Docstoc

ICT

Document Sample
ICT Powered By Docstoc
					                     Using Sustainable Livelihoods ‘Capitals’ to Create a Matrix of Extension and Rural Development ICT Project Possibilities
                                        Prepared by Don Richardson, Gartner Lee Limited – drichardson@gartnerlee.com
                         June 5, 2007 – World Bank / InfoDev Workshop: "Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to Support
                                                          Rural Livelihoods: Evidence, Strategies, Tools"

                                                                                  Table 1
                                                                             Financial Capital
       The most versatile asset, but also the asset least available to the rural poor, a fact which makes other types of capital assets important to the rural poor.

    Examples and/or        Use or Transformation             Bottlenecks to Access, Use or                                           Role for ICTs                                      Sustainable Livelihoods
Features of Capital Asset Potential of Capital Asset        Transformation of Capital Asset                                                                                                    Outcomes

     Available stocks          Can be converted      Challenges to the effectiveness and                    Application of ICTs to extend, administer and manage credit support          Increased farm family
 including savings, liquid into other types of         efficiencies of financial service                      Basic access to telecommunication services to enhance                   income and increased farm
 assets such as jewelry     capital – depending on     organizations that serve the rural poor and       organizational effectiveness of financial services organizations [this was    family savings;
 and livestock, land, and   policy and regulatory      agricultural producers. This includes             the original reason for the Grameen Bank's decision to establish Grameen            Increased income results
 resources available        environment                organizations that transmit remittance            Telecom's Village Phone initiative]                                           in greater farm family
 through credit-providing       Can be used for       payments to the rural farm family and those            Basic access to telephone services to enable family members to          participation in
 institutions               direct achievement of      that provide access to credit for productive      reduce the risks associated with remittance payments, and improve family      rural/agricultural organizations
     Regular inflows of    livelihood outcomes        enterprises and agricultural producers.           members‟ abilities to make collaborative decisions on transforming            and improvements in external
 money including earned     such as the purchase of    Challenges can be in the form of                  remittance financial capital to achieve livelihoods objectives                relations (Social Capital)
 income, remittance         food to reduce food        management capability and skills, service              Where organizational efficiency is a significant bottleneck,
 payments, and inflows      insecurity                 organization infrastructure, personnel            computerize financial systems of financial service organizations that serve
 from the state                 Can be transformed    training needs, etc.                              the rural poor
                            into political influence                                                          Where remittance payments are a key source of the regular flow of
                            and “voice” to help                                                          money, electronic banking systems that facilitate and improve the flow of
                            improve the policy and                                                       remittance payments, reduce the risks associated with payments, and
                            regulatory context and                                                       reduce the often transaction costs associated transfers
                            govern access to
                            resources
                                                       Challenges to farm family access to                    “Parabanks” that piggyback on rural institutions may make effective
                                                       financial services which are often                use of computers and telecommunication systems to build on existing
                                                       associated with lack of collateral, but may       efficiencies and extend rural reach
                                                       also relate to institutional reach into rural          Assisting existing financial service organizations to extend services
                                                       areas, or a basic lack of institutions oriented   using ICTs where appropriate and practical
                                                       to providing financial services to rural
                                                       communities and agricultural producers.

                                                       Legislative, policy and regulatory                   See Table 5 on Social Capital - “louder voices” and improving
                                                       challenges can impede the reach of financial      human networks and connections
                                                       services or impede their effectiveness with
                                                       the rural poor.




                                                                                                                                                                                                     1 of 5
                 Using Sustainable Livelihoods ‘Capitals’ to Create a Matrix of Extension and Rural Development ICT Project Possibilities
                                    Prepared by Don Richardson, Gartner Lee Limited – drichardson@gartnerlee.com
                     June 5, 2007 – World Bank / InfoDev Workshop: "Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to Support
                                                      Rural Livelihoods: Evidence, Strategies, Tools"

                                                                                     Table 2
                                                                                 Human Capital
                                        The skills, knowledge, ability to labour and good health that enable people to pursue livelihoods

Examples and/or Features Use or Transformation                   Bottlenecks to Access, Use or                                      Role for ICTs                                    Sustainable Livelihoods
    of Capital Asset    Potential of Capital Asset              Transformation of Capital Asset                                                                                             Outcomes

