LOG OF THE PRESIDENT’S TRIP TO RIO DE JANEIRO * * * August 31, 1947 to September 20, 1947 * * * WRITTEN AND COMPILED BY LIEUT-COMDR. W. M. RIGDON, U.S.N. TABLE OF CONTENTS List of President’s Party I to IV The President’s Itinerary V Foreword VI to VIII The Log 1 to 106 The President’s Speech at Quitandinha A1 to A6 The President’s Speech before Joint Session of Brazilian Congress B1 to B5 Toast by President Dutra at State Dinner for President Truman, Evening September 5, 1947 C1 to C3 THE PRESIDENT'S PARTY THE PRESIDENT. Mrs. Truman. Miss Margaret Truman His Excellency Carlos Martins, the Brazilian Ambassador to the United States. Senhora Carlos Martins. Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, U.S.N. The Honorable John R. Steelman. The Honorable Matthew J. Connelly The Honorable William D. Hassett. The Honorable Charles G. Ross. The Honorable Clark M. Clifford. The Honorable Stanley Woodward. Major General Harry H. Vaughan, U.S.A. Rear Admiral James H. Foskett, U.S.N. Brigadier General Wallace H. Graham, U.S.A.F. STAFF Lieutenant Commander William M. Rigdon, U.S.N. Major George J. McNally, Signal Corps, U.S.A. Lieutenant Albert P. Carpenter, U.S.N. Lieutenant Hoye D. Moore, Supply Corps, U.S.N. Captain Thomas J. Burns, Medical Corps, A.U.S. Lieutenant (junior grade) Neal H. Kane, U.S.N. Mr. Dewey E. Long. Mr. Russell E. McMullin. Mr. Jack Romagna. Mr. James E. Long. Chief Electronics Technician's Mate E. A. McGuire, U.S.N. Chief Pharmacist's Mate P. C. Taylor, U.S.N. Chief Radioman J. Hughett, U.S.N. Chief Steward A. S. Prettyman, U.S.N. Chief Steward J. Santiago, U.S.N. Chief Steward B. Licodo, U.S.N. Chief Steward I. Esperancilla, U.S.N. Chief Steward J. Palomario, U.S.N. Chief Cook E. Peralta, U.S.N. Musician first class J. M. Wigent, U.S.N. Photographer's Mate first class D. W. MacAfee, U.S.N. Radioman first class W. J. Smith, U.S.N. STAFF (continued) Radioman first class G. G. Thielke, U.S.N. Radioman first class H. J. Keith, U.S.N. Electronics Technician's Mate first class James Werdel, U.S.N. Electronics Technician's Mate first class M. P. Greaves, U.S.N. Electronics Technician's Mate Second class Earl Long, U.S.N. Staff Sergeant H. E. Lehman, U.S.A. Technical Sergeant W. H. Brown, U.S.A. Radioman third class E. F. Larrabee, U.S.N. Radioman third class R. C. Thomas, U.S.N. Seaman first class (ETM) Albert Stamiti, U.S.N. Steward's Mate first class D. Olembario, U.S.N. Steward's Mate first class S. Pollosco, U.S.N. Stewards Mate second class J. Malapit, U.S.N. SECRET SERVICE Mr. James J. Rowley, Supervising Agent. Mr. Howard S. Anderson, Assistant Supervising Agent. Mr. Henry J. Nicholson. Mr. John T. Gorham. Mr. Gerard B. McCann. Mr. Frank M. Barry. Mr. Roy H. Kellerman. Mr. Frank G. Stoner. Mr. John A. Walters. Mr. Gerald A. Behn. Mr. .Paul T. Usher. Mr. John T. Sherwood. Mr. William F. Shields. Mr. Richard G. Kauffman. Mr. Stewart G. Stout. Mr. Floyd M. Boring. NEWSPAPER CORRESPONDENTS - RADIO CORRESPONDENTS - PHOTOGRAPHERS Mr. Robert G. Nixon, The International News Service. Mr. Ernest B. Vacarro, The Associated Press. Mr. Merriman Smith, The United Press. (continued) NEWSPAPER CORRESPONDENTS. RADIO CORRESPONDENTS, PHOTOGRAPHERS. (continued) Mr. Frank M. Dennis, The Washington Post. Mr. Joseph A. Fox, The Washington Star. Mr. Joseph H. Short, The Baltimore Sun. Mr. Frank Holeman, The New York Daily News. Mr. John M. Fisher, The Chicago Tribune. Mr. Carleton Kent, The Chicago Times. Mr. Windsor Booth, Time Magazine. Mr. David Lu, The Central News Agency of China. Mrs. Elizabeth Mae Craig, The Portland (Maine) Press Herald. Mr. Charles P. Trussell, The New York Times. Mr. Ernest Hill, The Chicago Daily News. Mr. Michael Bradshaw, The Toledo Blade. Mr. James Warner, The New York Herald Tribune. Mr. John Adams, The Columbia Broadcasting System. Mr. Bryson Rash, The American Broadcasting Company. Mr. William Hillman, The Mutual Broadcasting System. Mr. Bjorn Bjornson, The National Broadcasting Company. Mr. Byron H. Rollins, The Associated Press Photos. Mr. G. Bradford Kress, The International News Photos. Mr. M. J. Ackerman, The Acme Newspictures. Mr. Harry Walsh, The National Broadcasting Company Television. Mr. Clarence Ellis, and Mr. Murray Alvey, representing the newsreel pool (Warner's Pathe News, Paramount News, Fox Movietone News, Universal Newsreel, and Metro Goldwyn Mayer's News of the Day). TASK FORCE EIGHTY-FOUR (TF84) (Captain R. L. Dennison, U.S.N., Commander) U.S.S. MISSOURI (BB63) - Captain R. L. Dennison, U.S.N., Commanding. U.S.S. SMALL (DD838 - Commander W. R. Barnes, U.S.N., Commanding. U.S.S. DYESS (DD880) - Commander R. L. Fulton, U.S.N., Commanding. U.S.S. MARQUETTE (AKA95) - Captain R. E. Mills, U.S.N., Commanding. U.S.S. WILLIAMSBURG (AGC369) (Captain C. L. Freeman, U.S.N., Commanding) (continued) Air Transport Command aircraft INDEPENDENCE (DC6 type) Lieutenant Colonel Henry T. Myers, U.S.A.F., Pilot. Major E. F. Smith, U.S.A.F., Co-pilot. Major T. J. Boselli, U.S.A.F., Navigator. Master Sergeant F. J. Willard, U.S.A.F., First Engineer. Master Sergeant F. A. Winslow, U.S.A.F., Second Engineer. Master Sergeant C. A. Horton, U.S.A.F., Radio Operator. Technical Sergeant R. Hughes, U.S.A.F., Steward. Mr. Robert Murphy (Douglas Aircraft Corp.) Special Engineer. Mr. H. E. Lindblad (Douglas Aircraft Corp.) Special Engineer. Pan Air do Brasil aircraft BANDIERANTE (Constellation type Mr. Walter John Jones, Captain. Senhor Jose Oswaldo Machado Pedrosa, First Officer. Senhor Antonio de Marios Bastos Lucas, Navigator. Senhor Thomas Nolas Pamplin, First Engineer. Senbor Jose Carlos de Silva, Second Engineer. Senhor Hiram Maia, Radio Operator. Senhor Vivalio Santora Alves, Second Radio Operator. Senhor Jose Dos Santos Aguilar, First Steward. Senhor Mario Senes, Second Steward. Senhor Anthony Grajirena, Third Steward. Captain Joseph Chase, Latin American Consultant. Air Transport Command aircraft No. 4-9042 (C54 Type) Captain P. B. Mulcare, U.S.A.F., Pilot. THE PRESIDENT'S ITINERARY Travel Via Arrived Place Departed Distance ----- Washington, D. C. 8-31-47 Air 8-31-47 Waller Field, Trinidad, BWI 9-1-47 (2200 miles) Air 9-1-47 Belem, Brazil 9-1-47 (1320 miles) Air 9-1-47 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 9-2-47 (1550 miles) Auto 9-2-47 Petropolis, Brazil 9-2-47 (38 miles) Auto 9-2-47 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 9-7-47 (38 miles) Ship 9-19-47 Norfolk, Virginia 9-19-47 (4964 miles) Ship 9-20-47 Washington, D. C. ----- (171 miles) TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELED - 10,281 miles. FOREWORD Early this summer, President Truman received a formal invitation from President Dutra to pay a state visit to Brazil. At that time, a definite reply could not be made but the President told the Brazilian Ambassador, who delivered the invitation, that he hoped it would be possible for him to accept in the near future. By August, the Congress had adjourned and the President's schedule for the remainder of the summer could then be definitely shaped. So, on August 16th, President Truman announced his acceptance of President Dutra's invitation, and added that his visit to Brazil would be made during the latter part of August, or the early days of September, and that he would proceed to Rio de Janeiro by aircraft and return to the United States in the battleship MISSOURI. After some discussion of the details of the plan by the President and his staff, and an exchange of messages between the President and Secretary Marshall (who was then in Rio de Janeiro attending the Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Continental Peace and Security), it was announced that the President would leave Washington on Sunday, August 31st, and would remain in Brazil until September 7th. This plan permitted him to accept an invitation to address the Rio de Janeiro Conference at its closing session on September 2nd and to review the military parade held September 7th as the feature of Brazil's commemoration of its One Hundred and Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of Independence. Task Force Eighty-Four (Captain Robert L. Dennison, Commander), consisting of the battleship MISSOURI, the destroyers SMALL and DYESS, and the cargo ship MARQUETTE, was assigned for the President's use in connection with the proposed visit. The MISSOURI was selected by the President, personally, for this duty because of his great affection for the ship and because of her historical background. It was on board the MISSOURI that the formal surrender of the Japanese was accepted by the Allied Powers on September 2, 1945. The MISSOURI, SMALL and DYESS departed Norfolk during early August for the Caribbean. After two weeks training operations in the Guantanamo Bay Area, they were sent on to Rio de Janeiro to await the arrival of the President. Their movements were timed to permit arrival in Rio on August 30th. The MARQUETTE left Norfolk about the same time and proceeded independently to Rio de Janeiro. She carried a number of motor launches and small landing craft which were required to augment the boating facilities ordinarily carried by the MISSOURI. The MARQUETTE also had on board the Presidential barge and two White House automobiles.(*) The MARQUETTE arrived in Rio de Janeiro on August 30, 1947. The writer wishes to take this opportunity to extend his thanks to the many persons who helped in the collection of data for the Log that follows. William M. Rigdon, Lieutenant Commander, U.S.N. Washington, D.C., October 23, 1947. (*) It had been determined that the MISSOURI, because of her draft (36’) and her length (887’), could not be placed alongside any pier in Rio Harbor. Plans called for a large scale reception to be held on board the MISSOURI, and also for opening the ship to visitors, so it was evident that ample boating facilities would have to be provided. Six hundred guests were entertained at a luncheon on board the MISSOURI on September 2nd, and some seven thousand general visitors were transported by boat to the MISSOURI during her eight-day stay in Rio de Janeiro. LOG OF THE TRIP Sunday. August 31. 1947 The President, accompanied by Mrs. Truman, their daughter Margaret, Fleet Admiral Leahy and other members of his party, arrived at the Washington National Airport a 9:05 a.m., by motor from the White House. A crowd of more than two hundred was on hand to bid the President bon voyage as he climbed the ramp to board the INDEPENDENCE for his first flight in this new plane. At 9:08 a.m., the INDEPENDENCE (Lieut-Colonel Henry T. Myers, U.S.A.F., pilot) departed Washington for Trinidad in the British West Indies, on the first leg of a flight to Brazil, where the President was scheduled to pay a visit of state. Embarked in the INDEPENDENCE were: The PRESIDENT, Mr. Hassett, Mrs. Truman, Mr. Ross, Miss Margaret Truman, Mr. Clifford, Fleet Admiral Leahy, General Vaughan, Mr. Steelman, Admiral Foskett, and Mr. Connelly, General Graham, members of the President's immediate party; and the Brazilian Ambassador, Senhor Carlos Martins and Senhora Martins, who were making the flight to Rio de Janeiro as guests of the President. Also embarked were: Mr. Rowley, Mr. Nicholson, and Chief Steward Prettyman, personal valet to the President. A chartered plane (Pan Air's BANDIERANTE) had departed the Washington National Airport about two hours earlier (7:20 a.m.) for Trinidad carrying the following named members of the White House staff, newspaper correspondents, radio correspondents, photographers, and Secret Service agents who were to accompany the President. The two-hour start on the President's plane was necessary because of the INDEPENDENCE's faster speed. WHITE HOUSE STAFF Lt-Comdr. Rigdon Captain Burns Mr. Dewey Long Mr. Romagna Mr. James Long T/Sgt. Brown NEWSPAPER CORRESPONDENTS Mr. Nixon Mr. Vaccaro Mr. Smith Mr. Fox Mr. Dennis Mr. Holeman Mr. Short Mr. Fisher Mr. Kent Mrs. Craig Mr. Booth Mr. Lu Mr. Bradshaw RADIO CORRESPONDENTS Mr. Hillman Mr. Bjornson Mr. Adams Mr. Rash STILL PHOTOGRAPHERS Mr. Kress Mr. Rollins NEWSREEL PHOTOGRAPHERS Mr. Alvey (camera) Mr. Ellis (sound) NBC TELEVISION Mr. Walsh SECRET SERVICE AGEUTS Mr. Behn Mr. Usher Mr. Boring Mr. Sherwood Mr. Shields Mr. Stout Mr. Kauffman Mr. William J. McEvoy and Mr. Robert W. Fleming, Pan American Airways representatives, were also on board. Our route took us out to sea from Norfolk and thence southeastward straight to Trinidad. The INDEPENDENCE flew at an altitude of 17,500 feet most of the way and at a speed of 292 miles per hour. While aloft, the President inspected the cockpit and talked with Colonel Myers, and roamed about the plane, visiting with the other passengers. The island of Puerto Rico was the only land sighted during the flight of seven hours and forty minutes. Colonel Myers took the INDEPENDENCE directly over San Juan so as to give the President a birdseye view of the city. The Press plane (Pan Air plane) landed at the U. S. Army airfield (Waller Field, about 20 miles south of the city of Port of Spain, Trinidad) at 4 p.m. to refuel and await the INDEPENDENCE. The radio and newspaper correspondents, and photographers, remained at the airfield until the INDEPENDENCE had landed there (4:50 p.m.), so that they could cover the President's arrival. As the President and his party left the INDEPENDENCE, the President was greeted by His Excellency the Governor, Sir John Shaw (Governor of the Crown Colony of Trinidad) and Colonel A. J. Becker, U.S.A., (Commanding Officer, Fort Read, and senior officer present, American Armed forces stationed in Trinidad). Governor Shaw then presented the following members of the official reception committee: Lady Shaw, Lady dos Santos (wife of the Colonial Secretary), Mr. J. O'Connor (Acting Colonial Secretary), His Honor Mr. Justice Furness Smith (Chief Justice of Trinidad), Mrs. Furness Smith, Brigadier C. E. Morrison, British Army (Commanding General, South Caribbean Area), Miss L. Morrison, Mr. Ellis A. Bonnet (American Consul to Trinidad), Mrs. Bonnet, Mrs. Becker, Colonel John M. Schweizer, Jr., U.S.A.F. (Commanding Officer, Waller Field), Mrs. Schweizer, Captain J. B. Griggs, U.S.N. (Commandant, U.S. Naval Operating Base, Trinidad), Mrs. Griggs, Colonel Erskin Lindop (Commissioner of Colonial Police), Mr. M. D. de Azevedo (Brazilian Consul to Trinidad), Mrs. de Azevedo, Lieutenant Commander Carlton Goddard, R.N. and Major A. O. Bolus, British Army, Aides de Camp to Governor Shaw. The President presented members of the reception committee to Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman and to the other members of his party. The White House had informed Lieutenant General Crittenberger (Commanding General of the Caribbean Area) and Vice Admiral Barbey (Commander of the Caribbean Sea Frontier) that it would not be expected that they come to Trinidad to meet the President. The President and his party stood at attention near the wing of his plane as the American and British national anthems were played by the Colonial Police Band and military honors were rendered by the honor guard. The honor guard was composed of one company of U. S. Air Force personnel, one company of U. S. Marines, a contingent of Colonial Police, and the Colonial Police Band. The President, then, in company with the Governor and Lieutenant Colonel William D. Mochet, U.S.A. (Commanding, 806th Engineers Aviation Battalion, and Commanding Officer of the Guard of Honor), proceeded to troop the line and make a close inspection of the guard. While the inspection was in progress the band played the familiar strains of the "Missouri Waltz". Upon completion of the ceremonies at the airfield, the President took leave of the Governor and other dignitaries assembled to meet him, and, together with Mrs. Truman and Miss Truman, left by motor car for Colonel Becker's Quarters, at nearby Fort Read, where they were to have dinner and rest for a few hours before continuing their journey. By prior agreement, all return calls here were dispensed with. Colonel Becker had graciously vacated his quarters for the occasion so that the President and his family might get the maximum rest in the short time they were to be in Trinidad. Governor Shaw had offered the President the use of the Government House at Port of Spain, and the Pan American Airways had made available their spacious guest house at Piraco. Both offers had to be declined, however, because of distance from Waller Field and for reasons of security. Ambassador and Senhora Martins were quartered in one of the two guest cottages at Waller Field. Admiral Leahy, General Vaughan and Admiral Foskett were assigned the other guest cottage. The remaining members of the President's party occupied cottages (married officers quarters) that had been vacated for the duration of our stay by the regular occupants. Members of the Press and the Secret Service agents accompanying the President were quartered at the Bachelor Officers Quarters at Waller Field. A press room was set up in the Bachelor Officers Quarters for the use of the newspaper correspondents. Special telegraph equipment had been installed in the press room to expedite the transmission of stories filed here. Admirals Leahy and Foskett, Generals Vaughan and Graham, Messrs. Steelman, Connelly, Hassett, Ross and Clifford attended a cocktail party at Colonel Schweizer's quarters at 7 p.m. Later, they had dinner at the Officers' Club, where all the Washington visitors, other than the President and his family, dined. After dinner, some of our group remained at the Officers' Club to listen to a performance by a group of calypso singers brought down from Port of Spain to entertain us. Earlier in the evening these artists had played and sung a brief musical program at Colonel Becker's quarters for the President and his family. Mr. Barry of the Secret Service, who had