Reading Comprehension

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					  Welcome!
  LITERACY ESSENTIALS FOR
 VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

GRADES K-3 VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION



Forsyth County Revised for Grades K-3
           & Presented by
    Gwen Barnett & Daphne Rogers

                 1
2                G ETTING S TARTED
       Craft a name tent with your name and an alliterative
        adjective that describes you.



            Dependable Daphne
                 Generous Gwen

       Choose someone in close proximity to be your Turn
        and Talk partner.
3
          O VERVIEW OF V OCABULARY
                  S TRATEGIES
       Introduction

       What is Vocabulary?

       Choosing Words to Teach

       Direct Instruction of Individual Words

       Direct Instruction of Strategies to Promote
        Independent Vocabulary Acquisition
4
     I NTRODUCTION : W HY I S E FFECTIVE
     L ITERACY I NSTRUCTION I MPORTANT ?

    Nationally

       One in three fourth-graders is reading below a
        basic level, and only 31 % of eighth-graders are
        proficient readers.    (Lee, Grigg, & Donahue, 2007)


    Common Core (CCGPS)

       2011-2012 - Teacher Training
       2012-2013 - Classroom Transition/Implementation
       2013-2014 - Full Implementation of CCGPS
       2014-2015 - Projected Date for Common Assessment
5
    CCGPS I MPLICATIONS FOR L ITERACY
       INSTRUCTION IN G EORGIA

    Focus will be on the PROCESS of using
    knowledge, rather than content.

    Five Key Cognitive Strategies:
    •Problem Formulation
    •Research
    •Interpretation
    •Communication
    •Precision & Accuracy
6   T HE 5 P ILLARS     OF   R EADING


          Phonemic Awareness
          Phonics/Word Study
          Fluency
          Vocabulary
          Comprehension
7          P OPULAR B ELIEFS

       Part of the solution to the challenge
        of increasing reading proficiency in
        adolescents involves confronting
        the limitations of this popular
        statement:
        In grades K-3, students “learn to
        read,” while in grades 4-12, they
        “read to learn.”
 8                      Popular Beliefs
                         continued…
Reading K-3

    Acquire strategies for “decoding” unfamiliar words
    Build “sight word vocabulary” of many thousands of words
    Learn to coordinate skills for fluent reading of text
    Begin extension of vocabulary beyond oral language limits
    Acquire variety of strategies for enhancing comprehension, or
     repairing it when it breaks down
    Develop or maintain a positive attitude about reading and view
     it as an important skill for learning and for pleasure
 9                 Popular Beliefs
                    continued…
Reading 4-12
    Extend “sight vocabulary” to unfamiliar words in
     increasingly challenging text
    Learning meanings of thousands of new words –
     vocabulary expansion
10          Research-based Focus

1. Sight-reading vocabulary must be extended to
   unfamiliar words in increasingly challenging text.
2. Vocabulary, or knowledge of word meanings, must
   expand dramatically.
3. Conceptual knowledge and understanding must grow.
4. Thinking and reasoning skills must increase.
5. Self-regulated use of reading comprehension strategies
   must develop.
6. Motivation and interest for broad and deep reading
   must be maintained or acquired.
      Essential Components of Reading
                       Elementary Level vs. Secondary Level


Component                            Elementary                      Secondary
Phonemic Awareness
                                        
Word Study
                                                                         
                                                                  (Advanced Word Study
                                                                    for SOME students)

Fluency
                                                                           *
                                                         (Fluency instruction for SOME students to
                                                                 promote comprehension)

Vocabulary
                                                                         
Comprehension
                                                                         
Motivation and Engagement
                                                                                            11
12
         T EACHING R EADING IN THE C ONTENT
         A REAS : I F NOT ME , THEN WHO ?


“Teaching reading in the content
areas…is not so much about teaching
students basic reading skills as it is about
teaching students how to use reading as
a tool for thinking and learning.”


