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					         Sustainability

          Warsaw
      January 18th, 2008

            Dirk Dens,
Manager, AFV/FFV Sales & Marketing
          Ford of Europe
Our Major Future Challenges                                            2      2




                                Recycling


          Emissions                         Greenhouse
                                               effect



       Safety
                             Sustainable            Limited
                              Mobility            fossil fuels




      Legislation                               Customer
                                 Traffic      requirements
                               management



   Research & Advanced Engineering                        R. Menne
                                                          Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                            3      3
Supply & Demand of Oil
Less and less oil is being discovered




  Source:
  Uppsala Hydrocarbon Depletion Study Group,
  OIL AND GAS LIQUIDS 2004 Scenario
                                               R. Menne
      Research Campbell, 2004-05-15
  Updated by Colin J.& Advanced Engineering
                                               Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                           4
 Infrastructure                                     4




• Traffic Management:
    • More efficient use of roads by
      intelligent traffic management
    • Avoiding „domino effect“ of
      traffic lights
    • Only in Germany: Congestion
      causes 30 Mio. t CO2 per year
• Driving Behaviour:
    • Eco Driving has potential to
      reduce fuel consumption by
      up to 25%

     Research & Advanced Engineering   R. Menne
                                       Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                                        5      5
Key Enabling Technologies for CO2 Reduction



                                      Aerodynamics
                                                       Energy
                                                     Management/
  Weíght Reduction                                   Hybridisation




                                                      Downsizing/
                                    Low Roll         Direct Injection/
      Biofuel
                                  Restistant Tires    Transmission
     Capability

    Research & Advanced Engineering                        R. Menne
                                                           Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                                      6
    Ford ECOnetic Portfolio                                    6




•   Ford Focus ECOnetic (ultra-low CO2
    emissions): 115 g/km CO2
     •   powered by the highly efficient 109PS,
         1.6-litre Duratorq TDCi engine
     •   average fuel consumption: 4.3 l/100km
     •   Standard version: 127 g/km
•   Ford Mondeo ECOnetic
     •   sub 140 g/km available later in 2008
     •   Standard version: 156 g/km
•   Ford ECOnetic model within our all-
    new B-Car range
     •   below 100g/km, available late 2008
     •   Current Fiesta 1.6TDCi: 116g/km

         Research & Advanced Engineering          R. Menne
                                                  Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                           7
 Ford ECOnetic Vehicle Technologies                 7




• New engine calibration
• Revised ratio of transmission
• Enhanced aerodynamics
• Lowered suspension
• Low-viscosity transmission oil
• Low rolling resistance tyres




     Research & Advanced Engineering   R. Menne
                                       Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                        8      8
New Generation of Clean Diesel Engines

•   Downsizing
•   Turbo charging
•   Next generation common rail systems
•   New combustion processes
•   Advanced engine architectures
•   Advanced control systems
•   Energy management
•   Advanced aftertreatment technologies
•   Coating technologies
•   Future fuels/Capability of further
    blending with biofuels

      Research & Advanced Engineering      R. Menne
                                           Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                                      9      9
New Generation of Gasoline Engines

•   Downsizing
•   Direct Injection
•   Turbo charging for performance feel
•   New combustion processes
•   Advanced engine architectures
•   Advanced control systems
•   Energy management
•   Variable compression ratio
•   Coating technologies
•   Cylinder deactivation
•   Future fuels/Capability of further blending with biofuels

       Research & Advanced Engineering                   R. Menne
                                                         Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                                                10      10
  Ford Hybrid Vehicles

                                    • Micro-Hybrid Technology:
                                          • Belt driven Integrated Starter
                                            Generator or Assisted Direct Start
                                               • Stop/Start Function
                                               • Smart Regenerative Charging


• Full-Hybrid Technology
    •    Mild-Hybrid functions + electric only range      Ford Escape HEV
    •    Limited zero-emission operation
    •    Particulary suited to US driving conditions
    •    US market launch: Sept 2004

• Plug-in Hybrid Technology
     • Ford Escape Plug-in-Hybrid Concept
        Research & Advanced Engineering                             R. Menne
                                                                    Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                                      11
Alternative Fuels - Today                                     11


  LPG/CNG(Biogas):
    Ford offers selected models converted to run on LPG
    (Liquified Petroleum Gas) and CNG (Compressed
    Natural Gas/Biogas). These models are available in
    countries like Germany, Italy and Austria, where the
    infrastructure is available to support customers who
    choose this option
   LPG                                      CNG




    Research & Advanced Engineering               R. Menne
                                                  Dresden, 10.11.06
          Well-to-Wheel Emissions                                                             12      12




           250



           200
gCO2/km




           150



           100



           50



            0




                                                   Quelle: Eucar/Concave/JRC – Well-to-Wheels Report


                 Research & Advanced Engineering                                  R. Menne
                                                                                  Dresden, 10.11.06
Flexifuel Vehicle - FFVs                                                  13      13