come to Trinidad on August 23rd to make arrangements for the President's stopover here, was on hand to meet the party on their arrival at Waller Field. Agents Walters and Stoner (of the Secret Service) were also awaiting us here. They had arrived in Trinidad on Saturday, August 30th, via Air Transport Command plane #4- 9042, (Captain Mulcare pilot) which had been sent ahead with a few passengers and the bulk of the Presidential party's luggage. Chief Pharmacist's Mate Taylor, Photographer's Mate McAfee and Musician Wigent also were passengers aboard the baggage plane. All hands, except the Press, were in bed by 11 p.m., as we were scheduled to depart Trinidad at 3 a.m., the next day, to continue our journey on to Rio. It rained intermittently throughout our stay here, and we all soon learned why the houses are built so high above the ground. The equatorial rains come suddenly and often, with no warning at all and by the "buckets full". Monday, September 1st The baggage plane (Captain Mulcare), departed Waller Field for Belem, Brazil at 12:30 a.m. The Press plane (Pan Air) cleared Waller Field at 1:44 a.m. for Belem. Secret Service Agent Barry embarked in this plane to continue on to Rio de Janeiro. At 3:02 a.m., the INDEPENDENCE took off from Waller Field and set course for Belem. Colonel Myers flew it at an altitude of 16,500 feet, and at a ground speed of 292 miles per hour. The route followed took us out over the Atlantic, thence across parts of British Guiana, Surinam, French Guiana and on across the Equator and the wide expanses of the delta of the mighty Amazon. The President was up to witness the magnificent sunrise but we were all disappointed when heavy cloud formations prevented any view of the Amazon. Enroute, we turned our watches ahead one hour to conform to zone plus 3 time. The Press plane arrived at the Pan Air Field, Belem, Brazil, at 7:34 a.m., to refuel. The passengers left the plane to have breakfast ashore. Waiting here to greet the party were Mr. George H. Zentz (the American Consul at Belem) and Mr. Roy H. Kellerman, Secret Service Agent. We were informed by Mr. Kellerman that the baggage plane had arrived safely, refueled, and continued on to Rio. Belem, a city of some 300,000 inhabitants, is the capital of the State of Para. It is situated a few degrees south of the equator on the Para River and about 90 miles from the open sea. The INDEPENDENCE landed at the Pan American air field in Belem at 8:24 a.m. to refuel. There was no ceremony at Belem. The President left the plane only to take a brief stretch and observe the refueling operation. Because of the early hour of his arrival, he was not scheduled to see anyone during this stop-over. Because of their desire to be on the spot in Rio to cover the President's arrival, the members of the Press found it necessary to clear Belem as soon as refueling of their plane had been completed. So, at 8:39 a.m. – fifteen minutes after the President had arrived, the Press plane was airborne, enroute to Rio de Janeiro. Mr. Kellerman took passage in this plane. The INDEPENDENCE departed Belem at 9:14 a.m., and followed a straight-line course to Rio, maintaining an altitude of 16,500 feet and a ground speed of 292 miles per hour. The flight was smooth and uneventful. This route took us across hundreds of miles of trackless jungle. A few widely scattered huts, surrounded by high walls, or an occasional curl of smoke were the only signs of civilization observed until we were nearing Rio de Janeiro. The first sight of the city of Rio de Janeiro was somewhat breathtaking - with its forest of modern sky-scrapers and tall apartment houses, the beautiful white sand and perfect lines of its beaches and the imposing mountain peaks of Pao de Assucar (Sugar Loaf) and Corcovado which overlook the city. The Press plane landed at Galeao Airport, Rio de Janeiro, at 2:35 p.m. Galeao is located on Governor's Island, in the center of Guanabara Bay. The Press group was met by Messrs. Anderson, Gorham and McCann of the United States Secret Service and Mr. McMullin of the White House Transportation Office, who briefed them as to the day's program and as to their accommodations. The passengers were promptly disembarked and placed aboard motor launches, and ferried across the Bay to the Touring Club Landing at Praca Maua - at the foot of Avenida Rio Branco – where President Truman was to be officially welcomed to Brazil. Colonel Myers brought the INDEPENDENCE down at Galeao at 2:57 p.m. -- 28 hours, 49 minutes and 5070 miles out of Washington. Secretary of State George C. Marshall (who was in Rio to attend the Inter-American Conference) was the first to greet the President as he left his plane; next was the Honorable William D. Pawley, our Ambassador to Brazil; and then were Senhor Joaquim de Souza Leao, Jr., Protocol Officer of the Brazilian Foreign Ministry and the Honorable Stanley Woodward, Chief of the Protocol Division of our State Department. Mrs. Marshall and Mrs. Pawley were also at Galeao. The President and the civilian members of his party were attired in formal morning dress as they left the INDEPENDENCE. Vice Almirante Flavio Figueiredo de Medeiros reported to the President at Galeao for duty as his Brazilian Naval Aide; Coronel Jose Bina Machado as his Military Aide; Tenete Coronel Aviador Antonio Joaquim de Silva Gomes, as his Air Force Aide; and Senhor Leao, as his Aide for Protocol. Senhorina Laura de Barros Moreira joined Mrs. Truman as her lady-in- waiting, and Capitao de Mar e Guerra Haroldo Reuben Cox reported to Admiral Leahy as his Aide. Honors were rendered at Galeao by a Brazilian naval guard and band. The President, members of his party, Secretary Marshall, Mrs. Marshall, Ambassador Pawley, Mrs. Pawley, and the Brazilian Aides then embarked in motor launches and, at 3:10 p.m., departed Galeao for Rio. The President, Secretary Marshall, Ambassador Pawley and a few others, rode in the “MARAMBAIA", the private launch of the Brazilian Minister of Marine. The Presidential launches were escorted across the Bay by Brazilian minesweepers. As the President departed Galeao, the guns of the Brazilian battleship MINAS GERAES and the U.S.S. MISSOURI boomed out 21-gun salutes. All Brazilian naval vessels present, as well as the United States ships MISSOURI, DYESS, SMALL and MARQUETTE, were in full dress with their crews at "man-the-rail”. The units of Task Force 84 had arrived in Rio on August 30th. The Presidential party arrived at the Touring Club Landing in Rio de Janeiro at 3:50 p.m. As the President stepped ashore there he was greeted by His Excellency Eurico Gaspar Dutra, President of Brazil, who welcomed him and his party to Brazil. A 21-gun salute was fired in President Truman's honor, from a Krupp field piece located on a nearby dock and manned by a platoon of red-coated Brazilian Military Academy cadets. A military band played our national anthem, which was followed by the Brazilian national anthem, "Hino National". The group then moved on to the Touring Club, where a brief reception was held. The official reception committee included: Senhora Dutra; Vice President Nereu Ramos and Senhora Ramos; President of the Chamber of Deputies Samuel Duarte and Senhora Duarte; Vice President of the Senate Mello Vianna and Senhora Vianna; President of the Supreme Court Jose Linhares and Senhora Linhares; General de Divisao Alcio Souto, Brazilian Chief of Staff; Secretary Francisco D'Alamo Lousada and Senhora Lousada; Minister of Foreign Relations Raul Fernandes and Senhora Fernandes; Senhora Joaquim de Souza Leao, Jr.; The Honorable and Mrs. Warren Austin; The Assistant Secretary of State and Mrs. Norman Armour; Senator and Mrs. Arthur H. Vandenberg; Senator and Mrs. Tom Connolly; Congressman Sol Bloom. The welcoming ceremony over, the combined Presidential parties embarked in a long line of automobiles and departed Praca Maua at 3:55 p.m., for a triumphal procession along the flag-bedecked main thoroughfares of the city. In the number one car of the motorcade were President Truman, President Dutra, Admiral Leahy and General Souto. The route took us up broad Avenida Rio Branco, along Avenida Beira-Mar, Praia do Flamengo, Avenida Osvaldo Cruz, Praia de Botafogo, and finally, at 4:30 p.m., to the American Embassy Residence, which is situated in the Botafogo section of the city. More than one million persons were estimated to have been in the welcoming throng that lined the six-mile route from the waterfront at Praca Maua to the Embassy Residence. Cheering people covered the sidewalks along most of the distance, filling the air with shouts of "Viva Truman". The President waved his hat to the crowds, and finally took a seat on the back of the open car in order to give them a better look at him and to reply more readily to their greetings. Along the route of the procession some 25,000 regular and reserve members of the Brazilian armed forces stood at rigid attention. There seemed to be a band for every block, and each band played both national anthems as we passed. The President's pictures were posted all over the city. Huge signs and banners, such as "Brothers in War, United in Peace", and "Rio de Janeiro Welcomes President Truman" greeted the President wherever he went. Bits of paper fluttered down from the tall office buildings, reminiscent of the ticker-tape showers of Wall Street. At the Embassy Residence, President Dutra took his leave, and transferred to his own car. Then, he and Senhora Dutra left for Catete Palace. President Truman, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, and the other members of the President's party disembarked and entered the residence where they were served refreshments. The President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, Admiral Leahy and General Graham were quartered at the Embassy Residence as guests of Ambassador and Mrs. Pawley, until September 4th when, according to plan, they would move to Laranjeiras Palace as the guests of the Brazilian Government for the remainder of their stay in Brazil. The American Embassy Residence is a large rambling stucco house and is surrounded by beautiful gardens and a high wall. It is situated at 388 Rua Sao Clemente, at the foot of stately Corcovado Mountain. The American Embassy Chancery is located at 147 Avenida Presidente Wilson, in the downtown sector of Rio de Janeiro, about four blocks from the Pan Air Airport "Santos Dumont" and one block from the lower end of Avenida Rio Branco. From the Embassy Residence, Mr. Steelman, Mr. Connelly, Mr. Hassett, Mr. Ross, General Vaughan, and Admiral Foskett proceeded to the Copacabana Palace Hotel, on Copa- cabana Beach, where they were to reside; Lieut-Comdr. Rigdon, Captain Burns, Mr. Dewey Long, Mr. James Long, Sergeant Brown and Mr. Romagna to the Regente Hotel, also on Copacabana Beach; and the members of the Press party to the Gloria Hotel in Botafogo. All members of the Secret Service and plane crews of the INDEPENDENCE and the C54 "4-9042" resided at the Regente Hotel. All were quartered and subsisted as guests of the Brazilian Government during their stay in Rio de Janeiro. At 6 p.m., the President, Mrs. Truman and Miss Truman left the Embassy Residence and motored to Catete Palace, where they paid a formal call on President Dutra, Senhora Dutra and the Senhorina Dutra. They were accompanied by Ambassador Pawley, Mrs. Pawley, Admiral Leahy, General Vaughan and Admiral Foskett. President and Senhora Dutra reside at Palacio Guanabara, on Rua Pinheiro Machado in Botafogo, but most state functions are held at Catete Palace, which houses the executive offices of the President. Catete Palace is located on Rua do Catete near the Praia do Flamengo. As the party was leaving Catete Palace, President Truman paused briefly, called the military band leader over to his car and congratulated him and his band on their splendid rendition of the national airs played in his honor. Ambassador and Mrs. Pawley were hosts to the Trumans at a small dinner in the Embassy Residence at 8 p.m. Other guests present were the Secretary of State and Mrs. Marshall, Admiral Leahy and General Graham. It had been a long and tiring day for all members of our party, so all hands turned in soon after dinner. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Rio de Janeiro is the capital and largest city of Brazil. It has a population of two million and its harbor is considered one of the finest, and the most beautiful in the world. Two imposing peaks stand out in a cluster of mountains that form a magnificent background for the city. Corcovado, the highest (2300 feet), is famed for the huge statue of Christ that rests on its summit. Sugar Loaf (1300 feet) is situated at the entrance to Guanabara Bay and affords a wonderful view of the city and the bay. One is immediately impressed with the natural beauty of Rio's shore line, its ultra modern apartment buildings, its wide avenues with mosaic sidewalks, and its churches exemplifying fine colonial architecture. Rio has a tropical climate generally, but in September it is winter there and the days tend to be cool with mean temperatures ranging in the sixties. There are several U. S. military activities located in Rio. The principal ones are the U. S. Naval Mission, an advisory body for supplying technical assistance to the Brazilian Navy, and the Joint Brazilian-United States Military Commission, another advisory body whose mission is to acquaint the Brazilian armed forces with United States weapons and methods. The communication facilities of the U. S. Naval Mission (direct radio teletype to Washington) were used by our party during their stay ashore in Rio de Janeiro. Major George J. McNally and Sergeants Wolfe and Lehman of the White House Signal Detachment had preceded us to Rio and had established tie lines between the Naval Radio Station and the Embassy Residence, and Laranjeiras Palace. Major McNally's crew also operated the telephone switchboards at the Embassy Residence and at Laranjeiras Palace when the President was in residence at those places. They were assisted by Mr. James Long and Sergeant Brown. Tuesday September 2nd The President arose at 6:30 a.m. and took a brief stroll about the Embassy Residence grounds. He was ready by 8:15 a.m. to leave for Petropolis, where he was scheduled to make an address, at 10:30 a.m., before the closing session of the Inter-American.Conference for the Maintenance of Continental Peace and Security. President Dutra called at the Embassy Residence at 8:20 a.m., and, at 8:30 a.m., the motorcade was off for the Quitandinha Hotel in Petropolis. Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman and all members of the President's staff accompanied him. The President rode in the number one car with President Dutra, Admiral Leahy and General Souto. Petropolis is a city of some 60,000 inhabitants. It is situated approximately 38 miles north of Rio de Janeiro, at an altitude of 2500 feet, and is a popular weekend resort during the hot summer months in Rio. The drive to Petropolis was mostly over a winding mountain road. The road, while paved throughout its length, often extends to the very edge of sheer precipices, some of which are 1500 feet deep. Several recent washouts were still under repair. Quite often we encountered mist or fog which almost completely obscured the view. The view along the road from Rio to Petropolis was one of many contrasts. We passed fine homes. We saw the mud-thatched hovels of peasants clustered along hillsides. We saw a lovely church perched high on a lonely plateau. We saw poinsettias in bloom, banana plants, orange trees, papaya trees, breadfruit trees, and other tropical vegetation, and wide barren spaces too. Goats, chickens and natives scattered as the motorcycle police cleared the way. Hundreds of vultures, flocking in the streets and fields, paid us no heed whatsoever. Our cavalcade was stopped for five minutes at one point and divided when the railroad gates were lowered to allow a two-car passenger train, pulled by a dinky wood-burning locomotive, to pass. The newspapermen and photographers pleaded with gateman to let us pass but he merely paid them a blank stare until his train had chugged by. We arrived at the Quitandinha Hotel, in Petropolis, at 9:55 a.m. A heavy fog almost completely enveloped the hotel so that we did not have an opportunity to enjoy the real beauty of this world famous hostelry or its grounds. Our party disembarked immediately and worked their way through the crowd that had gathered outside for a glimpse of President Truman and President Dutra, and entered the hotel. Once inside, we were ushered to a reception room where refreshments were served. At 10:15 a.m., we proceeded to the flag-bedecked auditorium where the delegates to the Conference and some 2000 other persons awaited the two Presidents. President Truman, President Dutra and Senhor Fernandes (the Brazilian Minister of Foreign Affairs) took seats on the speaker's platform. General Vaughan stood with the Brazilian Aides behind the two Presidents. Seats in a special section of the auditorium were provided for all the other members of our party. The President was introduced to the delegates and to the audience by Senhor Fernandes, the Chairman of the Conference. Promptly at 10:30 a.m., he began the delivery of his address which was broadcast to the United States and to many other parts of the world. (For the complete text, see Appendix A). As he spoke there was polite applause from time to time in the predominantly Latin crowd as one or another caught the meaning of the English words. But the reaction was pronounced when the speech was later read in translation. The President finished his address at 10:50 a.m. He resumed his seat on the stage and remained until the conclusion of the meeting, during which time the