     All teachers are teachers of literacy.
                                                        Decoding              Fluency
                                                                                                 HO1
  Print                Phonological
                                                         And/or              & Use of
Concepts               Awareness
                                                       Sight Word            Context
                                                        Knowledge



                                                                                   Automatic
                                                                                     Word
                                                                                   Recognition
              Vocabulary


                                                                                    Language
                                             Background                                             Reading
                                                                              Comprehension
                                                 Knowledge                                       Comprehension
              Knowledge
                  of
               Structure                                                             Strategic
                                                                                    Knowledge



                                      Specific                      Knowledge of
 General
                                    Purposes                         Strategies
 Purposes
                                   for Reading
for Reading

                                                                                                          13
PA Info




          14
Phonics




          15
          Fluency

One definition of read aloud, the
text flows as if strung together
like pearls on a necklace, rather
fluency is the ability to read
aloud expressively and with
understanding. When fluent
readers than sounding halting
and choppy.

                                    16
17   V OCABULARY
18
     I N THIS PRESENTATION , WE WILL :

        Identify Tier 2 words.

        Discuss why addressing vocabulary explicitly is so
            imperative today.

        Learn various avenues for increasing vocabulary in
            young children.

        Learn how to select the most efficacious* words for
            instruction.

        efficacious* - having the power to produce a desired
             effect.
                     W HY IS E FFECTIVE V OCABULARY
  19                  I NSTRUCTION I MPORTANT FOR
                             A LL S TUDENTS ?
•Vocabulary holds the key to understanding many content-area texts.


•Learners often use context clues to develop their understanding as they
read. Using context clues—known words around a difficult word or
concept—to find the meaning of difficult words depends on
understanding those context words (Swanborn & de Glopper, 1999).


•Students who struggle with word meanings do not comprehend text and
require vocabulary instruction to support text comprehension (Baumann
& Kame’enui, 1991). Instructional support in vocabulary is important
regardless of the subject taught.
20




      The limits of my language
     mean the limits of my world.

              ~Ludwig Wittgenstein (1922)
21          R ESEARCH F INDINGS

        Knowledge of individual word
         meanings accounts for as much as
         50-60 percent of the variance in
         reading comprehension .
                           (Stahl & Nagy, 2006)

        Vocabulary is the most important
         single factor in reading
         comprehension, once children have
         learned the alphabetic code.
                           (Scarborough, 2001)
22




     What does it mean
     to know a word?
23




     “Knowing a word is
     more like being able
      to use a tool than it
      is like being able to
          state a fact.”
     (Nagy & Scott, 2000, p. 273)
              (HO3)

Rail – road




                 24
25
        V OCABULARY A CQUISITION
               INCLUDES …

     •Explicit instruction of word
     meaning and strategies
     (connections, visuals)


     •Gradually getting to know a word
     through reading, writing, listening,
     and speaking (many exposures 12+)
26
           L EAST E FFECTIVE
      I NSTRUCTION P RACTICE

     Looking up words, copying
      definitions and memorizing
      those definitions (Scott & Nagy, 1997)
    27                E XPLICIT I NSTRUCTION
                                  What is it?

     Instruction on the meaning of specifically selected words

                     Instructional Recommendations

        Devote a portion of time each day to instruction on specific
         words.

        Provide repeated (as many as 12) exposures to new words in
         multiple contexts.                          (Beck et al., 1982)

        Supplement explicit instruction with opportunities to use
         new vocabulary in a variety of contexts, such as during
         discussion, while writing, during extended reading.
                                                         (Kamil et al., 2008)
28
           H OW DO I KNOW WHICH WORDS
                    TO TEACH ?

    High-frequency words –Fry, Dolch, etc.
                                   (Biemiller, 2005; Hiebert, 2005)


    Tiers of words (Beck et al., 1982)
                Types of Vocabulary
Conversational Vocabulary:                  Words that students learn through
                                            everyday conversation with parent,
Tier 1                                      other family members, and peers.
                                            Examples: happy, walk, about
(Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002, 2008)

Core Academic Vocabulary:                   Words that students may encounter
                                            frequently in their reading and should be
Tier 2                                      able to use in their writing. They probably
                                            already have an underlying concept for the
General purpose vocabulary                  word.
High-utility general vocabulary             Examples: encounter, significant,
                                            advantage

Content-Specific Academic                   Words that refer to new concepts in a
                                            particular content area that are important
Vocabulary: Tier 3                          for students to learn.