     Varies according to        Human capital is required   Lack of, or poor quality, health,            ICTs applied to programs and projects that provide direct support to             Improved health
household size, skill levels,    to make use of the other    education, and agricultural extension        human capital accumulation at the rural community and farm family           indicators (related to
leadership capabilities,         four types of capital       training resources such as infrastructure,   level. This can include ICT enabled assistance with the logistics of        improvements in income
health status, etc.              assets                      personnel, and knowledge resources.          service provision, or the efficiency of service provision. It can also      and food security attained
     Educational                                                                                         include direct farm family access to ICTs and ICT services (e.g.            with relevant knowledge)
attainment and good health                                                                                rural telecentres or rural public calling offices (PCOs)) where such             Family investments
are important human                                                                                       services can directly assist with access to knowledge resources that        in education and training
capital assets – improving                                                                                assist in the accumulation of human capital desired to achieve                    Reduced
these may be a primary                                                                                    specific livelihood outcomes. Examples of approaches and                    vulnerability evidenced by
livelihood objective of                                                                                   applications are many and might include agricultural extension              indicators such as reduced
many families                                                                                             information about diversification strategies, tele-education/distance       birth rates, and reduced
     Quality of trusted                                                                                  education programs, telephone directories pointing rural people to          rural out-migration.
advisors to the farm                                                                                      information services they might access to improve livelihood
business (bank, legal,                                                                                    decision making, etc.
government, education
                                Trusted advisor provide      Access to advisor limited by distance or     ICTs directed at the intermediary layer of advisors and influencers       Reduced vulnerability
                                input in the form of         time availability.                           can tangibly impact the quality, quantity, and timeliness of             evidenced by indicators such
                                knowledgeable                Advisor has quality information but          information delivered to the rural farm family. ICTs can equip           as increased crop yield, herd
                                recommendations and          limited access to or influence over the      advisors and influencers with market data, best practice                 health, family income.
                                provide access to data not   farmer.                                      information, real-time economic data, extension information, etc.
                                available to he farmer,.     Advisor has access to and influence
                                                             however is only marginally more skilled      See Table 1 for rural credit and rural financial services for sample
                                                             or knowledgeable then the farmer.            ICT applications.


                                                             Policies, institutions or processes that     See Table 5 on Social Capital - “louder voices” and improving
                                                             impede the delivery or availability of       human networks and connections
                                                             health, education and training resources.
                                                             These can include delivery/availability
                                                             bottlenecks at local, provincial and
                                                             national levels of government, but also
                                                             include bottlenecks at local institutions,
                                                             and cultural norms which may limit
                                                             access (including gender and social
                                                             status issues).




                                                                                                                                                                                                       2 of 5
                                 Using Sustainable Livelihoods ‘Capitals’ to Create a Matrix of Extension and Rural Development ICT Project Possibilities
                                                    Prepared by Don Richardson, Gartner Lee Limited – drichardson@gartnerlee.com
                                     June 5, 2007 – World Bank / InfoDev Workshop: "Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to Support
                                                                      Rural Livelihoods: Evidence, Strategies, Tools"

                                                                                                  Table 3
                                                                                              Physical Capital
                                                                 The basic infrastructure and producer goods needed to support livelihoods.