Current Ford Flexifuel products


Duratec Petrol Engine 1,8 l (92 kW)
5-speed manual transmission




                                       Ford Focus Flexifuel


      C-MAX Flexifuel
 FordResearch & Advanced Engineering                          R. Menne
                                                              Dresden, 10.11.06
Flexifuel Vehicle                                                          14      14




Ford Flexifuel product extension
   Ford S-MAX
                                       NEW Ford Mondeo




  Ford Galaxy

                                       Duratec Petrol Engine
                                       2,0 l flexifuel (107 kW)
                                       5 gear manual transmission
                                       early 2008
     Research & Advanced Engineering                           R. Menne
                                                               Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                                                 15
   Ford Hydrogen Powered Vehicles                                        15



                                         Ford C-MAX with hydrogen
• Hydrogen internal combustion           internal combustion engine
  engine as bridging technology
  for hydrogen powered fuel cells
• Long-term target: Fuel Cell
• Europe: Fuel Cell Fleet Projects
• Further developments of new
  generations of fuel cell vehicles
     • Ford Edge Fuel Cell Plug-In
       Hybrid




       Research & Advanced Engineering                       R. Menne
                                                             Dresden, 10.11.06
     Cost/Benefit of CO2 Reduction                                                            16      16




                                   Available Today!!!
            100                                                                            Fuel Cell
% CO2 Reduction




                  80        Ethanol                                               H2 ICE


                  60
                                                                         Diesel
                  40             ECOnetic
                                                            Gasoline     Hybrid
                                             Diesel        Full Hybrid
                                    Diesel Hybr.
                                       Micro
                                         HyTrans
                  20               Gasoline              CNG

                       Gasoline DIMicro Hybr.
              0
             Gasoline
                                                          Costs
                       Research & Advanced Engineering                            R. Menne
                                                                                  Dresden, 10.11.06
Reduction of CO2 in Road Traffic                                17      17




                              Suppliers
                                             Automobile
   Legislation
                                              Industry
                            Integrated
                             Approach
  Infrastructure                           Driver Behaviour
                                Energy
                               Providers

   Research & Advanced Engineering                  R. Menne
                                                    Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                                        18      18
 Food for fuel debate

• Distinction between poor countries situation and Western-Europe
     • Poor countries need sustainable way of bio-energy production
       to avoid interfering with food situation
     • Western-Europe’s agriculture can benefit from bio-energy
            Farmers can get extra revenues making use of currently
              un-used land
            EU 27 2005 10.6 Million ha Fallow land = 318 bils km
              biofuel
            Higher crop prices means higher revenu and also less
              subsidies required
     • Increased biofuel production will reduce dependancy on
       expensive and uncertain fossil oil importation




    Research & Advanced Engineering                         R. Menne
                                                            Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                                                   19
Swedish Success Story                                                      19



Swedish vision: Independence from oil by 2020
  •      late 2001: first Focus Flexifuel vehicles delivered
  •      very limited fuel infrastructure
  •      governmental / public incentives
           - exemption of bio-fuels from mineral oil tax
           - reduced company car tax (20%)
           - Free parking > 30 cities
           - exemption from congestion charges Stockholm
           - lower registration tax
           - Mandatory alternative fuel infrastructure
           - 85% of government vehicle purchase should be AFV
           - 10.000 SEK (€1050) bonus for retail customers
           - reduced vehicle insurance premium (20%)
      Research & Advanced Engineering                          R. Menne
                                                               Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                                   20
Swedish Success Story                                      20




 • Integrated Approach
      • 1000 E85 filling stations (25% of all filling
        stations)
      • Almost all European OEMs to offer FFVs
      • 2009 FFV volume projection: 100,000 cars
        (1/3 of industry)
      • 85% of Government fleet procurement are
        environmentally enhanced vehicles
      • Stockholm Green Policy

   Research & Advanced Engineering             R. Menne
                                               Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                                        21
Swedish Success Story                                           21




     City of Stockholm: environmental
     procurement
 • All new vehicles bought for city fleet to be clean
 vehicles
 •    By 2010: 100% clean vehicles in city fleet
 • Demand clean transport in procurements of ALL
 transports     (taxis, goods distribution, etc)
 •    400 City busses are ethanol busses
 •    Garbage collection trucks run on biogas


     Research & Advanced Engineering                R. Menne
                                                    Dresden, 10.11.06
                                                                        22
    Conclusions                                                 22




• No technical “Silver Bullet” on the horizon
• Now: Bio-Ethanol
• Short- to midterm:
      • Downsizing of engines, optimized transmissions,
        hybridisation, weight reduction
      • Biofuels, further blendings
•   Longterm: Hydrogen based mobility
•   Feasibility and affordability of new technologies
•   Customer acceptance
•   Integrated Approach
       Research & Advanced Engineering              R. Menne
                                                    Dresden, 10.11.06

				
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