Technical Vocabulary                        Examples: pollution, alliance, papacy,
                                            algebraic expression
Academic Language – words and phrases that indicate logical operations and tasks.
Examples: consequently, evaluate, distinguish between.
                                                                                    29
               Three Tiers of Vocabulary Words

                                           Tier 3 Words
                                         Content-Specific
                                         Uncommon words
                                       typically associated
                                      with a specific domain.

                                         Tier 2 Words
                                   Core Academic Vocabulary
                            Appear frequently in many contexts.

                                           Tier 1 Words
                                    Conversational Vocabulary
                                 Words students are likely to know.




(Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)                                        30
              SELECTING TIER 2
31
         CORE ACADEMIC VOCABULARY

Choose words that are:
 Not    a part of students‟ prior knowledge
 Unlikely     to be learned independently
     through the use of context or structural
     analysis.
     Sophisticated and of high utility for
     literate language users; and/or
 Crucial    to understanding the main idea of
     text.
                                 (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)
    32       T IER 3/I MPORTANT W ORDS
    Select words that are the most critical to
     learning concepts being taught in a particular
     content area or discipline

    These words are often thought of as “content-
     specific vocabulary,” or “Tier 3” words.

    Example: monarchy
 33                   T OGETHER
Alexander Graham Bell is known as the inventor of the
telephone. His assistant was named Thomas A. Watson.
Together, Bell and Watson discovered how sound, including
speech, could be transmitted through wires, and Bell
received a patent for such a device. In 1876, the telephone
was officially invented and the first telephone company was
founded on July 9, 1877.
                      Not Tier 1 words
 Important to understanding the text on a deeper level;
      Can be associated with other words students know.
                        T URN          AND      T ALK
    34

    Read the passage below:
                                  FOR        K -3
          Once there was a clever boy who did not appreciate the value
     of money. He loved to spend it. His mother was always telling him
     to be frugal with his money, and not to waste it on things like toys
     that broke easily and candy every day. But he thought things like
     that were just splendid!

           So he kept up his wasteful ways until one day his mother
     forgot to give him his lunch money. He did not have any money of
     his own because he had spent it all on candy the day before. Oh,
     was he hungry! He did not feel so clever then. He was lucky,
     though. His teacher loaned him the money. He appreciated that a
     lot! And from then on, he was much more frugal. He told his mother
     about his splendid teacher when he got home, and how he had
     learned to appreciate the idea of being frugal. He was astonished
     that his teacher would share that with him. “ Ah, you are a clever
     boy, after all,” his mother said.
                       T URN           AND T ALK
    35
                                  FOR   K -3

    After reading, highlight 5 words from the passage that
     you would consider Tier Two words.
        Share and decide as a group.
        Record on chart paper.


    Remember…YOU are the professional.

        There are no “tier” police!
36
             T HE B OY AND HIS M ONEY
           S OME   POSSIBLE   T IER 2 & 3 W ORDS


Tier 2
clever                        frugal
appreciate                    splendid

Tier 3
wasteful   astonished
                        Do we teach before or after?
37




        Now that I know what
      words to choose, how do I
     choose the best strategy for
             instruction?
          FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN
38
             CHOOSING STRATEGIES


Factors to consider:
1. the students we are teaching
2. the nature of the words we decide to teach
3. our instructional purposes in teaching each
   of those words (deeper than the suggested
   basal list)
 Student-Friendly Explanations
          Finish This
                        Student Friendly
Dictionary Definition   Explanations
Clever-



frugal


appreciate



splendid

                                           39
 Student-Friendly Explanations
          finish this
                                   Student Friendly
Dictionary Definition              Explanations
disgusting- to cause to feel      If you say something is disgusting, you
disgust, be sickening, repulsive, think it is extremely unpleasant or
or very distasteful to            unacceptable.
fragile- easily broken,            Something that is fragile is easily
damaged, or destroyed              broken or damaged.
gratitude- a feeling of thankful   Gratitude is the feeling of being
appreciation for favors or         grateful or thankful.
benefits received
loitering – to linger in an        If you are loitering somewhere, you
aimless way; spend time idly       are staying there or walking about
                                   there without any real purpose.
                                                                         40
   41
                  I NSTRUCTIONAL R OUTINE
                  FOR V OCABULARY (HO8)

Step 1. Pronounce and read the word.
a) Write the word on the board or overhead.
b) Read the word and have the students repeat the word. If
    the word is difficult to pronounce or unfamiliar, have the
    students repeat the word a number of times.
c) Examine the spelling


             “ This word is appreciate. What word?”
                    INSTRUCTIONAL
  42                 ROUTINE FOR
                     VOCABULARY
Step 2. Contextualize the word.