Foreign Minister of Colombia addressed the Conference. The Colombian Foreign Minister lauded the delegates for the excellent treaty they had drawn up, and in conclusion extended an invitation from his country to all the countries represented at Quitandinha to come to Bogota next January to continue their excellent work. The Conference adjourned at 11:25 a.m., and, at 11:30 a.m., the President and his immediate party departed Petropolis for Rio de Janeiro. President Dutra and his party returned separately. On their return to Rio, President Truman and his party went directly to the boat landing opposite the Ministry of Marine building, where he was accorded full military honors by a detachment of Brazilian Marines and a Marine band. At 1:10 p.m., he embarked in his barge and proceeded to the U.S.S. MISSOURI. As his barge pulled away from the dock, a 21-gun salute was fired from a saluting battery at a nearby Brazilian naval base. President Truman and his party reached the MISSOURI at 1:23 p.m. As he boarded her a 21-gun salute was fired and his flag was broken at the main truck. The crew was at "man-the- rail". After honors, he and his party proceeded to the Admiral's quarters where they awaited his guests. The President had selected this time and place to be host to President Dutra and Conference delegates at a buffet lunch. The forty minute period until the scheduled time for the luncheon allowed the President and the members of his party a brief rest period and time to freshen up a bit. President Dutra and his official party arrived at 2:10 p.m. The rail was manned, a 21-gun salute was fired, and the Brazilian ensign was broken at the main. President Truman's flag was shifted to the foremast while the Brazilian ensign was flown in the MISSOURI. Some five hundred other guests followed President Dutra and his party. Lunch was served in the wardroom, the Captain's cabin and the Admiral's cabin. Two tables were set in the Admiral's cabin for the two Presidents and a number of the top ranking guests. Seated at the President's table were President Truman, President Dutra, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, Senhor and Senhora Fernandes, Secretary and Mrs. Marshall, Admiral Leahy, Ambassador and Senhora Martins. The other guests ate standing, the overflow filing out onto the main deck and the surrender deck (on the 01 level). The ship was colorfully decorated with signal flags, fronds and cut flowers. Music was furnished by the ship's orchestra. After the luncheon, the President spoke extemporaneously to his guests, who were assembled on the surrender deck. He said: "It certainly is a pleasure to have you aboard the U.S.S. MISSOURI today. Just two years ago the Japanese surrender was signed in front of this podium. Just two years ago today! We didn't arrange it that way. It just happened, and I am exceedingly happy that it did happen on the same date that the conference between the American Republics ended." (The surrender deck is marked by a bronze tablet commemorating the exact spot where the Japanese surrender was signed in Tokyo Bay.) "In January 1944, my daughter, Margaret, christened this ship, the battleship MISSOURI, and the United States Senator from Missouri at that time made the speech dedicating the MISSOURI to the welfare of the United States and the Western Hemisphere. It has had an honorable career. Many things have happened to this ship, and I can't tell you how happy I am today to welcome all of you aboard in the name of the Captain of the Battleship MISSOURI, and in the name of the Commander-in-Chief of the United States Navy. And I hope all of you have enjoyed today, and I hope all of you will continue to enjoy the party which the Captain of the ship has been kind enough to arrange for us. It was a very great privilege for me to come down here to this great city of Rio to see the end of this successful conference which implemented the Treaty of Chapultepec. It is an event. It will show the world that the Western Hemisphere knows how to make peace and how to keep peace." Replying to the President, Senhor Fernandes paid homage to the United States, recalled the important part the battleship MISSOURI played in the past war, and told the President that the welcome he received here yesterday from one million Brazilians represented the position he had "won in the hearts of our people". He added: "We do not have a government which arranges such receptions, thank God". The President then shook hands with and greeted everyone personally. With him in the receiving line were President Dutra, Senhor Fernandes, and Secretary Marshall. President Dutra and his party left the MISSOURI at 3:54 p.m. The Brazilian ensign was hauled down and the President's flag was shifted from the foremast to the main truck. President Truman, accompanied by his family and his staff, left the MISSOURI at 4:25 p.m. As his barge pulled away from the side, a 21-gun salute was fired and his flag was hauled down. At 4:35 p.m., as he stepped ashore at the Ministry of Marine Landing, the Brazilian battleship INAS GERAES fired a 21-gun salute in his honor. On reaching shore, the President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, Ambassador Pawley and Admiral Leahy returned to the American Embassy Residence. At 7 p.m., Miss Truman, Mr. Steelman, Mr. Connelly, Mr. Hassett, Mr. Ross, Mr. Clifford, General Vaughan, Admiral Foskett and General Graham left the Embassy Residence for Senhor Guinle's penthouse apartment, where they attended an informal reception given by Senhor and Senhora Guinle in honor of Miss Truman. At 8 p.m., the President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, Admiral Leahy and General Graham were the guests of Ambassador and Mrs. Pawley at dinner. The Treaty of Rio de Janeiro was signed at 5 p.m. in Itamaraty Palace (the Brazilian Foreign Office, on Rua Marechal Floriano). President Truman, following protocol, did not participate but left this ceremony to Secretary Marshall. Nineteen American republics signed the Treaty. Nicaragua and Ecuador were not present as their governments are not recognized by the other countries. The Dominican Republic was the first to sign. The United States was seventeenth. The order was established by drawing at the beginning of the Conference and had no significance. Secretary Marshall, Mrs. Marshall, Assistant Secretary of State Armour, Mrs. Armour, Mr. Austin, Mrs. Austin, Senator Vandenberg, Mrs. Vandenberg, and several others departed Rio in the INDEPENDENCE at about 10 p.m., to return to Washington. (Colonel Myers made the return trip in 16-1/2 hours flying time, setting a new record for the flight between the two cities. A stop at Trinidad to refuel was the only break in the 5000 mile trip.) Wednesday. September 3rd. There were no official activities scheduled for Wednesday. This was planned so that the President, his family and his staff might have opportunity to rest and relax and refresh themselves after their long journey and the two busy days in Rio. The President spent a very quiet day at the Embassy Residence. During the forenoon he and General Graham went for a long walk about the spacious gardens and grounds, climbing part way up the side of steep Corcovado Mountain, at the rear of the Embassy Residence, in search of orchids which grow wild there. Their orchid hunt was widely publicized by the press in the United States and it was not long before orchids were forthcoming from as far away as New York City. General Graham took back to Washington several orchid plants that had been sent to the President by Brazilian admirers. During the afternoon, the President and Mr. Clifford worked on the speech he was to deliver before a Joint Session of the Brazilian Congress next Friday. Mrs. Truman and Margaret went shopping for souvenirs. Admiral Leahy was the guest of honor at a luncheon at 1 p.m., given at the Club Navale (180 Avenida Rio Blanco) by Admiral Silvio de Noronha, the Minister of Marine. Among the other 98 guests present were Ambassador Pawley, Ambassador Martins, General Souto, Rear Admiral Leland P. Lovette (Head of the U. S. Naval Mission to Brazil), Rear Admiral Paulus P. Powell, Retired, (Manager of the Rio Division of Pan American Airways), Rear Admiral Foskett, Brig. Gen. Richard E. Nugent (U. S. Military Attache, Rio), Captain W. R. Cooke (U. S. Naval Attache, Rio), Captain R. L. Dennison (Commanding Officer, U.S.S. MISSOURI) Captain Ralph E. Mills (Commanding Officer, U.S.S. MARQUETTE), Comdr. John B. Colwell (Executive Officer, U.S.S. MISSOURI), Comdr. William R. Barnes (Commanding Officer, U.S.S. SMALL), Comdr. R. L. Fulton (Commanding Officer, U.S.S. DYESS), and Lieut-Comdr. Rigdon. At a surprise ceremony before the luncheon, Admiral Leahy, Admiral Foskett, Captain Dennison, Captain Mills, Commander Colwell, Commander Barnes, Commander Fulton and Lieut-Comdr. Rigdon were decorated by the Brazilian Navy. Admiral Leahy Order of Naval Merit, Order of the Grand Cross Admiral Foskett Order of Naval Merit, Degree of Commander Captain Dennison Order of Naval Merit, Degree of Commander Captain Mills Order of Naval Merit, Degree of Commander Commander Colwell Order of Naval Merit, Degree of Officer Commander Barnes Order of Naval Merit, Degree of Officer Commander Fulton Order of Naval Merit, Degree of Officer Lt-Comdr. Rigdon Order of Naval Merit, Degree of Officer All presentations were made by Admiral de Noronha. The Trumans had a quiet dinner at the Embassy Residence. Afterwards, Miss Truman, accompanied by General Graham and the two Senhorita Dutra attended the Opera "Tosca". Just before the second act started, the President, Ambassador Pawley and Admiral Leahy surprised Miss Truman and her party by dropping in unannounced and joining them in their box for the remainder of the opera. Mrs. Truman spent the evening at the Residence. Thursday, September 4th. Except for a formal dinner in the evening, Thursday was also free of official engagements for the Trumans. A light rain kept the President indoors throughout the morning, so he and General Graham had to forego their planned hike up Corcovado in search of more orchids. The President spent some time this forenoon working with Mr. Clifford on his speech for Friday. The President and his family lunched at the Embassy Residence as guests of Ambassador and Mrs. Pawley. Others present included Admiral Leahy, Mr. Steelman, Mr. Clifford, Mr. Connelly, Mr. Hassett, Mr. Ross, Mr. Stanley Woodward, General Graham, a Mr. Fenwick and a Mr. Donnelly. Late in the afternoon the President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, Admiral Leahy and General Graham were moved to Laranjeiras Palace, to be the guests of the Brazilian Government for the remainder of their stay in Rio. Senhor D. P. Ribeiro de Lessa, representing the Brazilian Foreign Ministry, and Senhor Olavo Redig de Campos, the palace engineer, were at the front door to greet the First Family on their arrival, and formally turn the palace over to them. Laranjeiras Palace is situated in the Federal District of Laranjeiras in Rio de Janeiro. This palace is the official government residence used solely for the purpose of accommodating visiting foreign Heads of State (like Blair House in Washington). General Vaughan and Admiral Foskett moved from the Copacabana Palace Hotel to join the President at Laranjeiras. There was insufficient room there to accommodate the other members of the President's staff. Laranjeiras, although more than 36 years old, still retains considerable splendor and is a real show place. Senhor de Lessa told us that it was privately built and furnished in 1911 at a cost of eight million dollars. It was acquired by the Brazilian Government about ten years ago. It is situated atop a hill, with spacious and beautiful terraced gardens surrounding it on all sides. Corcovado Mountain, which is close by, adds to the beauty of its setting. There are two suites and three bedrooms in the guest wing. The President, Mrs. Truman and Miss Truman occupied the first floor suite and bedroom; Admiral Leahy the second floor suite; General Vaughan and Admiral Foskett one of the second floor bedrooms and General Graham the other bedroom. The bathroom on the first floor (used by the President and his family), with its hand carved marble bathtub, washstand, foot bath and bidet, is the real "show place" of the palace. Lieut-Comdr. Rigdon spent most of the day on board the MISSOURI completing arrangements for the reception of the President's party on board Sunday, September 7th. Admirals Leahy and Foskett attended a party at the Navy Club early in the evening at which officers of the Brazilian Navy were hosts to officers of our Navy. A general invitation had been issued to all commissioned personnel present and, while the weather was decidedly bad - a pouring rain - a large crowd was present and treated to a very enjoyable time. It was a shame that the weather was so bad because the Brazilian Navy had gone to great trouble and expense to put on this party. The party was held at their "Country Club" which is situated on the Lagoon at Piraque and is a truly lovely place. The President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman and Admiral Leahy motored to Catete Palace where, at 8 p.m., they were guests of honor at a small dinner given by President and Senhora Dutra. About thirty guests attended. After dinner a number of additional guests were invited to meet them. On his return to Laranjeiras Palace, about 11:30 p.m., the President brought with him a gorgeous, four-foot orchid centerpiece which had been used as the table decoration for the dinner at Catete Palace. He took it to General Graham's room, awakened him from a sound sleep and made him a present of the orchids. The General was so thrilled and pleased that he arose and spent the greater part of the night admiring the beautiful blooms. A general rain prevailed all day and far into the night. It was most unfortunate for the group that attended the Navy party at Piraque, for the party was to have been primarily in an outside setting. However, none of the others seemed to care particularly. It gave them an opportunity to see for themselves "What they do on a rainy night in Rio". Friday, September 5th. It was still drizzling rain when the President arose but he braved the weather for a brief stroll about the Palace grounds. After breakfast with his family, he spent most of the remainder of the morning putting his speech into final shape for delivery before the Joint Session of the Brazilian Congress in the afternoon. The Presidential family were hosts to Ambassador and Mrs. Pawley at lunch at 1 p.m. Admiral Leahy, General Vaughan and General Graham also attended. Admiral Foskett joined Captain Dennison on board the MISSOURI at a luncheon in honor of Admiral de Noronha, the Brazilian Minister of Marine. The President, accompanied by Mrs. Truman, Margaret, President Dutra, Senhora Dutra, Ambassador Pawley, Mrs. Pawley, Admiral Leahy, General Vaughan and Admiral Foskett left Laranjeiras at 3:30 p.m. and motored to Palacio Tiradentes, where at 4 p.m. President Truman spoke to a Joint Assemblage of the Members of the Brazilian Congress. The other members of the President's staff went directly to Tiradentes from their quarters. Palacio Tiradentes was packed from wall to wall, to the top gallery. Besides the Senators and Deputies, many delegates from the Quitandinha Conference were in attendance, as well as diplomats representing many countries and many high ranking Brazilian government and military officials. Students from Bennett College in Rio were assembled in the top balcony, and when the two Presidents entered, they sang - first “The Star Spangled Banner", and then the Brazilian national anthem. Before the two Presidents entered, Mrs. Truman and Margaret arrived and took seats at the side of the hall while all of the Congressmen and visitors enthusiastically applauded. The ovation President Truman received as he walked the length of the chamber to the speaker's platform was the most prolonged yet accorded him during his visit. But even this was to be outdone when he began his speech. He was forced to stand for several moments acknowledging the applause before he could continue. The text of the President's address is given in Appendix "B”. After the session was closed, President Truman and President Dutra remained at the. Congressional Hall, where they witnessed the unveiling of a plaque commemorating President Truman's visit to Brazil, and then President Truman received the Members of the Congress. Afterwards, they went to the Supreme Court chambers where President Truman was introduced to the Justices. At 8:10 p.m., the President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, Admiral Leahy, Mr. Steelman, Mr. Connelly, Mr. Hassett, Mr. Ross, Mr. Clifford, Mr. Woodward., General Vaughan, Admiral Foskett, General Graham, Lt-Comdr. Rigdon, and Mr. Joseph Short (of the Baltimore Sun, but representing all newspaper correspondents on this occasion) left Laranjeiras, in company, by motor car for Itamaraty Palace where they attended a formal state dinner given by President and Senhora Dutra in honor of President and Mrs. Truman. There were about 110 other guests present, including Senator and Mrs. Tom Connolly, Congressman Sol Bloom, diplomats representing most of the Latin American countries, and many high ranking Brazilian government and military officials and their ladies. The menu for the dinner was: Caviar Frais du Volga sur Socle; Consomme Double en Tasse Trevise; Delices de Soles Ambassadeur; Sauce Crevettes Roses; Faisan Roti au Nid en Volliere Chasseresse; Champignons de Paris Grilles Careme; Pommes d'Amour; Souffle Glace Washington; Sauce aux Fraises des Bois; Panier de Friandises; and Cafe. During the dinner President