFFALO                   FORT McMURRAY        743-7000    799-7930
‘WHO DAMAGING WHO”
These quick pic’s were done by graders




         A picture perfect road
                              “Sinner or Saint”
Road Bans

Road Bans are imposed to reduce the amount of damage that occurs to rural roadways during spring
breakup, a time when pavement and soils are moisture filled and susceptible to damage from heavily
weighted vehicles.

Road bans are our way of getting the most of tax dollars, and minimizing the amount of repair and
repaving that is required to maintain a high standard of road.
   During the Spring, when warmer temperatures cause the road surface to breakup and
 generally deteriorate, the highways most affected are restricted to lower axle weights and
speed restrictions. Signs indicating that a road is posted for lower weights are erected at the
                                   beginning of a posted road.
               This principle of road safety applies to all vehicles large or small.

                      SECTION 152 T.S.A.
              ALLOWS LOCAL GOVERNMENTS :
                               CITIES
                               TOWNS
                    MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS
                  May make bylaws restricting weights of
              vehicles and any goods being carried to weigh
                       less than specified in the Act
                  Can specify penalties but cannot exceed
                                    Act


         SECTION 62 T.S.A.-BOARD ISSUE PERMITS
       SPECIAL PERMITS ARE ISSUED FOR ANY
      THING, AT ANY TIME, TO BE EXEMPT FROM
                       THE LAW
                  FOR HOW LONG
     THE GUIDELINES OR CONDITIONS TO
             WHICH THEY APPLY




SECTION 131(1)(f)

  AXLE OVERWEIGHT
  EITHER BY AXLE
  AXLE GROUP OR COMBINATION GROUP
   UNLESS authorized BY A
    PERMIT……………………..
   Fine-$20/100kg under 5000 and $35/100 kg over
    5000 plus 15%

Section 131(1)(i)
Maximum weight of the commercial Vehicle cannot
exceed the weight as specified on a restricted Bridge
Has nothing to do with length or span, simply gross
weight
If permit is issued to cross a restricted bridge, the
vehicle cannot exceed the permitted weight specified
(subsection j)
Fine as in (h)
SECTION 131(1)(k)
Weight of commercial vehicle exceeds weight allowed on
banned road
If permit issued, the weight cannot exceed that as
specified on the permit (subsection l)
Fine as in (h)




Section 131(1)(l)
Weight of commercial Vehicle exceeds gross weight for
road ban
Fine per (h)




Note wet road conditions;
Section 144- VICARIOUS LIABILITIES
If a person

Loads,

Adjusts or rearranges,

Unloads,

Provides documentation, or

Gives direction, instruction or orders,

That person and the carrier are jointly liable for any non-
compliance which may occur as a result



Road Ban documents
By bylaw
And an order must be posted
   Even the province must make a road ban order




Why we need to Govern Weights and Dimensions




What Damage Starts to Look Like.
It to wet on the road how about a pull I’m to heavy.

           How many wheels is enough wheels
Had any Stretched Power Line Wires or Power Outages




The permit it for width not for a full load of water (at 10lbs
to the gallon at a 1000 gallons tank who much do I weight
with my camp house on my tandem axle ( recorded at
23470kg, at the time of the officer stopping this unit)
Allowed 17000 kgs on the rear tandems.




Wide track super fatties.
        17000 kg on a rural road without a permit.



Maximum in the Country
Local Road (without permit)
Maximum

53,500 kg.
Its not just trucks,

Self Propelled equipment needs a permits after>>>>>>>
Axle group cannot exceed 11,000kg
Gross weight cannot exceed 22,000kg




                                 Winter vs. Summer
weights on roads makes a huge impact when hauling this
light plant.

Too heavy even without a load
Weight Change Move the Sliding Fifth




            Or the Bogies
Add a Booster do something but don’t forget thepaperwork




  Yes that going out on the Road where are you constable?????
47000kg, only allowed 17000 kg on your road.




        Rig or Service Rig, plus what are my permit options
Two words that just don’t go together;
  Planetary Drives with…Chains?
Doghouse Water/Mud Tank Combination.
Nice but Toooooooooooooo Wet of a Road Surface
        Distance Lends Enchantment




                  Bottom Line
Sinner or Saint Just after the Rig went Through
Winter or Summer
Night or Day
Big         or




                                      Small


“All vehicles will do road damage if they are not properly monitored by well educated Officers”.
    But what about before the Big Boys get there?
Seismic Vehicles in a lot of Cases require permits also.




                         Drillers
Jug Hounds Vehicles




400 Barrel Tanks
Always check for Dangerous Good Permits and Placards on these Units




       Yes that your road he’s drilling in to put that Dynamite




  Take one more look at your Gravel Road before these Boys Arrive.
The industries answer to a LARGE Vibrator.
So regardless if you Pull Me




      Drag me down the Road
       Hang Me Up to Dry




Allow me in Your Crops and Fields
Haul me in Wet




    Or Dry
Big




Small
          Good




          Bad




Illegal
Or Not



If you build it




Size matters not
We Will Come

								
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