In the story, the boy did not appreciate the value of
                         money.
   43
                 INSTRUCTIONAL ROUTINE
                    FOR VOCABULARY

Step 3. Tell the students what the new word
        means, using a student-friendly definition.
Option # 1: Present a student-friendly definition
        a) Tell students the definition OR
        b) Have them read the definition with you.

   “Someone who appreciates a gift is thankful for
   the gift.”
                      INSTRUCTIONAL
   44                  ROUTINE FOR
                       VOCABULARY
   Step 4. Provide an additional context. Students
   can also illustrate the word, making it visual.


“Someone who appreciates a gift is thankful and values
   the gift.”
“An antique appreciates in value through the
  years.”
    45
                 INSTRUCTIONAL ROUTINE
                    FOR VOCABULARY

  Step 5. Check students’ understanding.
  Develop an activity for students to interact with
  the word. For example:
“Say „appreciates‟ if I describe someone who is
   appreciative. Say „no‟ if the person I describe is
   not appreciative.
  46
              INSTRUCTIONAL ROUTINE
                 FOR VOCABULARY

Elicit word use by students.
A person who enjoys getting a gift is _______.


If I do this (rolls eyes and puts the gift down) you
    might think I am _____________.
Talk with your partner. See how many other
  examples you can share.
Vocabulary Activities Selection
            Chart




                                  47
    48                 V OCAB - O -G RAM S TEPS
   1. Select a vocabulary list from a narrative selection that reflects story grammar
    and present it to students by writing the words on the board or using an overhead
    projector.

   2. Have teams of students decide which words give clues to setting, characters,
    problem/goal, resolution, and feelings. Include a “?” category as well.

   3. Discuss placement. Words may typically be placed in more than one category.
    Share knowledge about words.

   4. Make predictions.

   5. Have each student formulate a personal question to answer.

   6. After reading, refine vocabulary. Go back to the selection to clarify or use
    references.

   7. Use in further oral or written work. Students may use Vocab-o-Gram as an
    organizer for summarizing.
                       Vocab-o-Gram                                 (HO12)
Use the following vocabulary to make predictions about….(title, theme, etc.)

(Vocabulary words)

The setting                               What will the setting be like?

The characters                            Any ideas about the characters?

The problem or goal                       What might it be?



The actions                               What might happen?

The resolution                            How might it end?



What question(s) do you have

Mystery words:
                                                                               49
                                 Vocab-o-Gram
Use the following vocabulary to make predictions about The Greyling.

greyling         wail            stranded        sandbar      fisherman    baby townsfolk
grief            roiling seas    shallows       joyously      slough-off   selchie

The setting – townsfolk,        What will the setting be like? Little town by the sea
roiling seas, sandbar
The characters –                Any ideas about the characters? – There‟s a big wail. Maybe the
fisherman, greyling, baby,      fisherman is related to baby. Greyling is a fish.
wail, townsfolk
The problem or goal             What might it be? – Somebody gets stranded on sandbar



The actions                     What might happen? – Fisherman saves baby. Fisherman is saved.

The resolution                  How might it end?
                                Joyously or sad (grief)
                                both sad and happy; bittersweet
What question(s) do you         What happens to the baby?
have?
Mystery words: selchie, slough-off                                                          50
              SEMANTIC FEATURE ANALYSIS
    51
                                (HO13)

   1. Select a category.
   2. List words in category.
   3. List features.
   4. Indicate feature possession.
   5. Add words/features.
   6. Complete and explore matrix.
       52            S EMANTIC F EATURE A NALYSIS

pets (#1)    lives on   lives in   has wings   has fins   has legs   has fur   swims
               land      water                                        (#3)


dog         (#4) +         -           -          -          +         +
fish
hamster


frog
duck (#2)


rabbit
(#5)
   53          S EMANTIC F EATURE A NALYSIS
           Features        Volcanic Islands   Reef Islands


How they form?