Examples and/or Features of       Use or Transformation                  Bottlenecks to Access, Use or                                         Role for ICTs                                    Sustainable Livelihoods
        Capital Asset           Potential of Capital Asset             Transformation of Capital Asset                                                                                                 Outcomes
 Access to transportation         These assets are important Government policies, institutions and programs           See Table 5 on Social Capital - “louder voices” and improving         Increased income which
 Access to secure shelter     for maintaining health           which may not reflect the interests or needs of    human networks and connections                                              is spent on shelter, water
 and buildings                     Poor infrastructure results the rural poor. Appropriate and effective rural         “Dashboard” data systems and feedback tools that enable service and power supplies, and
 Access to adequate water in opportunity costs – income physical infrastructure responds to user                  providers (private or public sector) to monitor key rural service delivery improvements in access to
 supply and sanitation         generation and access to         demands. Where infrastructure is provided,         indicators (usage, revenue, leakage, customer feedback, etc.) for           basic rural infrastructure
 Access to clean and          education or health services can but does not respond to real demand,               established infrastructure                                                  such as potable water,
 affordable energy             suffer                           investments are wasted, maintenance is not              “Universal Access” telecommunication policies and programmes electricity,
 Access to information and        Expensive access to         carried out, and service becomes unsustainable.    are, in and of themselves, important tools in the provision of              telecommunications, and
 communication tools and       infrastructure can decrease the                                                     telecommunication infrastructure services. When farm families have          waste management (water
 technologies                  margins of agricultural and                                                         basic access to telephones, a variety of simple, but important, everyday and solid).
 Access to tools necessary rural enterprises and put                                                              tactics for improving livelihoods are made easier, less costly (in terms of
 for agricultural production   businesses as a comparative                                                         opportunity costs and consumer surplus)
 and other family enterprises  disadvantage in the market
                                                                Sector strategies (transportation, energy,              See Table 5 on Social Capital - “louder voices” and improving
                                                                telecommunications, etc.) which do not include     human networks and connections
                                                                frameworks that address the real conditions of          Improved use of computers and electronic data gathering and
                                                                rural areas, ecosystem health, and provide         transmission tools (including tools that increase decision-maker access to
                                                                mechanisms for the participation of the rural      the voices of the rural poor) to enhance decision-making that might
                                                                poor in the articulation, implementation,          provide appropriate, efficient and cost effective infrastructure
                                                                management and evaluation of strategies.
                                                                Rural community capacity to design,                     See Table 5 on Social Capital - “louder voices” and improving
                                                                implement and manage community-based               human networks and connections
                                                                infrastructure. This is also tied to bottlenecks        See section on Human Capital - access to training and education
                                                                in government policies, institutions and           services
                                                                programmes which may not allow or may
                                                                hinder such infrastructure provision.
                                                                Lack of private sector alternatives to public           See Table 5 on Social Capital - “louder voices” and improving
                                                                sector infrastructure provision. This is often     human networks and connections
                                                                related to impediments to the reform of                 Improved use of websites/tele-education tools on privatization
                                                                managing ministries in relation to                 “best practices” and computerized modeling programs among ministry
                                                                liberalization, privatization and regulatory       officials so that they can learn about and visualize the impacts of
                                                                oversight of private sector provision of           privatization and liberalization policy choices [the Commonwealth
                                                                infrastructure.                                    Telecommunication Organization has developed such tools to enable
                                                                                                                   telecommunication regulators and policy makers to “see” how decisions
                                                                                                                   impact telecommunication access, revenues and service levels; the
                                                                                                                   World Bank has a variety of on-line „best practice” resources‟ in this
                                                                                                                   area]




                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 of 5
                   Using Sustainable Livelihoods ‘Capitals’ to Create a Matrix of Extension and Rural Development ICT Project Possibilities
                                      Prepared by Don Richardson, Gartner Lee Limited – drichardson@gartnerlee.com
                       June 5, 2007 – World Bank / InfoDev Workshop: "Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to Support
                                                        Rural Livelihoods: Evidence, Strategies, Tools"

                                                                             Table 4
                                                                             Natural Capital
  Natural resource stocks from used directly for production, or necessary for sustaining life (air quality, nutrient cycling, erosion prevention, biodiversity, etc.)


    Examples and/or        Use or Transformation              Bottlenecks to Access, Use or                                       Role for ICTs                            Sustainable Livelihoods
Features of Capital Asset Potential of Capital Asset         Transformation of Capital Asset                                                                                      Outcomes

     Destruction,                 Health and well-      Poor access to services and inputs for           See Table 3 on Physical Capital strategies                     Improvements in
degradation and              being depend upon            agricultural production, fishing and agro-                                                                       indicators of sustainable
disappearance of natural     continued functioning of forestry                                                                                                             use of natural resources,
capital are the source of    complex eco-systems                                                                                                                           and natural capital
many of the shocks that            Resourced based                                                                                                                        investment by farm
dramatically hurt the        activities such as                                                                                                                            families themselves and
livelihoods of the rural     agriculture cannot                                                                                                                            appropriate investments in
poor                         function when the natural                                                                                                                     natural capital by various
     Seasonal cycles can    capital of items such as                                                                                                                      levels of government.
change the value or          fertile land are not present
productivity of natural            The presence,
capital over the course of   absence, severe
a year                       fluctuation and
                             degradation of natural
                             capital is often the most
                             significant risk faced by
                             farm families – e.g. rain,
                             drought, floods, soil
                             erosion, etc.
                                                          Impediments to local efforts to conserve        See Table 5 on Social Capital - “louder voices” and improving
                                                          resources and enhance biodiversity through   human networks and connections
                                                          direct actions.
                                                          Government policies, institutions and            See Table 3 on Physical Capital strategies
                                                          programs which might reform the supply of
                                                          services, improve management, access to
                                                          and governance of natural resources