Dutra offered a lengthy toast, to which President Truman replied. The text of the toast and the reply are recorded in Appendix "C". After dinner the guests retired to the courtyard, where they were entertained at an elaborate musical spectacle which included ballet, folk dances, grand opera and a symphony orchestra. Clair de Lune, Meditacao, Danca Ritual do Fogo, Danca das Horas, Tico-Tico no Fuba, Rhapsodia Hungara, Albgria na Roca and Batuque were some of the numbers on the program. The orchestra was under the direction of Senhor Carlos Gomes, Brazil's foremost composer. The choreography was under the direction of Yuco Lindberg and Vaslo Veltchek. The stage was set at one end of a long reflection pool and the courtyard was cleverly lighted by dim vari-colored lights, which lend added color to the tropical setting. Some one thousand or more additional guests, who included a large representation of Rio de Janeiro's society, attended the reception that followed the dinner. There were many beautifully gowned women present. As at all other formal functions, the civilian male guests were in formal evening attire and Brazilian military personnel were in full dress. Our military personnel were in service dress, with the naval group wearing black bow tie. The two Presidents and a number of the principal guests were seated under a canopy at the far end of the pool from the stage. Other guests occupied seats along each side of the pool or along the patios and balconies facing the pool. The musicale was followed by a buffet supper and dancing. After the musical program, President Truman and President Dutra visited the second floor rooms overlooking the stage, where they were served refreshments. President Truman and his party took leave of their hosts at 1 a.m., and departed by motor for Laranjeiras. They arrived there at 1:20 a.m., said their goodnights and dispersed for the night. Saturday, September 6 The President slept for an extra hour this morning. After breakfast with his family, he, together with General Vaughan and General Graham, took a stroll about the Palace grounds. At 9:45 a.m., the President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, Admiral Leahy, Admiral Foskett and General Graham departed Laranjeiras and motored to the American Embassy Residence. They were joined there by Ambassador Pawley and Mr. Woodward. At the Embassy Residence, the President received Mr. Herbert Moses, President of the Brazilian Press Association, and a committee of nine associate officers. Afterwards, he received the members of our Embassy and Consular staffs on duty in Rio de Janeiro. The President left the residence at 10:25 a.m., and went to the Embassy grounds, where he was introduced to an assemblage of about 1500 members of the American Colony of Rio de Janeiro. Mr. Ralph Motley, President of the Colony, made the introduction. After acknowledging their greetings, the President made a brief address, during which he told them: “Mr. President, Mr. Ambassador, distinguished guests and members of that colony which you call the American Colony, made up of citizens of the United States of America. "It is a pleasure for me to be with you here today. I had the privilege in Mexico City of addressing those citizens of the United States who are in Mexico; and it is a great privilege to me to address those citizens of the United States who are in this great country of Brazil. "You are our ambassadors of good will. We can have the finest Ambassador in the world to represent us officially in Brazil, but you are the people who represent us to the Brazilian people. They make up their minds as to just the sort of people we are when they talk with you, when they transact business with you, and when they associate with you. And from what I can see, I think we are well represented in Brazil. "This great Republic of ours in the north has had to assume a lot of responsibilities since 1917 and 1918. We refused at that time to assume the responsibilities which God Almighty intended us to assume. It was finally thrust upon us because we could not dodge them. When Franklin Roosevelt organized the United Nations, and insisted on the organization of those organizations which go to make up the United Nations, before World War Two was over, that was the step in the direction which will make more for world peace than any other thing that can happen in the history of the world. We must assume our responsibilities, but in assuming those responsibilities we must have the help of the Western Hemisphere, and that is why this Conference was held here in this great country of Brazil. This country has more untapped resources than any other country in the world, and I say that advisedly. I have been informed by authorities on whom I think I can rely, that this country can support 200 million people with the highest standard of living that has ever been known in the history of the world. "Now, we want the friendship of all these countries in the Western Hemisphere, and in order to get that friendship, you must help us, you must help your country to do those things which we like to have done at home, where the situation is in reverse. That is why I am down here. That is why I came to this Conference. I am exceedingly anxious to see this Western Hemisphere as a team working together for world peace in the support of the United Nations, which is the only hope we have for peace in the world. “I certainly appreciate your kindness and cordiality in coming out this morning, and I appreciate the Brazilian weather for allowing us to stand out here (laughter). You know, for the last two or three days we have been having California weather (laughter). Weather that is unusual, so I am told, both in Brazil and in California. But I have enjoyed it just the same, and I hope it will be my privilege, some time when I am not President of the United States, to come back to Brazil and really get a chance to see that part of it that I want to see. Thank you very much.” On completion of his address, the President thrilled the children in the crowd by reaching into a group and shaking hands with a number of them. At 11:40 a.m., the President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, Ambassador Pawley, Admiral Leahy, Mr. Ross, Admiral Foskett and General Graham left the Embassy Residence by motor car for a sightseeing tour of the city. They were shown the Copacabana, Ipanema, Lablon, Alto Boa Vista and Gaveo sections. The tour was concluded at the lovely country home of Senhor Erneśto Garcalves Fontes, situated high in hilly Gaveo. President Truman and his party were joined at the Fontes home by President Dutra and several others who accompanied him. The combined groups lunched there as the guests of Senhor and Senhora Fontes. The Fontes were most entertaining hosts and the occasion was greatly enjoyed by all those who attended. While proceeding up the mountain to the Fontes home, our motorcade encountered a muddy stretch of road which caused some of the motorcycle escorts to skid. This skidding forced the driver of the President's car to stop in the center of the road. The motorcycles were stopped and moved to the side of the road, but when the President's car endeavored to move forward again it was found that the rear wheels could not make traction on the slippery road. Instead of moving forward, the rear of the car slid slowly to the left side of the road and came to rest against the stone curbing. This happened very gently and did not alarm the passengers, nor was the automobile damaged in any way. Both passengers remained seated in the open car, while several Brazilian military police and some of our Secret Service men took positions at the rear of the car and pushed to get it started again. The motorcade was on its way again after not more than five minutes delay. One enterprising news photographer rushed up and made a picture of the President's car resting against the curbing. It was radioed to the United States and the incident greatly exaggerated and sensationalized in our press as a dangerous accident. After the party at the Fontes home, President Truman and those accompanying him returned to Laranjeiras. The return journey was made via a different route. As the President reached Laranjeiras Palace at 4:15 p.m., he found the military police of Companhia Policia Exercito 150 (Captain Manael Luis Machada, Commanding Officer) drawn up in the court yard for his inspection. Even though it was raining lightly at the time, the President took advantage of this opportunity to inspect them. After trooping the line in company with General Zenobia de Costa (Military Commander of the Rio Area), and Captain Machada, the President spoke briefly to the members of the guard. He told them: “I am very happy to have had the privilege of inspecting you officially, as President of the United States. I want to express to you my thanks, and to this great country which you represent, for all the courtesies you have extended to me." He then went on to compliment them on their splendid appearance and to thank them for taking such excellent care of him. This military police company was assigned to guard President Truman during his residence in Brazil. General da Costa, who was Deputy Commander of Brazilian Expeditional Forces in Italy, replied to the President's address. He told the President: "It is a privilege and a great honor for the police of the Federal Region to have entrusted to them the mission of guarding the President of the United States. Immediately after the war, upon visiting General Clark in Salzburg, I went to Berlin and there I saw the most magnificent troops I have ever seen in my life, a company of American parachute troops. I was inspired by those magnificent troops." The President added: "I had the privilege of inspecting them, too, and they were a fine bunch of troops. No better than yours, sir. Thank you." The President's remarks were translated to the men of the guard as he spoke. Dorothy L. Lau , WAVE yeoman first class, White House courier, was waiting at Laranjeiras with official mail for the President. She had arrived in Rio by Pan Air plane this morning. Miss Lau was quartered at the Copacabana Palace Hotel during her stay in Rio de Janeiro. The President had only a short stay at his quarters, as he and Mr. Ross left Laranjeiras at 5:15 p.m., and motored to the A.B.I. (Brazilian Press Association) building in downtown Rio. On arrival there, they were greeted by Mr. Herbert Moses. In the assembly room, on the fifth floor, the President received the members of the Brazilian Press Association and afterwards made a brief address to them. He told them: “I would like very much to say a word to you gentlemen, and ladies. I want to say to you that I appreciate most highly all the courtesies which the press of this great country has extended to me. You have been exceedingly kind. You have been exceedingly careful. Your treatment of the visitors from the United States, and all of us, has been just as nice as it could possibly be. You have really made me welcome. You have really made my party welcome, and you have helped to do the thing that I came down here to do: cement the friendship between Latin American Republics and the United States of America. “I was particularly pleased when I found it possible to pay a special visit to the great Republic of Brazil. As I said before, Brazil and the United States are in a similar position, both have been carved from the wilderness, both are Republics who share in the rights of man and the individual. They are both working for the same end. "I can't tell you how very much I have enjoyed the visit here, and how very happy I am that I came. And you gentlemen have contributed very materially to it." By prior agreement, no questions were asked of the President. The President and Mr. Ross left the Press Building at 5:45 p.m. and were back at Laranjeiras at 6 p.m. At 8 p.m., the President, accompanied by Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, Admiral Leahy, Mr. Steelman, Mr. Connelly, Mr. Ross, Mr. Clifford, General Vaughan and Admiral Foskett left Laranjeiras by motor car for the American Embassy Residence where the President and Mrs. Truman entertained at a state dinner in honor of President and Senora Dutra. Mr. Hassett was not feeling up to par and did not attend, nor did General Graham. Mr. Robert Nixon attended the dinner as the representative of the American Press. During the course of the dinner the President offered the following toast to President Dutra: "I wonder if I may do this in Washington style and custom, since tonight this is the White House in Washington, and the President of Brazil and Mrs. Dutra are guests of the President of the United States. “On our arrival here, the President and Mrs. Dutra met us at the dock, and took us on a ride through this magnificent city of Rio de Janeiro to a welcome I don't think was ever equaled anywhere. As I said last night, I have been to Mexico City, to Ottawa, to New York, to Chicago, to San Francisco, to my home town - where I really ought to get a welcome; I never had one like this. I never had one like it. "The expression last night by His Excellency the President, and by the people of Rio de Janeiro, and by the Congress of the great Republic of Brazil, shows that the United States of America and Brazil are friends from the beginning, and as I said to the Congress yesterday, life- long friends; and I know that they are going to continue to be life-long friends. “I sincerely hope, Mr. President, that you and Mrs. Dutra and your lovely daughters, and your son, will pay us a visit in Washington. We can come nowhere near giving you the cordial welcome that. you have given us, but we will do the very best we can and give you what we have, to show you that the United States, as it was in 1822, is still the very good friend of Brazil. “Ladies and gentlemen, the health of the President of Brazil! May he have long life and continue to run Brazil as successfully as he has today!" At the conclusion of the dinner the President awarded the Legion of Merit (degree of Chief Commander) to President Dutra for his brilliant capabilities during World War II and his unswerving allegiance to the interests of hemispheric solidarity. He also presented him a silver- framed autographed photograph. A reception, attended by several hundred additional guests, followed the dinner. The President and his group left the Embassy Residence at 12:40 a.m. They arrived at Laranjeiras at 12:55 a.m., said their goodnight and retired. Miss Truman declined an invitation to sing in a special broadcast over Radio Globo (Rio de Janeiro). It was reported that the sponsor offered her the highest salary ever offered for a broadcast in South America. Sunday, September 7th. The President was up early this morning and took a long walk about the Palace grounds. After breakfast, he acted on the official mail which had been delivered to him yesterday, and then handed it to Lieutenant-Commander Rigdon for dispatch to Washington. All hands had assembled at Laranjeiras by 7:45 a.m., so as to be able to leave in a group for downtown Rio, where we were to witness the Brazilian Independence Day parade. Our personal baggage had been made ready for transfer before we left our hotels, as we were to proceed directly to the MISSOURI upon conclusion of the parade. At 8:15 a.m., all members of the President's party, except the President and Admiral Leahy, left Laranjeiras by motor car for the official reviewing stand, which had been set up on Avenida Presidente Vargas, directly in front of the Ministry of War Building. The city was jammed with troops, and onlookers. Infantrymen, cadets, cavalrymen, tanks and mechanized forces were on the move, forming up for the parade. Our progress across and down town was tediously slow and had it not been for our military police escort we would never have made our way to our destination. President Dutra and his Chief of Staff called at Laranjeiras for President Truman and Admiral Leahy at 8:30 a.m., and they left in company for the reviewing stand. They proceeded via a route which took them along Praia de Botafogo, Avenida Osvaldo Cruz, Praia do Flamengo, Avenidas Beira-Mar, Rio Branco and President Vargas. From their open car, the two Presidents were able to inspect many of the units that were lined up, waiting to take part in the parade. As they passed down the crowded streets, President Truman and President Dutra were accorded ovation after ovation by the happy populace. The two Presidents arrived at the Presidential reviewing stand at 9:45 a.m. and took their places. The stand was replete with color -- with the sea of formal dress, the military and naval uniforms heavily bedecked with gold braid, and the red robes of Cardinal Dom Jayme Camara. President Truman and the civilian members of his staff wore formal morning dress. President Dutra was dressed in the bright blue full dress uniform of a major general of the Brazilian Army. The threatening weather of the past few days had cleared. The day was bright and warm; perfect for the occasion. The President saw Rio de Janeiro at its gayest. The parade was underway at 9:50 a.m. The leading unit was the U. S. Navy band from the MISSOURI. Next were detachments of Marines and Bluejackets, also from the MISSOURI. This gesture was considered a signal honor to President Truman and to the United States, as it is very rarely that forces of a foreign nation are permitted to march under arms in any country in this part of the world. This great military spectacle, commemorating the 125th Anniversary of Brazil's Independence from Portugal, required three full hours for all units to pass in review and was undoubtedly the most colorful thing of its kind ever witnessed by any of our party. More than 35,000 