How they support life?


Natural resources
available?

Dangers of living there?


Examples
      54     S EMANTIC F EATURE A NALYSIS

Character   gregarious   fun-loving   considerate   candid   disheartened
Traits
Character
Cat


Parrot
                  F RAYER M ETHOD
55                   (HO14-16)

                         M
                    Frayer odel
     Definition in your own words   Facts/characteri




                            Word
     Examples                           Nonexample
56
       Frayer Model Example

     A globe is a spherical     A globe is different from a map
     (ball-like) representation because a map is flat.
                                A globe is different from a
     of a planet.
                                        contour map because a
                                        contour map is not spherical.



                                     globe
          Examples                               Non-examples


     •globe of the Earth                •a map of Georgia
                                        •a map of how to get to a friend’s
     •globe of another planet in a
                                        house
     museum
   57
                   F OUR -S QUARES (HO17)

word                                  examples

               buoyant                                boats
                                                     canoes
                                                    balloons
                                                    bottles

definition                            nonexamples

                                                     bricks
    A thing that is buoyant floats.                  steel
                                                      nails
                                                    marbles

Graves, 2006
   58                      F OUR -S QUARES

word                                   examples/synonyms

               abrupt                                hasty
                                                    sudden
              (adjective)                            quick
 (from Latin “ab” which means “off”               unexpected
   and “rupt” which means “break”)                 surprising



definition                             Non-examples/antonyms

                                                  deliberate
If something happens that is abrupt,                gradual
 it is very sudden and not expected.               leisurely


Graves, 2006
                                 SAMPLES OF VOCABULARY WORD
   59                                         SORTS
                                Ways to Classify and Sort Words:
There are many ways to sort and classify words on a word wall,
     in a literacy center, or in a whole or small group lesson:
Words that start the same (beginning blend, consonant cluster or onset)

Words that end the same (rime) ex. Tip, sip, ship

Words that rhyme. Ex. foam, home

Words that contain the same number of syllables (1, 2, or 3)

Words that are the same part of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.)

Words with prefixes, suffixes

Long words, short words

Words I know, words I think I know and words I don't know at all

Words with long or short vowels

Words with schwa sound

Synonyms, antonyms
                                                               http://www.carlscorner.us.com/Sorts.html
Compound words
60
             S AMPLES OF V OCABULARY
                   WORD SORTS :




     http://www.carlscorner.us.com/Sorts.htm
61
     S AMPLES OF V OCABULARY
       G RAPHIC O RGANIZERS :
                                    What is it?
                                                                   What is it like?
   Concept/Definition               (Category)
                                                                  (Characteristics)
         Map
                                   character
    Non-example:                                                          hero
        •antagonist                                                     leader
                                        Item:
        •adversary
                                  protagonist                     principal role
        •opponent
        •wicked witch                                              champion
           Examples
                        Scout        Harry        Dorothy
                        Finch        Potter
My explanation:
A protagonist is the principal character in a story who is the hero, leader, or
champion and who is opposed by the antagonist. Some examples of protagonists
are Scout Finch and Harry Potter.                                               62
   63                 S EMANTIC M APS
                       Brainstorming
Students offer ideas related to a topic.
                          Mapping
Teacher and students form categories and map the words
into a diagram.
                          Reading
Students read a nonfiction selection.
                   Completing the Map
Teacher and students revisit the map and work together to
refine and expand it.
64




     Volcanoes
65           S EMANTIC G RADIENT


    Helps students attend to gradations among
     words which leads to deeper understanding
     of concepts and the relationships among
     concepts.
 ENGLISH: A RICH VOCABULARY
 SO MANY SHADES OF MEANING
              “A Positive Emotion”
    GLAD           PLEASED       DELIGHTED
 OVERJOYED           HAPPY           CAREFREE
LIGHTHEARTED        MERRY            JOYOUS
   JOYFUL           CHEERY           CHEERFUL
  CONTENT           BLITHE           BLISSFUL
  SATISFIED        BOUYANT           BEATIFIC
  ECSTATIC         EUPHORIC          EUPEPSIC

