Cleaner Vehicles_ Engines and Fuels

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					                                                            Science for Sustainable Development

                                        Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuels
     Transportation, Environment and Health                                   Canada is a leader in the development of fuel cells and electric
     In Canada, growing use of the automobile has contributed to environ-     vehicles, which can minimize the emission of air pollutants. Electric
     mental problems in some of our major cities. Since 1970, the             vehicles are carving out market niches in areas such as warehouses,
     number of cars in Canada has increased from 6.6 to 13.9 million. This    factories and retirement communities. Hybrid cars, which combine
     represents 1 car for each 1.9 Canadians, and each car is being driven    gasoline engines with electric motors, are now for sale in Canada. Fuel
     further annually. Harmful emissions from gasoline and diesel-powered     cell buses and cars show good longer-term potential.
     engines include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile
     organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)                                           Infrastructure, such as refueling
     and particulates. These emissions contribute to air pollution and                                           stations for alternative fuels, needs
                                                 increase the risks of car-                                      to be further developed. Alternative
                                                 dio-vascular ailments,                                          fuels are potentially in rich supply
                                                 respiratory distress and                                        in Canada. For example, reserves
                                                 premature death. These                                          of natural gas are estimated at 30
                                                 engines are also a signif-                                      times our annual use. The tech-
                                                 icant source of carbon                                          nologies to produce ethanol from
                                                 dioxide (CO2), one of the                                       biomass, including wood, and agri-
                                                 principal greenhouse         cultural products are available. In addition, Canada’s ample supply
                                                 gases believed to be         of clean electricity could form the basis for the development of a
                                                 changing our climate.        strong electric vehicle industry.

                                                                              The Path Forward
                                                                              We cannot rely on technology alone
     New Technologies                                                         to achieve more sustainable trans-
     Improvements in vehicle emis-                                            portation – we also need to change
     sions and fuel efficiency are key                                        our travel behavior and our infra-
     goals for sustainable transporta-                                        structure. There is a need to
     tion research and development.                                           provide alternatives to private
     Thanks to new technologies,                                              car use, such as public transit.
     North American vehicles emit                                             Stringent emissions standards,
     97% less hydrocarbons, 95%                                               environmentally friendly fuels and
     less CO and 83% less NOx than                                            new vehicle technologies can also contribute greatly to minimizing the
     in 1971. Since the introduction                                          health and environmental impacts of vehicle and engine use.
     of the Corporate Average Fuel
     Consumption standard in 1977, fuel efficiency has improved up
     to 30%. These improvements have resulted from:                           The sharing of technology and best practices among the world’s
     • Reductions in vehicle weight;                                          nations can help to minimize these impacts. Cooperation can also
     • Improvements in aerodynamics and automatic transmissions;              promote global fuel standards and help nations to embrace new tech-
     • Reductions in rolling resistance and engine friction;                  nologies. Further research and development of new engines and fuels,
     • Changes to powertrains such as diesel and direct injection             combined with effective standards, can provide a cleaner environment
         gasoline engines for light duty vehicles; and,                       to people around the world.
     • Advances in alternative fuel vehicles.

For information please contact:
Transport Canada
330 Sparks Street
Ottawa, Ontario,             Telephone: +1 613 990-0412
Canada K1A 0N5     

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