members of the Brazilian armed forces - regulars and reserves, participated with precision and pomp. They were garbed in uniforms of all colors, from picturesque costumes of the period of Emperor Dom Pedro (golden dragoon helmets, scarlet tunics, white trousers and knee high black boots) to the forest green garb of their present day regular army. Mounted troops pranced their steeds to the strains of martial music. There seemingly was an endless procession of bands. One band was at all times arrayed in front of the reviewing stand, playing steadily. As another came along in the procession and took its place, this band would move on. We saw modern guns, light and medium tanks, jeeps, ducks, trucks and personnel carriers paraded by - equipment obtained from the United States under lend-lease. The armoured motorized divisions which participated, were veterans of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force which fought with General Mark Clark's Fifth Army alongside our own boys in Italy, we were told. A small force of United States built aircraft, manned by Brazilian Air Force personnel, roared over the procession at low altitude. We counted twenty-five P47s (fighters) and six B25s (light bombers) in the air group. The last units passed the reviewing stand at 12:50 p.m., and all of our group prepared to leave immediately for the MISSOURI. While waiting for his car, the President was informed by President Dutra that legislation making him an honorary citizen of Brazil would be introduced before the Brazilian Congress on the morrow. At 12:55 p.m., both Presidents and their parties embarked in motor cars and left in a motorcade for the Touring Club at Praca Maua. Mr. Hassett, who had not been feeling very well, left during the parade and went directly to the MISSOURI. President Truman had his car pass by the stands, across and down the Avenue from the Presidential reviewing stand, so that he might wave greetings to a large group of disabled Brazilian veterans seated there. On the way to the landing, the motorcade passed through the lines of the Battalion De Guardia (President Dutra's Palace Guard). They were clad in their brilliant red and white uniforms and were drawn up along the lower end of Avenida Rio Branco so as to form a lane of honor leading to the Touring Club. We reached the Touring Club at 1:10 p.m. and immediately disembarked and moved on through the clubhouse to the dock. President Truman, his family and staff bade President Dutra and his committee goodbye there. All hands stood at attention while the two national anthems were played and a 2l-gun salute was fired from a field piece located on the dock. Then, to the accompaniment of "God Bless America", played by the military band, President Truman’s party embarked in waiting boats and left for the MISSOURI. The President was transported in the Presidential barge. The President was received on board the MISSOURI at 1:22 p.m. Captain Dennison and Commander Colwell were on deck to greet him and his party. Guard and band, side honors and “man-the-rail" were accorded the President and his flag was broken at the main truck. As it was Sunday, no salute was fired. The President, his family and party immediately retired to their quarters in the Flag country (on the 02 or second superstructure level) where they changed to informal clothes and sat down for a brief rest. Captain Dennison was told to get the task force underway, when ready, and proceed to sea. At 1:54 p.m., the MISSOURI weighed anchor and put out to sea. She was followed out by the SMALL and DYESS and two Brazilian destroyers. A Rio de Janeiro pilot, Captain A. G. Carnerio, was at the conn of the MISSOURI. Those embarked in the MISSOURI included: THE PRESIDENT, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, Fleet Admiral Leahy, Mr. Steelman, Mr. Connelly, Mr. Hassett, Mr. Ross, Mr. Woodward, Major General Vaughan, Rear Admiral Foskett, Brigadier General Graham, members of the President' s immediate party; and Lieut-Comdr. Rigdon, Mr. Warner. Captain Burns, Mr. Fisher, Mr. Romagna, Mr. Kent, Mr. Rowley, Mr. Booth, Mr. Nicholson, Mr. Lu, Mr. Behn, Mr. Hill, Mr. Usher, Mr. Adams, Mr. Sherwood, Mr. Bjornson, Mr. Boring, Mr. Hillman, Mr. Barry, Mr. Rash, Mr. Nixon, Mr. Kress, Mr. Smith, Mr. Rollins, Mr. Vaccaro, Mr. Ackerman, Mr. Fox, Mr. Alvey, Mr. Short, Mr. Walsh, Mr. Dennis, Mr. Ellis, Mr. Holeman, Chief Steward Prettyman. Mr. Trussell, The President was berthed in the Admiral's stateroom; Mrs. Truman and Miss Truman in the Chief of Staff's stateroom; Admiral Leahy in the Captain's stateroom; Mr. Steelman, room 0207; Mr. Connelly, room 0208; Mr. Hassett, room 0206; Mr. Ross, room 0209; Mr. Woodward, room 0205; General Vaughan, room 0204; Admiral Foskett, room 0202; General Graham, room 0203; Lt. Comdr. Rigdon and Lt. Moore, room 0210. All except Lt. Comdr. Rigdon and Lt. Moore were members of the President's mess. Members of the Staff and Press group were quartered and messed in the wardroom country. The flag office, located on the main deck adjacent to the wardroom, was made available to the newspapermen for an office. Secret Service agents Walters and Stoner took passage in the SMALL, and agents Shields and Kauffman joined the DYESS for the return voyage. Mr. Clifford did not return in the MISSOURI. He returned to Washington via ATC plane 4-9042. Mrs. Craig, Miss Lau, Mr. D. Long, Mr. J. Long, Mr. McMullin, Major McNally, Sergeants Brown, Wolfe and Lehman, Mr. Anderson, Mr. Kellerman, Mr. Stout, Mr. McCann, and Mr. Gorham returned in the same plane. They departed Rio late this afternoon and reached Washington about 7 p.m., Monday, September 8th. Mrs. Craig had hoped to the last minute that she might be permitted to return via the MISSOURI, but this was not considered practicable due to lack of proper accommodations. The MARQUETTE was left behind in Rio with orders to embark the President's barge and the two White House automobiles, and sail from Rio Monday, September 8th, direct to Norfolk. Senator and Mrs. Tom Connolly and Congressman Sol Bloom were authorized to return to the United States in the MARQUETTE. As soon as we were underway, the President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman and some other members of the Presidential party went to the flag bridge, from which vantage they watched as Rio’s magnificent panorama faded out of view. Lunch was served in the President's mess at 2:30 p.m. Afterwards, most everyone in the party took a nap. Our stay in Brazil, while exciting and pleasurable, had been most strenuous and all hands were very nearly exhausted. Shortly after departing Rio the President announced his decision not to visit Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands at this time. Proposed stops were cancelled and Task Force 84 was ordered to proceed direct to Norfolk, Virginia. The WILLIAMSBURG was ordered from Washington to Norfolk, to be on hand there by September 19th to receive the President and his party. At 3:02 p.m., Captain Carnerio left the MISSOURI. Task Force 84 formed up (the DYESS taking position off the starboard bow of the MISSOURI and the SMALL a position off the port bow) and took departure for sea. Course 093° (true) and speed of 18 knots were set. At 5:46 p.m., we passed Cabo Frio abeam to port. The two Brazilian destroyers that had escorted us out from Rio, executed a smart 180° turn, rendered departing honors as they passed close aboard, and returned to port. During the afternoon the President dispatched messages of thanks to President Dutra, Foreign Minister Fernandes, the Brazilian Minister of War, the Brazilian Minister of Marine, and Ambassador Pawley. The messages read as follows: "To His Excellency, Eurico Gaspar Dutra, President of the United States of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. I wish to express to you again my profound appreciation of the wonderful reception you have given to me and my family in Brazil. On the bridge of the MISSOURI as we stand out to sea I feel that the beauty of Rio de Janeiro is a setting of which the gracious people of Brazil are justly proud. I have been privileged to meet many of your distinguished citizens and I have been greeted by hundreds of thousands more. To all of them and to the great Brazilian Nation on behalf of Mrs. Truman, my daughter and myself, I send this message of thanks and farewell. Signed, Harry S. Truman." "To His Excellency Raul Fernandes, Minister of Foreign Relations, Rio de Janeiro. I cannot leave Rio without again expressing to you and to your gracious Senhora the debt of gratitude my family and I feel for the hospitality extended to us during the past few days in your great country. At the same time, may I congratulate you upon the successful conclusion of the Inter-America Conference to which you gave such illustrious leadership. Its achievement is a shining example to all the world as the accomplishment of men and nations determined to live together in the spirit of friendship and of good will. Signed, Harry S. Truman.” "To the Minister of War. I congratulate you on the magnificent celebration of Brazil's 125th Anniversary of Independence. I consider myself fortunate to have seen such a fine demonstration by our loyal brothers in arms of the late war. It is a symbol and guarantee of the maintenance of peace toward which we strive together for this hemisphere and for all the world. Signed, Harry S. Truman." "To the Minister of Marine. As the U.S.S. MISSOURI puts to sea under escort of the Brazilian Navy, I wish to thank you for your many courtesies to this ship and to the other units of the American Navy now sailing from Rio de Janeiro. It has been in the best tradition of the friendly relations which have so long existed between our two navies. Signed, Harry S. Truman." “To the Honorable William D. Pawley, .Ambassador of the United States of America, Rio de Janeiro. Again many thanks for all your courtesies to me and my family during my visit to Brazil. The thoughtfulness that you, your charming wife and niece, as well as your staff, have shown us, is most sincerely appreciated. It has made our visit one that we shall always remember with pleasure and with deep gratitude. Birthday greetings from all on board the MISSOURI. Signed, Harry S. Truman." Dinner was served in the President's mess at 7 pm. Piano selections were played during dinner by Musician John Wigent. Wigent gave a similar performance each evening throughout the cruise. He is a member of the United States Navy Band and was taken on the cruise specially to play for the President and his party. Captain Dennison was a dinner guest but could not remain for the movies which followed the dinner. The feature shown was "The Trouble With Women", starring Ray Milland and Teressa Wright. Several changes of course were made during the evening. The task force came to 075° (true) at 10:11 p.m., on which course it remained throughout the night. Two special communication crews were embarked in the MISSOURI to handle Presidential communications and the special press. One crew was under the supervision of Lieutenant A. P. Carpenter, U.S.N., of the U.S.S. WILLIAMSBURG, and the other crew was under Lieutenant (junior grade) N. H. Kane, U.S.N., from the Navy Department. Lieutenant Carpenter's crew was comprised of CETM McGuire and RM1c Keith, Smith and Thielke. All are regularly attached to the U.S.S. WILLIAMSBURG. They installed and operated the special duplex radio teletype equipment which handled the Presidential communications and the incoming press news. Lieutenant (jg) Kane was assisted by CRM Hughett, ETMlc Werdel and Greaves, ETM2c Long, RM3c Larrabee, Thomas and Gowing, and Sea-ETM Stamiti. They set up simplex radio teletype equipment and voice broadcast apparatus which was used to transmit outgoing press and on-the-spot broadcasts made by the four radio correspondents embarked. These two teams handled an average daily traffic load of 52,000 words. This included radio press, dispatches filed by newspaper correspondents, and incoming and outgoing official communications. Lieutenant Hoye D. Moore, (Supply Corps) U.S.N., Presidential Mess Officer in the WILLIAMSBURG, was also on board with eight Filipino cooks and stewards from the WILLIAMSBURG, (CSt. Santiago, CSt. Licodo, CSt. Esperancilla, CSt. Palomario, CCk Peralta, StM1c Pollasco, StMlc O1embario and StM2c Malapit) to operate the President's mess. - - - - - - - - The U.S.S. MISSOURI (battleship #63) was launched at the Brooklyn Navy Yard on January 29, 1944. Miss Margaret Truman was the sponsor and President Truman, then Senator from Missouri, was the official speaker on that occasion. The ship was commissioned on June 11, 1944, and sailed from New York on November 10, 1944 to join the Pacific Fleet. The MISSOURI arrived Pearl Harbor on Christmas Eve, 1944. Less than one year old, she had taken her place with the greatest fleet in American naval history. The ship sailed from Pearl Harbor on January 1, 1945, for the Western Pacific, where she operated, alternately with the Fifth and Third Fleets, for the remainder of the war. While operating with Task Force 58, the "MIGHTY MO" participated in the air strike on Tokyo on February 16, 1945; was attacked by Japanese aircraft on February 19th while operating off Iwo Jima; participated in air strikes against Kyushu on March 13th, on March 29th and again on April 11th. During the action of April 11th, a Kamikaze plane crashed on board. She participated in the bombardment of Okinawa on March 24th, and was attacked by Japanese aircraft while operating off Okinawa, on April 16th and again on April 29th. The action of April 16th was perhaps the “fightingest day" of all the MISSOURI’s war days. More than twelve solid hours were spent in sparring with Japanese planes. On May 18th, Admiral Halsey, Commander of the Third Fleet, hoisted his flag in the MISSOURI. Shortly afterwards, the ship led the Third Fleet out of Guam to put the finishing touches on the Okinawa Campaign. As a unit of Task Force 38, she participated in the bombardment of Okinawa on May 27th. The next month or so was spent in the vicinity of Leyte. Subsequently, she participated in the bombardment of Hokkaido, on July 15th, and two days later in the bombardment of Kitachi. The task force with which she was operating was attacked by Japanese aircraft on August 9th. The first contact between United States and Japanese officials was made on board the MISSOURI. Carrying Admiral Halsey, the MISSOURI sailed into Sagami Wan on August 27th for a rendezvous with a Japanese destroyer carrying Nipponese naval officers and pilots, to obtain vital information on mine fields and harbor conditions in Sagami Wan and Tokyo Bay, where the United States ships were to enter. The Instrument of Formal Surrender of Japan to the Allied Powers was signed on the deck of the MISSOURI on September 2, 1945, while the ship was at anchor in Tokyo Bay. This marked the first time in the history of the United States Navy that such an event had ever taken place aboard a ship of war. The MISSOURI left Tokyo on September 6th, and returned to the Atlantic. She was a unit of the Fleet that was reviewed in the Hudson River by President Truman on Navy Day 1945. The ship is 887 feet long and when fully loaded has a draft of about 36 feet and displaces about 56,000 tons. There are eleven deck levels above the main deck. The wardroom and some wardroom staterooms are on the main deck. The first superstructure deck, the 01 level, contains the promenade deck known as the "surrender deck", the Captain's cabin, and staterooms for wardroom officers. A plaque marking the spot where the Japanese surrender was accepted on September 2, 1945 is to be found on the starboard side of the first superstructure deck. The flag country (Admiral's quarters) is on the second superstructure deck, the 02 level. The signal bridge and flag bridge are on the third or 03 level, the navigation bridge on the 04 level, and the open bridge on the 05 level. Various ship's fire control stations are on other levels up to 011. There are five deck levels below the main deck, namely the second, third, first platform, second platform and hold. The main engineering plant is contained in four engine rooms and four fire rooms. The ship is driven by turbines, through reduction gears to four propellers. The designed full horsepower is 212,000. The main battery comprises nine 16-inch 50 caliber guns in three turrets. The secondary battery comprises twenty 5-inch 38 caliber dual purpose guns in ten twin mounts The anti- aircraft battery also includes 40MM and 20MM machine guns. On this cruise the MISSOURI carried a crew of 80 officers, 90 chief petty officers, 1834 other naval enlisted men, and 96 Marines. In addition there were eleven officers on board in a temporary duty status. The ranking officers on board were: Captain Robert L. Dennison, U.S.N., Commanding; Comdr. John B. Colwell, U.S.N., Executive Officer; Comdr. Walter H. Baumberger, U.S.N., Navigator; Comdr. Harold D. Fuller, U.S.N., First Lieutenant; Comdr. Otis A. Wesche, U.S.N., Gunnery Officer; Comdr. Francis R. Hettinger, DC, U.S.N., Dental Officer; Comdr. Karl V. Kaess, MC, U.S.N., Medical Officer; Comdr. Arthur D. McCreary, SC, U.S.N., Supply Officer; Comdr. Lawrence R. Schmeider, ChC, U.S.N., Chaplain; Lt. Cdr. Robert G. Merritt, U.S.N., Communications Officer; Lt. Cdr. Victor E. Marriott, U.S.N., Engineering Officer; and Lt. Cdr. Frederick G. Robinson, U.S.N., Aerological Officer. Monday, September 8th. At the start of the day (12:01 a.m.), Task Force 84 (the MISSOURI, SMALL and DYESS) was steaming on course 075° (true), at speed of 18 knots, enroute from Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk, Virginia. The President arose at 6:30 a.m., and, accompanied by his orderly (Marine Sergeant