                                                66
67




     HOT   COLD
68




     HO T   TEPID   CO L D
69




     HOT                TEPID   COLD


           SWELTERING
70




     HOT                TEPID            COLD

           SWELTERING           CHILLY
71
     Activity: Using Gradients



     HAPPY                  SAD
72
            Activity: Word Lines

     LEAST ENERGY                MOST ENERGY




                1.   Meander
                2.   Vault
                3.   Banter
                4.   Berate
                5.   Stalk
                6.   Spectator
                        O THER S TRATEGIES :
    73             V OCABULARY S ELF -C OLLECTION
                        S TRATEGY (HO21-23)
    Students and teacher bring two words to class that they have
     found in reading.

    Each student presents words to the group.

    The group votes on five to eight words to be learned for the week.

    The teacher leads a discussions to clarify, elaborate, and extend
     word meanings. Discussion is critical.

    Students enter their words into personal word logs and create some
     sort of memory and meaning aid (chart, diagram, picture, mnemonic,
     definition frame, etc.)

    Students may create writing assignments, activities, games, and tests
     for practice.

    Max‟s Words is a read aloud.
       DIRECT INSTRUCTION OF SPECIFIC
  74               WORDS:
               CONTENT-AREA TEXT

Definition + Rich Context
catastrophe
A catastrophe is an unexpected event that causes great
   suffering or damage.


The hurricane was a complete catastrophe for the small town
   – homes were destroyed and many people lost their lives.
75         VOCABULARY LOGS (HO24-26)


        Essential parts:
     - word
     - explanation of meaning
     - good context sentence
    76                 V OCABULARY L OG
    prodigious

Definition: If something is prodigious, it is so large in size or
   in amount that it causes amazement.

Book context: Prodigious mounds of hard, dried seeds were
   spread in front of him.

Rewrite: Amazingly large mounds of hard, dried seeds
   were spread in front of him.

New sentence: The trainer gave us prodigious resources for
   our classroom.

Picture clue:
77
78
     V OCABULARY L OG
      F OLDABLE B OOK
79         Turn and Talk
                 “Break”




     How can you apply these strategies to
         your vocabulary instruction?
80   E XPLICIT V OCABULARY I NSTRUCTION



           Direct instruction of specific words

                             AND

              Direct instruction of strategies to
              promote independent vocabulary
                          acquisition


      (Kamil et al., 2008)
                       D IRECT I NSTRUCTION OF S TRATEGIES
  81                        TO P ROMOTE I NDEPENDENT
                             V OCABULARY A CQUISITION
                               What is it?
 Instruction of word meanings through examination of
           different word parts and word families

                       Instructional Recommendation
            Provide students with strategies to make them
                  independent vocabulary learners

(Kamil et al., 2008)
82




              word family
     A group of words formed from a single root word


                        history
                        historic
                       prehistoric
                       historical
                        historian
83




     Developing content-specific,
     academic vocabulary depends
     on a basic understanding of
     Greek and Latin.

               60% of multisyllabic words in
            English texts are of Latin and Greek
               origin and can be inferred by
                   analyzing word parts.
                                    Nagy & Scott, 2000
84
              Basic Terms

    root form: inspector, thermal
    base word: unlikely
    prefix: re-, un-, dis-
    suffix: -able, -ive, -ly
                             } affixes
derivation-a word formed from an existing
word, root, or affix: electric, electricity


                                          85
  20 Most Frequent Prefixes in School Texts

                              inedible (impotent, illegal,
 unable       review
                                    irresponsible)

             enlighten                      inside,
 distrust                nonsense                         overcome
            (empower)                      implant


misguided   submarine      prefix         interrupt       forewarn


  derail     transfer    supersonic      semicircle        antitrust


                                    Analysis: White, Sowell,
midterm     underfed                 and Yanagihara 1989        86
 87             S UFFIX F UNCTIONS