                                                        Lack of or weak environmental legislation         See Table 5 on Social Capital - “louder voices” and improving
                                                        and enforcement                                human networks and connections
                                                        Government policies, institutions and              See Table 3 on Physical Capital strategies
                                                        programs which might improve market
                                                        development efforts and also increase the
                                                        value of agricultural, fishery and agro-
                                                        forestry products




                                                                                                                                                                                        4 of 5
                   Using Sustainable Livelihoods ‘Capitals’ to Create a Matrix of Extension and Rural Development ICT Project Possibilities
                                      Prepared by Don Richardson, Gartner Lee Limited – drichardson@gartnerlee.com
                       June 5, 2007 – World Bank / InfoDev Workshop: "Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to Support
                                                        Rural Livelihoods: Evidence, Strategies, Tools"

                                                                                                 Table 5
                                                                                              Social Capital
                                                Social resources that help people achieve their livelihoods objectives

Examples And/Or Features  Use Or Transformation                     Bottlenecks To Access, Use Or                                           Role For ICTs                                       Sustainable Livelihoods
    Of Capital Asset     Potential Of Capital Asset                Transformation Of Capital Asset                                                                                                     Outcomes

     Networks and                   Relationships,           Lack of policy and program support to                 Training in the use of appropriate and affordable ICTs to advance the Strengthened rural and
connections – vertical (e.g.   networks, connections and       improving the internal functioning of rural      interests and objectives or the organizations that represent the interests of agricultural organizations
patron/client, rural           memberships can lower the       and agricultural NGOs, community based           farm families; Training in the use of appropriate and affordable ICTs to      contribute to measurable
farmer/government official,    costs of working together       organizations, and cooperatives, and;            improve horizontal linkages among organizations that represent the            increases in other capital
etc.) or horizontal (between         With improved            policies that may actually legally prevent or    interests of farm families; ICT support to existing or planned multi-         stock
people/peers who share         efficiency of economic          hinder the formation of rural and                stakeholder initiatives to improve policies and programs
similar interests and          relationships, incomes and      agricultural civil society organizations              Louder voices: enable intermediary and advocacy organizations
objectives)                    rates of saving can increase                                                     which have strong links to farm families (particularly women), to develop
     Membership in                  Social networks can                                                       appropriate ICT integration and use strategies together with modest
formalized groups;             facilitate innovation through                                                    funding to support the implementation of those strategies.
Relationships of trust,        the development of
reciprocity, and exchanges     knowledge and sharing of
that facilitate cooperation,   knowledge
reduce transaction costs and
provide informal social
safety nets
                                                               Lack of policy and program support for               Ditto
                                                               extending the external (horizontal and
                                                               vertical) links among organizations focused
                                                               on enhancing sustainable rural livelihoods

                                                               Lack of government policy and program                 Training and support for the use of ICTs for media advocacy related
                                                               attention to consultation with rural and         to rural/agricultural stakeholder positions on policies and programs
                                                               agricultural civil society organizations

                                                               Lack of access to information and                     Universal access telecommunication policies and programs that
                                                               communication technologies that                  result in affordable access to telecommunication services among farm
                                                               supplement and/or enhance face-to-face           families and the organizations that may represent their interests
                                                               relationships (horizontal and vertical). For
                                                               farm families and the intermediary
                                                               organizations that may represent their
                                                               interests, a key bottleneck is often access to
                                                               reliable and affordable telephone
                                                               connections and Internet connections.




                                                                                                                                                                                                      5 of 5

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:30
posted:9/14/2011
language:English
pages:5