Charles Linn of the Bronx) went on deck to take his morning walk. We were still taking aboard a bit of spray on the starboard bow, so he cut short his exercise and returned to his cabin after spending about ten minutes in the lee of the after decks. He had breakfast at 8 a.m., together with all members of his party except the ladies. They did not put in their appearance until midmorning. The party kept close to their quarters, taking full advantage of the opportunity for rest and relaxation. The President spent some time reading a batch of newspaper clippings relating to the public reaction to his speech at Quitandinha last Tuesday. The clippings had been sent down from Washington by Mr. Eben Ayers, Assistant Presidential Press Secretary. Mr. Ross met with the members of the Press to brief them on the day's happenings. While no regular press conferences were held, Mr. Ross called the newspaper and radio correspondents together from time to time throughout the cruise, to keep them fully informed. Our noon position was: Latitude 21° -56.5' South, Longitude 37°-00.2' West. We had made good 356 miles since departure from Rio. The weather was fair, with an average temperature of 72°. The wind was from the east, force 20 knots, and the sea was moderate with some white caps. At 12:54 p.m., we increased speed to 19 knots. Lunch was served at 1 p.m. The President announced that routine meal hours in his mess would be: Breakfast, 8 a.m.; lunch, 1 p.m. ; dinner, 7 p.m.; but that no one would have to get up for breakfast if he, or she, didn't care to. At 1 p.m., Task Force 84 changed course to 068° (true). Movies were shown in the Chief of Staff's cabin at 8 p.m. The feature was "The Bachelor and the Bobby Soxer", starring Cary Grant, Myrna Loy and Shirley Temple. Tuesday, September 9th. (Enroute Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk; course 004° (true) speed 19) The President arose at 7 a.m. and, at 7:30 a.m., left his quarters for a walk about the main deck. He was accompanied by his orderly. He visited one of the crew's mess halls while breakfast was being served, and talked briefly with Chief Watertender Francis G. Smith (of St. Louis, Missouri), who was in charge there at the time. At 8 a.m., the task force was approximately 280 miles off Ponta D'Arela. Ponta D'Arela is on the coast of the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. Extending to the eastward off this part of the coast for a distance of over 200 miles is a bank known as Abrolhos - which, freely translated in Portuguese, means “Keep your eyes open!" The bank is named for the Abrolhos Islands, a group of five very small islets, the whole occupying a space of but 1-1/4 miles, lying off the coast at this point. At 8:01 a.m., Task Force 84 changed course to 002° (true). During the period from 9 a.m. to 10:30 a.m., the MISSOURI conducted gunnery loading and tracking drill. The DYESS and SMALL left their regular stations on our starboard and port bows and steered various courses to serve as tracking targets. While this exercise was going on, Commander Wesche, Gunnery Officer of the MISSOURI, guided the President, Admiral Foskett and Captain Dennison on an inspection of a part of the Gunnery Department. The President entered #2 16” turret, where he witnessed a loading drill. He inspected one 5” twin-mount at close hand. He visited the Combat Intelligence Center, five decks below; and was afforded a demonstration of the use of the radar in tracking an enemy. He completed his planned tour and returned to his quarters at 10 a.m. At 11: 30 a.m., the President left his quarters and went below to the surrender deck, where he received the officers of the MISSOURI. The officers were introduced to the President by Captain Dennison and Commander Colwell as they filed by. The President was wearing a new "8-star" yachting cap which had been presented to him by the officers of the President's Regatta Association of Washington. When questioned about it by the newspapermen, he explained, jokingly, that he had to have a hat with at least six stars to show that he outranked "five-star" Admiral Leahy. Our noon position was: Latitude 16°-17.5' South, Longitude 34°-03' West. We had made good 803 miles since leaving Rio. The weather remained fair, with average temperature of 76°. The sea was calm with a very slight swell. A slight wind (3 knots) was blowing from south-southeast. At 12:55 p.m., we increased speed to 20 knots. During the afternoon the President and Mrs. Truman sat out on the surrender deck and enjoyed the warm sun and cool breezes. Miss Truman, Mr. Woodward, Admiral Foskett and General Graham engaged in a game of deck tennis, on the main deck below, while the President and Mrs. Truman watched interestedly. Just after dark (about 6 p.m.), all members of the party went on deck to look for the Southern Cross, which the Navigator had reported would be visible. Commander Colwell was a dinner guest in the President's mess this evening. He also joined them later in witnessing a showing of the motion picture "Cheyenne", starring Dennis Morgan and Jane Wyman. This evening a message was received from the Brazilian Minister of Foreign Relations in response to the President's message of September 7th to him. The message read: "The spontaneous and vibrant recognition which the Brazilian people have given your Excellency and your worthy family is tangible testimony that the visit of your Excellency constitutes one more link in the chain of friendship and good neighborliness that traditionally unite us. "I am grateful for the kind congratulations of your Excellency for-the success attained in the Inter-American Conference, so brilliantly closed with the presence of your Excellency, and with your memorable speech, and I have ardent hopes that each day will see a strengthening of the propositions of mutual cooperation, of peaceful sociability and fraternity between the nations of the continent, closed ranks around the great republic of which your Excellency is such a sage and able helmsman. Signed Raul Fernandes, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs.” Wednesday, September l0th. (Enroute Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk, steaming on course 002° (true) at speed 20.) The President arose at 7 a.m. He came on deck at 7:30 a.m., for his morning walk, and returned to his quarters in time to have breakfast, at 8 a.m., with several members of his mess. Once again, the ladies took advantage of the opportunity and slept late. At 8 a.m., we were in a position approximately 110 miles due east of Maclio, Brazil, at which time we changed course to 000 (true). At 9 a.m., the President left his quarters and, in company with Admiral Leahy, Admiral Foskett, Captain Dennison and Lt. Comdr. Marriott (the ship's chief engineer), made an inspection tour of the engineering plant of the MISSOURI. They visited one of the ship's four boiler rooms and one of its four engine rooms. On his way back to his country, the President stopped in the wardroom to examine some of the many historic war souvenirs held by the MISSOURI. The President and all members of his mess lunched with the crew today in the crew's mess hall. They passed through the serving line and carried their own trays to designated places at the several tables. Our noon position was Latitude 8°-25.1' South, Longitude 33°-56' West. We had made good 1273 miles since leaving Rio. The weather was fair with an average temperature of 78°. The wind had increased to 11 knots and there was a slight sea running. During the morning watch the following dispatch was posted on bulletin boards throughout the task force: "I (the Task Force Commander) have reported to his Imperial Highness Neptunus Rex, Ruler of the Raging Main, that I approach bearing the senior Shellback of the U. S. Navy to pay homage and that I also bear the senior Pollywog of the nation and a motley crew of lubberly wights who seek admission to his realm. Movement report in kelp code advises Davy Jones in Sea Horse Squadron XX departed Briney, Eta (expected to arrive) this force lØ21ØØZ (9 p.m., Greenwich time, or 6 p.m. local time, September l0th), for preliminary high level conference. Neptunus Rex will be received with full honors 1111ØØZ (11 a.m., Greenwich time or 8 a.m. local time, September 11th) on occasion visit of inspection. All loyal subjects are enjoined to render utmost assistance to Royal Court in conversion lowly pollywogs to exalted subjects His Majesty.” (Note: A pollywog is anybody who has never crossed the equator aboard ship, particularly a Navy ship. A shellback is a former pollywog who, upon crossing the equator, has been called to stand trial before the throne of King Neptune and has met the test.) The boisterous ceremonies of "crossing the line" are of such ancient vintage that their derivation is lost. It is well known that ceremonies took place long ago when the ships crossed the thirtieth parallel, and also when going through the Straits of Gibraltar. These early ceremonies were of the roughest sort and were, to a great extent, supposed to test the crew to determine whether or not the novices on their first cruise could endure the hardship of a life at sea. Then, as is the custom at the present time, it was primarily a crew's party. (Naval Customs, Traditions, and Usages) It was about noontime when the first real signs of our impending "crossing the line" became evident. Pollywogs of all ranks and ratings could be spotted by their awkward looking costumes, most1y made up by the trick application of uniforms--pants on backwards, leggings over bare feet, neckerchiefs on bare necks and flat hats worn without grommets. Shellbacks, armed with three-foot canvas billies, gave "dummy runs" to the pollywogs as they hove in sight. There was running of the gantlet, with billies swinging, and not lightly. In the wardroom, lunch was served by the pollywog ensigns and newspapermen dressed in officers' white jackets and blue trousers. Grace was said by the “Shellback Chaplain" and a pollywog barber shop quartet “harmonized" throughout the meal hour. The pollywogs were required to sit at the table with their chairs turned backwards and were not served until after all shellbacks had first been served. Miss Truman, accompanied by Mr. Ross and Captain Dennison, dropped by to enjoy the goings on. A clamor went up for a song from her, so Margaret joined the quartet in singing, "On a Bicycle Built for Two." By early afternoon the tempo had increased considerably so that the ship now resembled a floating mardi gras. All sorts of processions - awkward squads, a "shotgun wedding party", a "funeral party" -- wandered noisily to and fro about the ship. Distorted rumors of portentous happenings were purposely circulated, and countless "instruments of torture" were displayed. All of this propaganda was, of course, designed to confuse and worry the poor pollywogs. The "pre-crossing" masquerade was halted and the ship's routine resumed temporarily at 2:38 p.m. when the MISSOURI was slowed down to receive the SMALL alongside. An international distress signal had been picked up on the radio from the American freighter DEL SOL (owned by the Mississippi Shipping Company of New Orleans) advising that they had a sick man on board who was in urgent need of medical attention, and requesting that a doctor be sent immediately. The SMALL came close aboard at 2:49 p.m. and a line was passed to her, and then a wire trolley was strung between the two vessels. By use of this trolley and a specially designed "personnel transfer chair", which ran along the trolley, Lieutenant (jg) J. T. Walstenholm (of Clifton, New Jersey), junior medical officer of the MISSOURI, and Pharmacist's Mate .R. E. Kelly (of Sedalia, Missouri), and necessary medical gear, were transferred to the SMALL. The President and Mrs. Truman stood on the port wing of the 02 deck and watched the entire operation with considerable interest. The transfer was completed at 3 p.m. and the SMALL cast off, and left our company at high speed to intercept the DEL SOL. The DEL SOL was reported to be in a position about 25 miles off Cape Saint Rogue, Brazil--about 100 miles northwest of us. The SMALL reached the DEL SOL about 8 p.m. The sick man (Charles A. Scott, 27-year old merchant seaman from Jackson, Mississippi) was transferred by small boat to the destroyer, and the SMALL set course to rejoin the task force. It was found that Scott was suffering from septicemia (blood poisoning). The MISSOURI resumed speed 20 at 3:08 p.m. and with that the shellback-pollywog activity was noisily renewed. Orders were issued prescribing the uniform for the civilian pollywogs. A separate order was issued to the ladies. For matter of record, they are quoted herewith: ROYAL PALACE SPECIAL ORDER OF THE 66/7 X 11 5/6 RAGING MAIN ` September 10, 1947. From: Neptunus Rex, Ruler of the Raging Main. To: Civilian Pollywogs, U.S.S. MISSOURI. Subj: Uniform Orders. 1. Greetings. 2. In order that our Ambassador, Davy Jones, shall be properly received on occasion of his visit to the U.S.S. MISSOURI, on September 10, 1947 and with hopes that all MISSOURI pollywogs will realize their low station in life, while rendering honor to Davy Jones, the following uniform is prescribed: Bath towel turban or Bakers hat Loud shirt worn backwards Tie - Very loud - worn backwards Trousers - worn backwards - 1 leg rolled up - one down 1 Shoe 1 White sock 1 Black sock /s/ NEPTUNUS REX.” SUPER-EXTRA SPECIAL ROYAL PALACE KELP CODE OF THE 6/XX 1/2/0 RAGING MAIN September 10, 1947 From: Neptunus Rex, Ruler of the Raging Main To: Civilian Pollywogs, U.S.S. MISSOURI Subj: Concealed Crime. 1. Greetings. 2. Due to the untiring efforts of the "All Seeing Eye" and loyal Shellbacks, a dastardly fact has been brought to light. 3. To wit: Certain Pollywogs aboard the U.S.S. MISSOURI have been guilty of the heinous crime, of concealing "FEMALE" pollywogs aboard that vessel. By Royal Trident, these characters shall be dealt with swiftly and summarily. Woe to this collection of Lounge-lizards, Sea-Lawyers and Plow-Deserters. (a) Therefore, said "FEMALES” will appear in a specially prepared uniform, which to all intents and purposes, seem to be exactly what they seem. Only, strange things have happened, to all who don this uniform: One (1) Sou'wester Hat. One: (1) Large Raincoat. (b) These persons will also maintain a sharp and vigilant watch for the arrival of' Davy Jones. (c) Further words fail me, because of this horrible state of affairs. /s/ NEPTUNUS REX." At 5:45 p.m., the pollywog lookout in the eyes of the ship reported to the Officer of the Deck that he had sighted Davy Jones and his Staff. At 5:50 p.m., the ship was slowed to 10 knots and rockets and flares were fired from the bow. Cargo and deck lights illuminated the forecastle. Davy Jones (portrayed by Chief Machinist's Mate Robert Zeller) and his retinue "came aboard through the starboard hawsepipe". Davy hailed the Officer of the Deck from there, but due to the noise and distance, could not make himself understood. So, without further ceremony, he and his company proceeded aft along the port side of the forecastle to the surrender deck. Five ruffles were sounded and the march, “Sailing, Sailing, Over the Bounding Main" was played by the ship's band as honors to King Neptune's Ambassador as he progressed along the forecastle. On the surrender deck, he was awaited by the Captain, the President and his party, and most of the 350 Shellback members of the MISSOURI's crew. The entire forecastle was "littered" with pollywogs. The President was dressed in slacks, sports shirt and white baker's hat. Mrs. Truman wore a blue dress and a white baker's hat. Margaret complied with "orders", however, and was wearing a slicker and a sou'wester hat. Mr. Connelly, Mr. Steelman, Mr. Ross, Mr. Hassett, Mr. Woodward and General Graham wore bakers' hats, their shirts backwards, had one pants leg rolled up, one shoe off and one white sock exposed. Captain Dennison received Davy and welcomed him aboard. Davy greeted the Captain and remarked that it had been some years since he last saw him. Captain Dennison recalled that it was on board the United States Submarine PERMIT. Davy Jones informed Captain Dennison that he bore a summons for him from His Majesty, Neptunus Rex. Captain Dennison replied that he would be glad to receive it. Davy then opened a large official looking envelope and read the following message: "PDQ File Domain of Neptunus Rex, No. 123/X Ancient Order of the Deep, Royal Equatorial Palace, Majestic Chambers, 8 September 1947. From: His Royal Majesty, Neptunus Rex, Ruler of the Raging Main To: Captain Robert L. Dennison, U.S. Navy, Commanding, United States Ship MISSOURI Subj: Order XXX. Ref: (a) PDQ file 123/s of 3 September 1947. 1. GREETINGS - hear ye. As you enter my Royal Domain, in Latitude 00 00, Longitude 36 30'W, you will have your ship and crew in readiness for a rigid inspection by me and my escort. This you will communicate to all infections of the land under your command, to wit: All tadpoles, pollywogs, sandcrabs, sea-lawyers, deck massagers, plow deserters, and last but not least, liberty breakers. 