1. Change a word‟s tense (past, future)
2. Show comparisons (er, est)
3. Change words to different forms:
      nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs


See The Source HO pages 45-54
Latin: Some Common Roots (HO27)
 trans   port     able   to carry
 dis     rupt     ion    to break
 pre     script   ion    to write
 re      tract    or     to pull
 inter   cept     ion    to take
 pro     ject     ile    to throw
 de      struct   ion    to build
 con     duct     or     to lead
 dis     miss     al     to send
 sub     vers     ive    to turn
 e       dict            to speak
                                    88
89
90
               B REAKING D OWN W ORDS INTO
  91
                M ORPHOLOGICAL S ENTENCES
                             ( S EE HO 2 8 )


inanimate          in + anim + ate
to not have life       in           anim          ate
                      not            life        have

interruption       inter + rupt + ion
the act of            inter          rupt         ion
breaking            between         break      the act of
between
HO31




       92
93




     What about context
          clues?
     94       5 T YPES OF C ONTEXT C LUES
              L ET ‟ S T RY I T !
              Ecology, which is the study of organisms and
 5 types:        the environment, should be important to
                 everyone.
•Definition
•Synonym                         definition
•Antonym
              She is always courteous; she is polite and
•Example
                 considerate to everyone.
•General
                                    synonym
              We were happy that the slope was gradual
                rather than a steep incline.
                                    antonym
     95                  L ET ‟ S T RY I T !

 5 types:     Landscaping, horse training, and fishing are
                 types of occupations that are done
•Definition
                 outdoors.
•Synonym
•Antonym                         example
•Example
•General      Since the sisters quarrel all the time, their
                 mother wonders if they will ever live near
                 each other.
                                  general
      96
                                 S OME T YPES OF
                                 S EMANTIC C LUES
    Definition        The vole, a small rodent, has a short tail.
    Antonym           Sue was adroit, but Bill was clumsy.
    Synonym           The soup was hot – scalding, in fact.
    Example           Periwinkle was her favorite color.
    General           The room was disheveled. Clothes and dirty
                      dishes were everywhere. Chairs were
                      overturned, and trash littered the floor.

Edwards, E.C., Font, G., Baumann, J.F., & Boland, E. (2004). Unlocking word
        meanings: Strategies and guidelines for teaching morphemic and contextual
        analysis. In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction:
        Research to practice (pp. 159-176). New York: Guilford.
97




     E XPLORE FCRR C ENTER
           M ATERIALS
           WWW. FCRR . ORG
               R EADING   ALOUD TO PROMOTE
  98                     VOCABULARY




•Read Alouds (Modeled, visual, auditory, engaging)

•Reading from Wolf.

•See Holly Lane handout.
   •Trade books
   •Review, and suggest a book introduction.
   •Find a variety of Tier 1, 2, and 3 words for
   vocabulary development.
       E NCOURAGE WORD PLAY AND PROMOTE
  99          W ORD C ONSCIOUSNESS
                 ( I N C L U D I N G T E A C H E R S !)




•Using “Word of the Day” activities-
•www.Freerice.com
•www.wordle.org (Kinesthetic, engaging)

•What are some ways you teach vocabulary?
  •Bulletin Boards
  •Word Walls
  •Competitions (Visual-Engaging)
www.freerice.com




                   100
http://www.wordle.net/   Creating- Word Clouds   101
102
              Vocabulary Wrap-Up
                                     Key Selection Vocabulary
         High-Frequency Vocabulary




                                Wide
                               Reading



                                Domain Specific Vocabulary



      Vocabulary Skills/Strategies
103                 R ESOURCES
         Teaching Vocabulary in All Classroom by Blachowicz &
          Fisher

         Reading Strategies and Practices by Tierney & Readence

         Creating Robust Vocabulary by Beck, McKeown, & Kucan

         Vocabulary Their Way by Templeton, Bear, Invernizzi,
          Johnston

         Teaching Individual Words: One Size Does Not Fit All by
          Graves

         Words Their Way with Struggling Readers by Flanigan, Hayes,
          Templeton, & Bear

         Florida Center for Reading Research www.fcrr.org

         Center on Instruction www.centeroninstruction.org

				
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