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					           Pharmaceuticals
A Mixed Bag: analyzing for PPCPs, waste water
      treatment, and one ugly pharmacy

              Laurie Tenace
               Florida DEP
              NAHMMA 2005
Thanks to my good
buddy Jazz
for helping me
figure out my topics
for this presentation
                                              Coming soon to a
                                              water body near you?!




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                     and follow the directions

Or drop me an email and I’ll send you the link (the easy way)
Today’s topics

• Analyzing for EPOCs or PhACs or Micro
  constituents – different groups have
  different acronyms & focuses
• What happens at the waste water
  treatment plant?
• The legacy of a family-owned pharmacy
                   How much?
    “Typical occurrence is <100ng/L (<0.1μg/L)”
• 1 part/million = .001g/L or
    1mg/L or 1 mg/kg or 4 drops
    of ink in a 55 gallon drum
•   1ppb = .000001g/L or 1μg/kg
    or 1μg/L or 1 pinch of salt in
    10 tons of potato chips
•   <100ng/L (<0.1μg/L) =
    concentration many PhACs (or
    whatever you want to call
    them!) occur =<0.0000001g/L
    or <1 pinch of salt in 100 tons
    of potato chips
        Methods Development
   analytical determination in environmental samples is
            difficult and involves multiple tasks

• Sample collection - possible contamination
• Separation & Extraction
• Concentration
• Detection & Quantification
• Many methods for doing all these things –
 methods development is time consuming &
 expensive – usually for one compound at a
 time
            Analytical Methods
• GC/MS – Gas Chromatography/ Mass
    Spectrometry
•   HPLC/MS – High Performance Liquid
    Chromatography/ Mass Spec.
•   LC/MS – Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spec.
•   Combinations of these things in sequence
•   Different compounds require different analytical
    methods
•   QA/QC – Quality Assurance/Quality Control is
    very difficult
       Obstacles to Analysis

• Test for each compound separately
• Very low detection levels may require
  putting analytical equipment in sequence
• Few labs are capable
• Cost prohibitive
             Pretreatment
• Removal, reduction, or alteration of
 pollutants in industrial wastewater prior to
 discharge or introduction into a domestic
 wastewater treatment facility
      Standard Pretreatment

• Primary – filtration for particulates
• Secondary – oxidation introducing bacteria
     (can also be aerobic)
• Tertiary - chlorination
Advanced Treatment Technologies
• Coagulation/Flocculation
   – >50% removal of PAHs
   – <40% removal of organic chemicals
       • pesticides, steroids, inorganics, industrial chemicals
• Softening
   – 70-90% removal of pesticides
   – <20-40% removal of industrial chemicals and steroids
• Chlorine
   – 70-90% removal of pesticides and other organics
   – <20% removal of inorganics, industrial chemicals
• Ultraviolet
   – >90% removal of pesticides, industrial chemicals, and steroids
   – <20% removal of inorganics
               New Technology
• Activated Carbon – good at removing 17a-
    ethynylestradiol (EE2) but expensive
•   MnO2 – Manganese oxide – also good for EE2, increases
    degradation rate for others
•   Membrane Filtration - semi-permeable polymeric
    membrane - $$$$
•   Membrane Bioreactors – adds bio-substrate – pesticides,
    herbicides, EDCs - $$$$, lots of maintenance
•   Fenton process, Advanced Electrochemical Oxidation
    Process, Phytoremediation – now you’re getting really
    esoteric
AFTER Pretreatment
•   Aerated, Partial Mix Lagoons
•   Anaerobic Lagoons
•   Ammonia Stripping
•   Ballasted Flocculation
•   Chemical Precipitation
•   Dechlorination
•   Granular Activated Carbon Absorption
•   Oxidation Ditches
•   Trickling Filter Nitrification
•   Trickling Filters
•   Etc!
The best way to treat them?
KEEP THEM OUT OF THE WATER IN THE
           FIRST PLACE!
       Laurie Tenace
        Florida DEP
Laurie.Tenace@dep.state.fl.us
       850-245-8759