2. Hear ye again. You will change course and speed so as to enter my aqueous domain early tomorrow morning. (Signed) Neptunus Rex.” Captain Dennison informed Davy that the shellbacks were ready to receive His Majesty on the morrow and that all pollywogs would be properly rounded up. Davy Jones said that he had heard on good authority that Captain Dennison had on board the Number One Pollywog of his country. Captain Dennison told Davy that his information was correct, and then he called the President forward and presented him to Davy. On meeting the President, Davy was somewhat flustered and, to the great amusement of the crowd, missed his lines in his prepared script. The President shook hands with him and addressed him as "Mr. Jones". The President asked Davy to convey his compliments to his Ruler, Neptunus Rex. Davy told the President that it had been a pleasure to meet him and that he would convey his message to King Neptune on his return to Atlantis. Captain Dennison then informed Davy that he not only had the Number One Pollywog on board but he also had on board the Number One Shellback of the United States Navy, or any Navy. Fleet Admiral Leahy stepped forward and greeted Davy. Davy remarked that he remembered Leahy very well, having first met him in 1898, when he crossed the line in the U.S.S. OREGON enroute around Cape Horn to take part in the Battle of Santiago Bay. Admiral Leahy remarked to Davy that he certainly had a mighty fine memory as that was correct. Captain Dennison was informed by Davy that he had a summons with him for each pollywog on board. Davy asked for permission to pass them out, stating that there were some, those for a few hardened pollywogs, he would like to read publicly. Captain Dennison replied that he might do so. The first to be called before the "mast" was Mr. Woodward. In addition to the general charge of "having willfully and maliciously failed to show reverence and allegiance to Neptunus Rex", he was also charged with: "Charge II. In that you have endeavored to lessen the respect due a shellback by claiming to have once before appeared before the Royal Court of His Majesty, Neptunus Rex, and have publicly expressed the desire to do so again for no other reason but to obtain a 'handsome certificate'." Charge III. In that you have attempted to practice low State Department protocol while at sea, well knowing that Navy protocol is supreme and that there is no higher authority." Next, Robert H. (Bob) Nixon, was called forward. His extra charges were: "Charge II. In that you have previously entered our Domain without consent and with evasive intent and malice aforethought, by a despicable and unnatural means of travel, namely by air." "Charge III. In that trusty shellbacks report you have intimated you outrank our Majesty, and have threatened to report any molestation of your foppish and delicate person direct to the Secretary of National Defense Forrestal." Then came Merriman Smith, who was charged with the same Charges I and II as Nixon, as well as: “Charge III. In that you have endeavored to fob yourself off on an apathetic public as author of a book, the sickening theme of this nauseous work centering in a loud mouth and the burning desire to bray, 'Thank You, Mr. President' about the time serious correspondents are beginning to get worthwhile information from the Chief Executive." "Charge IV. Seeking to tear down and destroy newly cemented relations between the United States and Brazil by wearing a green baseball cap to public functions in Rio and telling Brazilians this is the height of fashion in Washington." Ernest B. (Tony) Vaccaro was the last of our group to be summoned before Davy. His Charges I and II read the same as those for Nixon. His extra charges were: "Charge III. In that you have practiced sorcery, witchcraft and black magic by living for years without food, sleep or blood.” “Charge IV. Attempting to make a mockery of American foreign policy by appearing at Laranjeiras Palace in a white pork pie hat, and compounding the felony by not turning the brim down so as to hide your loathsome, corpselike features." The arraignment of Chief Boatswain's Mate F. Z. Whitaker, Chief Watertender F. G. Miller and one unidentified Bluejacket followed. The other subpoenas were delivered to shellback division representatives, for passing out. Admiral Leahy received those for the President's party. There was a summons for everyone in the party except shellbacks Leahy, Foskett, Rigdon, Carpenter, Moore, Kent, Adams, Prettyman, Santiago, Esperancilla, MacAfee, Smith, Thielke, Palomaria and Peralta. Lieutenant Commander Rigdon, John Adams and Carleton Kent constituted the "shellback executive committee" that shaped up the charges preferred against the pollywog members of the President's party. Davy's mission completed, he informed Captain Dennison that he would await his pleasure tomorrow, and would see him when he returned with his Royal Master, Neptunus Rex. Captain Dennison bade him good night. The band struck up, "Sailing, Sailing, Over the Bounding Main". Davy and his staff went forward, and, at 6:15 p.m., "left the ship through the starboard hawsepipe". As soon as Davy Jones had left the MISSOURI, Task Force 84 increased speed to 20 knots. . Davy Jones' visit was the climax of the day's events but was, by no means, the end of the campaign on the pollywogs. Throughout the evening incidents "occurred" all over the ship to portend the day of reckoning that was scheduled for tomorrow. Captain Dennison was a guest of the President's mess for movies at 8 p.m. The feature was “Great Expectations", starring John Mills and Valerie Hobson. At 9 p.m., we changed course to 339° (true). This afternoon the President sent the following congratulatory message to the personnel of Task Force 34: "Your Commander in Chief takes this means of telling all hands that he is proud of the conduct of the officers and men of Task Force 84 during the recent visit to Rio de Janeiro. Not a single discreditable incident occurred. This record of high standard of conduct brings great credit alike to our Navy and to our Nation. You have made a contribution of inestimable value to the furtherance of our Good Neighbor Policy. In fact, you have been in a real sense true ambassadors of good will. From my own observation I was very much impressed with your fine appearance and your deportment and I heard only the most complimentary remarks concerning you. So I say to all hands, 'Well Done'. Signed, Harry S. Truman." Thursday, September 11th. (Enroute Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk on course 339° (True) speed 20) The President was up and about decks at sunrise, seemingly as anxious as any other pollywog aboard as to what the day held in store for him. At 5:49 a.m., the MISSOURI slowed to 12 knots and commenced maneuvering on various courses, preparatory to receiving the SMALL alongside. The SMALL had rejoined our task force during the night. She came alongside the MISSOURI, to our port, and the patient (merchant seaman Scott), the medical officer and pharmacist's mate were transferred to the MISSOURI. The transfers were made by the "trolley" method. A stretcher was used to carry the patient while the doctor and the pharmacist’s mate were brought back in the regular "personnel transfer chair". The transfers were completed at 6:27 a.m. and the SMALL cast off and resumed her position in formation. The President, from a position on the port wing of the 02 level, observed these operations with considerable interest and later congratulated Dr. Walstenholme on the successful accomplishment of his mission of mercy. Dr. Walstenholme told the President that seaman Scott would recover. At 6:29 a.m., we changed course to 339° (true) and speed to 15 knots. At 6:36 a.m., we went to 332° (true), and at 6:44 a.m., we resumed speed of 20 knots. Promptly at 8 a.m., the call went out for all pollywogs to fall in at quarters. The uniform of the day was prescribed as white trousers, undershirt, no hat, no shoes or socks. The task force was now in a position about 175 miles due north of Cape Calcanhar, the northeast extremity of Brazil and of the continent of South America. At 8:10 a.m., the word was excitedly passed about the M.ISSOURI that King Neptune and his Royal Party had been sighted standing toward the ship. At 8:15 a.m., Neptunus Rex (portrayed by Chief Machinist S. C. Harrington, U.S.N.) and his Royal Party of 67 "arrived" on board, coming to the main deck through the hatch leading up from the chief petty officers' quarters. King Neptune was accompanied by Queen Amphitrite, the Royal Princesses, the Royal Baby, Davy Jones, the Royal Admiral, the Royal Navigator, the Royal Chaplain, the Royal Judges, numerous fierce looking Royal pirates, four bloodstained Royal doctors, and a host of other courtiers and assistants. As King Neptune arrived on deck, a one-gun salute was fired in his honor and the Royal Band sounded six ruffles and played the march "Sailing, Sailing, Over the Bounding Main". The Royal flag, the "Jolly Roger”, was broken at the fore truck. The Royal Party consisted of: King Neptune Chief Machinist S.C. Harrington Queen Amphitrite Sgt. A. J. Chibon Royal Princesses M. Krotzer, Boatswain’s Mate Second Class D.T. Cassidy, Chief Storekeeper Royal Baby R. R. Eno, Storekeeper First Class Royal Nurse D. R. Ernst, Chief Boatswain’s Mate Davy Jones R. W. Zeller, Chief Machinist’s Mate Royal Admiral J. P. Kane, Boatswain’s Mate First Class Royal Navigator V. L. Quick, Shipfitter Second Class Royal Chaplain J. J. McDonald, Chief Machinist’s Mate Royal Jester R. J. Toussaint, Boatswain’s Mate Second Class Royal Devil T/Sgt. E. L. Romano Royal Harem S/Sgt. M. L. Joslin R. J. Malick, Seaman Second Class J. W. McCabe, Boatswain’s Mate Second Class R. T. Duff, Ship’s Service Man (Laundryman) First Class Royal Pages J. J. Rogers, Coxswain P. V. Stillo, Aviation Electronic Technician’s Mate Third Class All Seeing Eye J. A. Adams, Chief Fire Controlman Royal Orderly E. L. Francis, Seaman First Class Royal Vaccinators J. Hubbard, Chief Electrician’s Mate J. Sakas, Electrician’s Mate First Class W. G. Simmons, Electrician’s Mate First Class Royal Undertakers G. F. Davis, Pharmacist’s Mate First Class M. S. Moneypenny, Jr., Pharmacist’s Mate Second Class Royal Cannibals Cpl. A. J. Fletas E. R. DeShong, Boatswain’s Mate Second Class S. A. Glorioso, Jr., Fire Controlman Second Class Chief Electrician G. F. Shinski Chief Royal Bear Chief Carpenter W. F. Combs Chief Royal Pirate O. Peace, Chief Turret Captain Royal High Sheriff E. H. Tye, Chief Boatswain’s Mate Royal Constable C. J. Moore, Chief Water Tender Royal Scribe E. E. DeGroat, Chief Storekeeper Royal Prosecutors M/Sgt. Z. Waclawski B. Huszar, Boatswain’s Mate First Class Royal Defense Attorneys L. R. Floen, Chief Water Tender J. Gotinsky, Chief Water Tender Uncle Sam L. Hamlin, Chief Gunner’s Mate Royal Skeleton W. L. Wosika, Metalsmith Second Class Royal Doctors G. E. Wilson, Chief Water Tender D. J. Harvey, Chief Water Tender R. T. Bouchard, Shipfitter First Class J. McAllister, Gunner’s Mate First Class Royal Dentists S/Sgt. G. T. Proctor D. L. Jernigan, Machinist’s Mate Second Class L. E. Enderton, Chief Machinist’s Mate Royal Executioners J. Hughes, Electrician’s Mate First Class K. Vathauer, Chief Shipfitter B. J. Zawitkowski, Turret Captain Second Class R. C. Benway, Water Tender Second Class J. A. Haas, Water Tender Second Class J. Askew, Chief Electrician’s Mate Royal Pirates R. E. Bainter, Chief Carpenter’s Mate R. E. Blankenship, Ship’s Service Man (Laundryman) First Class M. Adams, Electrician’s Mate Second Class N. H. Yordt, Chief Printer F. L. McDonald, Coxswain L. V. Jacquet, Seaman First Class Royal Judges H. L. Bellar, Carpenter’s Mate First Class J. D. Kidd, Seaman Second Class K. C. Viands, Coxswain C. E. Williams, Chief Machinist’s Mate Royal Band Leader W. H. Sorrell, Chief Musician Royal Photographer W. L. Stull, Chief Turret Captain Royal Babies G. A. Johnson, Chief Water Tender J. G. Sawyer, Gunner’s Mate Second Class R. C. Archer, Seaman First Class S. L. Rapp, Seaman Second Class As King Neptune arrived on deck, he was greeted by Captain Dennison, who told His Majesty that it was a great pleasure to have him and his Court aboard. King Neptune replied that it was good to see him, too, and that he recalled they had had a grand time together a few years ago on the submarine PERMIT. Captain Dennison called King Neptune's attention to the fact that he had on board a very distinguished group of civilian pollywogs, including the "Number One Pollywog", as well as more than 1600 officers and men of his crew who had not had an opportunity to pay their respects at the Court of His Majesty. He begged of the King that His Court be as lenient as possible with them. He asked the King's forgiveness for not having delivered any of these same pollywogs on August 26th, last, when the MISSOURI crossed the Line, bound southward. On that occasion the Task Force Commander had been pressed for time and had obtained special dispensation from King Neptune to take the pollywogs across the Line without standing trial, on the condition that they would all be delivered up for trial on the return voyage. This was by no means a perfunctory dispensation. The King was considerably upset by such an unprecedented petition. He sent his emissary, Davy Jones, to investigate the circumstances. Davy called on the Commanding Officer of the MISSOURI on the late afternoon of August 25th, at which time Captain Dennison satisfactorily explained the expediency of the situation. King Neptune thanked Captain Dennison for his information and explained that he had better get along with his work as he anticipated a busy day if he finished his task of making the MISSOURI's crew of landlubbers fit subjects for his Royal Domain. Captain Dennison then turned over his ship to Neptunus Rex and offered him the services of his navigator to do with as he saw fit. The King directed the Royal Navigator to proceed to the bridge and direct the movements of the ship on the course assigned. The ship's navigator was directed to assist. King Neptune and his retinue, accompanied by Captain Dennison, then proceeded to inspect the ship. With great pomp they marched forward on the port side, across the forecastle, and aft on the starboard side of the main deck. Passageway through the throng of pollywogs waiting on deck, was cleared by the officious looking Royal High Sheriff assisted by the Royal Cops and Royal Pirates. On conclusion of the inspection, His Majesty informed Captain Dennison that he was much pleased with the arrangements made by his Loyal Shellbacks. King Neptune and Queen Amphitrite ascended to the "throne" which had been set up on the main deck aft. Admiral Leahy, the senior Shellback on board, was offered a seat of honor to his Majesty's left, and took his place there. Neptunus Rex then declared the Court open. The President and his party had observed all these ceremonies from a spot just forward of the throne and were waiting to be called before the court. The Royal Prosecutor (Master Sergeant Waclawski) stepped to the microphone and, in a stentorian voice, summoned the Chief of the Pollywogs, Harry S. Truman, President of the United States, to make his appearance. The President took his place before the Royal Judges and listened attentively as the Royal Prosecutor read the charges that had been preferred against him: "Charge I: In that you have hitherto willfully and maliciously failed to show reverence and allegiance to our Royal Person, and are therein and thereby a vile landlubber and pollywog. "Charge II: In that you have previously entered our Royal Domain without consent and with evasive intent and malice aforethought, by a despicable and unnatural means of travel, namely by air. "Charge III: In that you flouted deep sea protocol and international practice by sending the good ship MISSOURI southward across the equator and into Our Domain without first obtaining diplomatic permission from His Royal Highness, Neptunus Rex, and that by so doing you delayed the audience by His Royal Highness with some 1500 lowly pollywogs who thereby, for the time being, escaped scot free the even handed but heavy justice for which they are now long overdue. "Charge IV: In that, knowing full well there are no party politics in this absolute monarchy, you are guilty of practicing the same, this crime being further aggravated by your being a Democrat." The Royal Prosecutor went on to say: "As a participant in the commissioning ceremonies of this vessel, Mr. President, you have enjoyed the rare honor of being considered a plank owner. With this honor also goes certain grave responsibilities. You have, nevertheless, without regard for the sacred trust imposed on you, committed these grievous crimes aforementioned.” "You realize, Mr. President, that the ordinary pollywog is never accorded an opportunity to speak in his own defense. It is our Royal prerogative, however, to extend favors from time to time. His Majesty would be pleased, therefore, to hear what you might have to say in your defense." The President replied: (addressing his remarks to the King) "Your Majesty, I have no adequate defense. The charges are unquestionably true. But there may be extenuating circumstances. Had I not ordered the battleship MISSOURI to proceed immediately to Rio without this appearance before your Majesty, you would not have had so many nor so distinguished a company. "I cannot deny the fact that I am a Democrat with a little d. (Laughter). I am also of the opinion that a great many of the distinguished Republicans to whom you refer are no doubt in Your Majesty's magnificent palace in Atlantis, where I cannot reach them to discuss the events of the day. "I sincerely hope that you will be as merciful as possible to these poor pollywogs. They have no prerogative when they arrive back in the United States. But the Commander in Chief of the Navy does have a prerogative, which he does not intend to use, however (laughter). "It is a very great pleasure to me to witness this ceremony and be a part of it. I can't for the life of me see how you could go to all the trouble that you have gone to make this spectacle as beautiful and as true to history as it is. The Great Neptune, of course, lives in an inaccessible palace, and had I been able to reach you before I left the United States, I am very sure that arrangements could have been made