Innovation

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					 Hand Held
  Wireless
Computers in
 Education
 Marcia Wert
         Handheld Wireless Computers
 Encompass:
   – PDA’s or Personal Digital Assistants
   – Wireless laptops/compact laptops/Ultra compact
     laptops
   – Mobile Phones
   – Smart Phones
   – Tablet PC’s
   – Game consoles - Wi
   – Media Players – Ipod’s
   – Hybrid devices - include a mixture of mobile phones
     and tablet PC’s
        Need for Handheld Wireless

 The need for business professionals to keep
  track of:
  •   Contacts
  •   e-mail
  •   voice mail
  •   addresses
  •   phone numbers
  •   appointments
       Need for Handheld Wireless

 Mobility of Communication to access the
  Internet
 Ability to connect anytime - as long as an
  Internet portal is available
 Need for speed to connect – electronic
  trading
         Categories
 The project will be narrowed to
  Personal Digital Assistants or
  PDA’s

 2 Categories
   – Hand Held Computers:
      • Larger Liquid Crystal Display
      • Mini Keyboard
   – Palm-Size Computer
      • Stylus
      • Touch Screen and hand writing
        recognition
        Characteristics

 Characteristics of
  PDA’s
   – No Hard Drive
   – Programs stored on
     Read-only Memory
     (ROM)
   – Microprocessor
   – Input/Output ports
       History

 History of the PDA
 These Companies invented and marketed
 their PDA’s
  – 1980 - Invented By Psion Company
  – 1993 - Apple used touch sensitive screens and
    handwriting recognition
  – 1995 - US Robotics – Palm Pilot
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iz4GwL
 pxAhc
        Lead Thinkers
 Lead Thinkers on this Research
  – Cheung Sum Wing
  – Hew Foon Khe
 Lead Designers
  – Psion - Nick Healey - as a programmer, with a
    degree in Computer and Microprocessor
    Engineering
  – Apple- Newton- Steve Capps and Michael
    Tchao
       Problems in Development

 Psion's weak point was Internet connectivity
  in countries where wireless service isn't
  available
 Apple’s Newton-
  – Problem with fonts
  – Sent faxes
  – Limited communication
         Problems in Development

 Palm Pilot - limited memory and a
  relatively slow processor, also key
  components still written in Assembler
  –   Good assembler programmers
  –   Development of programs
  –   Instructions to write
  –   Complex algorithms
  –   Debugging
        Intended Market

 In the beginning
  – The business world, in order to be mobile in
    communications
 Present
   – Education Field
          Findings
 On utilizing the devices as
  (21.8%)-Communication
  (20.5%)- Multimedia
  access
  (17.9%)-Task
  management tool
 On the use of handhelds as
  (14.1%)-Assessment
  (12.8%)-Capture tools
  (6.4%)-Representational
  (6.4%)-Analytical tools
          Steps for Innovation Process

 Production
   - Initiated by Packaging
   – Licensing of PDA’s
 Marketing
  – Consists of two 1 hour classes to instruct faculty and
    students on usage
 Distribution
  – Set number of PDA’s for 2 classes and corresponding
    faculty
            Stages                               Confirmation
                                           Decision


                                    Implementation


                         Decision


            Persuasion



Knowledge
       Knowledge Stage

 1995 – Co-Worker
 2001 – PDA’s in the classroom
A small video supporting knowledge studies
  from universities on PDA’s
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rOyGyXat
  x5c
            Persuasion Stage

 Costs can be minimized
 High Mobility
 Good visuals in color,
    sound, and networking
   Familiar “Start” menu
   Standard Microsoft
    applications
   Standard support for the
    hardware
   Supports other Hardware
   Increases motivation of
    students
                               Click on image
        Decision Stage

 Investment
   – Faculty
   – Hardware costs
   – Software costs
   – Training costs
     • Information
       Technology
     • Faculty           Click
     • Students
                                                                                               But my PDA, unlike
                                                                                               my phone, actually
               Implementation Stage                                                            “persuaded”
                                                                                               me to learn how to
                                                                                               better use it.
                                                                                               (Schrage,2004)
 Time period for Delivery – 1 month
 One hour class to instruction students on the use
   of the PDA
 Two hour classes to instruct faculty-
              “While the teachers were clear on the basic operations of the PDAs,
     they were caught by surprise concerning student engagement and in the ways
     the software could be used to pose or solve particular coding problems.” As
     stated by Goldman, Pea, Maldonado, Martin, White and associates at Stanford
     University (2004).
 Active enrollment of students in credit classes and
     corresponding training classes

Schrage, M. (2004). The power of Persuasion, Retrieved 10 05, 2009 from
     http://www.leighbureau.com/speakers/MSchrage/essays/persuasion.pdf
Goldman, S., Pea, R., Maldonado, H., Martin, L. White, T. &
the WILD Team @ Stanford University. (2004). Functioning in the wireless classroom, P. 5. Retrieved 10 06, 2009 from
     http://hci.stanford.edu/publications/2004/WILDClassroomWMTE2004/WILDClassroomWMTE2004.pdf
       Confirmation Stage

 After Purchase
                                Click
  – Faculty
  – Monthly informal meetings
  – E-Mail
  – Information Technology
  – Surveys
             Communication Channels

Knowledge – Mass Media                        Be not the first by
                                               who the new is tried,
               for Education                   nor the last to lay the
Persuasion – Interpersonal                    old aside.
                                               -Alexander Pope, An Essay
Decision – Interpersonal/      on Criticism, Part II


            Mass Media
Implementation – Interpersonal
Confirmation - Interpersonal
http://cyber.bentley.edu/faculty/wb/courses/370/opencommclimate.doc
      S-Curve for Adoption




http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_rogers_inno
vation_adoption_curve.html

				
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