to your entire satisfaction for the carrying out of your program.” The Royal Prosecutor received a nod from Neptunus Rex, who announced the President's sentence in these words: “Mr. President, due note has been made of your plea. In recognition of the fact that you have finally delivered this large number of pollywogs for judgment before His Royal Court, His Majesty is disposed to exercise some leniency in your case. You are commanded to furnish each member of His Royal Court a card bearing your autograph, and you will further be prepared to continue to furnish a bountiful supply of Corona Corona cheroots for the shellback members of the President's mess during the remainder of this cruise and forever after. "Having submitted to these punishments, we hereby welcome you, Mr. President, to the Realm of Neptunus Rex and proclaim you a trusty shellback." The President shook hands with the Royal Prosecutor and took his departure from the Royal Court. He was escorted by Captain Dennison to a special platform erected for the Presidential Party, from where he watched with evident pleasure and glee, the trial and initiation of the pollywogs in his personal party and the Secret Service and Press representations. Mrs. Truman was the next to be called before the Royal Court. The Royal Prosecutor read her charges: Charges I and II were the same as the President's. “Charge III: In that with typical feminine disregard of our Royal whim, you have so cozened and comforted our number one pollywog, and otherwise made home so delightful for him that you have delayed for many years this long sought audience with Harry S. Truman.” Justice was swift, for with only a moment's hesitation the Royal Prosecutor continued: “You, too, have enjoyed the rare honor of being considered a plank owner. With this honor also goes grave responsibilities you well know. Nevertheless, you have, without regard for the trust imposed on you, committed the grievous crimes aforementioned. "You should be punished. However, it is our Royal prerogative and pleasure to grant an occasional amnesty every few centuries. Therefore, without further proceedings, we hereby welcome you, the First Lady of the Land; proclaim you a trusty shellback and First Lady of His Royal Domain, and invite you to take your rightful place in His Royal Court." Captain Dennison escorted Mrs. Truman through the milling crowd and she took the seat of honor, at His Majesty's right hand. Margaret was then hailed before the court. Her charges were read aloud by the Royal Prosecutor: Charges I and II were the same as the President's. "Charge III: In that you, a lowly pollywog in your own right and daughter of our number one pollywog, have poached on our Royal Preserves by willfully living in a 'fish bowl' for the past few years, without seeking permission from His Royal Highness, Neptunus Rex. Charge IV: In that you did recently make a public appearance in our dryland subsidiary, the Hollywood Bowl, the same act being consummated without your having procured any kind of Royal license or permit. "Charge V: In that you, Sponsor for this majestic vessel, knowing full well the grave responsibilities that accompany this signal honor, have, nevertheless, by devious means heretofore avoided an audience with His Royal Court." Again, justice moved swiftly. With no noticeable delay, the Royal Prosecutor announced: "The Royal Court demands that you bow down before our Oceanic King and beg his Royal forgiveness; and that you then lead a chorus of pollywog ensigns in the singing of the first verse of that nautical song, ‘Anchors Aweigh’" Six pollywog ensigns were called before the Royal Court, Margaret did her penance, and was proclaimed a trusty shellback. She was then escorted by Captain Dennison to the Presidential stand, from where she watched the initiations that followed. Next to appear before the Court was Mr. Steelman. He was charged with: Charges I and II, which were the same as the President's. "Charge III: In that you, the number one assistant to the President of your great nation, have displayed gross disrespect to His Majesty, Neptunus Rex, and have seriously prejudiced international relations by having failed to make any effort whatsoever to communicate with His Majesty and inform him of your impending visit to His Realm. "Charge IV: In that for more than a year you have harbored the mistaken preoccupation that many of the cares and burdens of the ship of state and much of the weight of administering the affairs of your great nation rest on your shoulders. "Charge V: In that you have feloniously and maliciously attempted to avoid an audience with His Majesty by contending that the press of official business in Washington would not permit you to leave the Capital." Mr. Steelman, like the President, pleaded mitigating circumstances, blaming his air crossing on Presidential orders. Neptune was, of course, unimpressed and nodded to take him away. This took Mr. Steelman by complete surprise. After the President, Mrs. Truman and Margaret had gotten off so lightly, he was hopefully expecting nothing more than a lecture. It was an amazed Mr. Steelman who was taken in hand by two husky Royal Cops and "escorted" to the operating table, where he was examined by a battery of Royal sawbones and had administered a dose of bad tasting medicine -- a brew of alum, mustard, quinine and epsom salts. He was, then, unceremoniously pushed off the table, and, prompted by the Royal Devil and his electrically charged pitchfork, moved with a spring up the steps leading to the "torture stage". There he was, in quick succession, anointed with greasy concoction by the Royal Barber, "treated" by the Royal Dentist, scorned by the Royal Undertaker, and pitched backwards from a teetering chair into the Royal Tank. He finally broke away from the clutches of the Royal Bears and escaped the tank, only to be whacked unmercifully as he "sailed out" down shillalah alley -- a sixty-foot double line of enthusiastic shellbacks armed with stuffed canvas billies. Mr. Steelman was then proclaimed a trusty shellback. Next to appear before the Forum of the Deep was Mr. Connelly. The Royal Prosecutor announced his charges. Charges I and II were the same as the President's. Charge III read, "In that, as appointment secretary and keeper of the outer gate of the Number One Pollywog of the U.S.S. MISSOURI, you have deliberately and with coarse and brazen effrontery flouted all opportunity to visit Our Realm for discussions with the Royal Dynasty into suitable applications of justice for members of his party. "Charge IV: In that you are from Boston, which is enough in itself." Mr. Connelly offered no defense. The Royal Prosecutor was noticeably annoyed. He asked that Mr. Connelly be summarily keelhauled and triced up. The Royal Judges so decreed, and Mr. Connelly was forthwith delivered to the Royal Cops, and underwent the same fate as did Mr. Steelman. He was then proclaimed a loyal shellback. Mr. Hassett followed in appearance before the Royal Court. He stood, visibly uneasy, as his charges were read to the Royal Judges. He was required to answer to: Charges I and II, which were the same as the President's. "Charge III: In that you, a well read and well informed pollywog, have by evasion and cunning heretofore successfully avoided an audience before the Royal Court of Neptunus Rex." "Charge IV: In that you, a man who has long contended to be a friend of the nautical, recently permitted yourself to be incarcerated in an Army Hospital, far, far from the briny deep, and that subsequently you have openly and defiantly boasted that you are quite fond of certain landlubberly medicos and their super-duper service." Mr. Hassett offered no defense. He was forthwith sentenced to report to the Royal Doctors for a thorough checking-over. Shellback Foskett, who was aware that Mr. Hassett had not been well recently, appealed to his Majesty on his account. King Neptune mellowed and granted Mr. Hassett amnesty, and proclaimed him a shellback. Shellback Hassett then took a seat on the Presidential platform and observed the initiations that followed. Mr. Ross, with bowed head, was the next pollywog to listen to the "awful crimes" charged to him. The Royal Prosecutor's voice had lost none of its volume as he read: Charge I, which was the same as the President's. "Charge II: In that you have endeavored to embarrass his Majesty, Neptunus Rex, and lessen the respect due the Royal Court by boasting that you now desire to appear again for no other reason but to satisfy the whims of the pollywog members of the Press." "Charge III: In that as press secretary for our number one pollywog you have grossly failed to exercise the proper discipline among the scurvy and brazen pollywogs in the press party. "Charge IV: In that as press secretary for our number one pollywog you have incurred his Majesty's extreme ire by your failure to properly schedule a press conference with the shellback members of the press party in order to duly inform them of my impending arrival on board." The Royal Prosecutor expounded further by telling Mr. Ross that he being a press man of such great note, His Majesty well remembered Ross' previous visit to His Realm and his appearance before the Royal Court, and went on to say: "I am truly sorry that our treatment at that time failed to properly impress you. You deserve a more drastic fate this time but there are mitigating circumstances. In consideration of these circumstances, I command you to call all shellback members of the press before the Royal Court and accord them an exclusive interview.” Mr. Ross stood in mute contempt. But justice moved swiftly. He was promptly seized by the Royal High Sheriff and delivered to the operating table where the Royal "saw-bones" worked him over. The Royal Devil was herding Mr. Ross toward the tank when softhearted shellback Foskett stepped out and rescued him from further indignity, and escorted him to the Presidential stand. Mr. Woodward was next to be arraigned. His charges were re-read. He attempted to present what he considered mitigating circumstances, but King Neptune was untouched. The Royal Judges decreed that Mr. Woodward be given the extreme Royal Double Dirty works. Mr. Woodward was "carried away" and given the full course of treatment prescribed to make him a shellback. It was General Vaughan's time to appear before the Court. The Royal Prosecutor charged him with: Charges I and II, which were the same as the President's. "Charge III: In that you, a vile landlubber and field artilleryman, have sought to avoid an audience with His Royal Highness, Neptunus Rex, by falsely contending that you once appeared before His Majesty's Court." The Royal Prosecutor continued, and told General Vaughan that the Court was disposed to hear evidence of his qualifications, but at the same time warned him that unless his evidence was conclusive, the Royal Bears would be directed to take him in hand and indoctrinate him in the ways of the nautical man. General Vaughan must have realized that he didn’t have a chance, for he unhesitatingly announced that he desired to offer no evidence. He was pronounced guilty on all counts and taken away to the Royal operating table. Apparently the Royal "Sawbones" found some "shellback evidence" about the General's body, for Admiral Foskett was called over and the General was delivered to his custody. Admiral Foskett hurriedly escorted General Vaughan to the Presidential stand. The General was greatly relieved at this turn of events, but Mrs. Truman registered mild disappointment when she learned of what had transpired. She evidently was looking forward to seeing General Vaughan "get the full works". General Graham was the last of the President's party to be summoned before His Majesty's Forum. He was charged with: Charges I and II, which were the same as the President's, and ''Charge III: In that you have grievously embarrassed the shellback members of the President's Party by harboring a malicious and wrongful, intent to bring into my Royal Domain two feathered, liced and noisy members of that Lesser Realm (the air), namely, two macaws. "Charge IV: In that, having jumped earthward by parachute on numerous occasions and for divers reasons, you have, nevertheless, repeatedly avoided visiting my Royal Domain and by so doing have avoided all association with the denizens of the deep that inhabit those parts. "Charge V: In that you created an international situation by attempting to climb by foot the lofty heights of Corcovado Mountain in search of orchids. Brazilians never climb anything as high as Corcovado! Is it that you are an orchidologist masquerading as a surgeon - or is it vice versa? What General Graham had to say meant nothing to the Royal Court. The Royal Judges promptly ruled that he was guilty and should be given the "Royal Dirty Works”. The General's fine, manly physique must have whetted the Royal Bears' appetite for it was observed that he was dealt an extra dose of punishment all along the "last mile". Then followed Captain Burns, Jack Romagna, Jim Rowley, his Secret Service muscle- men, and the "gentlemen" of the Press. Their charges were read publicly and their brief pleas heard. One by one they were summarily pronounced guilty and hauled away to receive the “works". The gem of the day's proceedings was Dave Lu's plea of, "Why argue, I don't have a Chinaman's chance anyway!" A few of the newspapermen (Joe Fox, 'Peck' Trussell and Bjorn Bjornson), because of their advanced age or other infirmities, were rescued from the Royal Bears after the Royal Doctors had "treated" them, and were saved from the pangs of the tank and the shillalah line. By 9:30 a.m., all of the pollywogs of the President's Party, the Staff, the Secret Service and the Press had been duly initiated, and the induction of the ship's company had commenced. The President remained on deck to witness a few of these, and then he and the members of his party retired to their quarters to have breakfast. After breakfast, the President returned, alone, to the scene of Neptune's Court and watched the initiations for a while longer. The crew initiations proceeded with assembly line speed and precision. Pleas were entered but they didn't mean anything to King Neptune or the Royal Judges. All pollywogs were guilty, and that was that! By 10:50 a.m., the decks in the vicinity of the tank had become thoroughly soaked with water and grease. About a score of men had fallen and injured themselves slightly. King Neptune took official notice of these conditions and decided that he had had enough pleasure for one day. So, he called off further hearings and granted amnesty to all uninitiated pollywogs aboard, and declared them shellbacks. Most of the injured were returned to duty immediately after first aid treatment. Shortly afterwards, King Neptune adjourned His Court, bade Captain Dennison goodbye and "left the ship", with his retinue, by way of the CPO hatch. Normal routine was soon resumed aboard the MISSOURI. This forenoon the President sent the following radiogram to the Honorable Robert S. Kerr at Oklahoma City: "From the Equator, where Neptunus Rex is sole ruler of the Raging Main, I send you affectionate birthday greetings and every good wish.” Our noon position was Latitude 01°-19.5' South, Longitude 35° -49.3' West. We had made good 1728 miles since leaving Rio. The weather was fair, with a slight sea, and an average temperature of 80°. The wind was from the east-southeast (force of 17 knots). The news of the morning's doings spread far. During the afternoon, Mr. Steelman received the following radiogram from his staff at the White House: “Congratulations to you on your initiation as a shellback. Delighted with the news and hold your new position esteem. Best wishes from the lowly pollywogs.” After due consideration, Mr. Steelman dispatched the following message in reply: "For the White House, East Wing. Message deeply appreciated. Note your reference to my new position. For your information my real position is and for some time to come will be either upright or horizontal - if you know what I mean. I miss you folks awfully. Cordial good wishes." At 4:30 p.m., we changed course to 320° (true), and at 4:31 p.m., we crossed the equator (Latitude 00000') at Longitude 36°-30' West. Captain Dennison was a guest of the President and his mess at the movies tonight. The picture shown was, "It Happened on Fifth Avenue", starring Don DeFore and Ann Harding. This afternoon, President Truman received radiograms from President Dutra and his Minister of War, both in reply to his messages of September 7th. There follow Literal English translations of them: "Your Excellency Harry S. Truman, aboard the U .S.S. MISSOURI. We are delighted with the terms of the message of thanks and farewell sent from on board the MISSOURI when your Excellency left with your distinguished party from Brazilian territorial waters. "The reception given Your Excellency, your wife and daughter represented the sentiments of true friendship that the Brazilian people dedicate to Your Excellency personally as the President of the United States of America, our traditional friends and allies in the past, in the present and in the future. "This feeling of understanding is symbolized in the friendship which arouses pride in the heart of the city of Rio de Janeiro, as offered by our brothers from the north in commemorating the centennial of the birth of Brazil as an independent nation. "I am certain of the spontaneous expression and feeling which your name holds in the thoughts of our people in this moment in which I send to the American people by means of Your Excellency, this message of sympathy, comprehension and esteem. (signed) Eurico Gaspar Dutra, President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil.” "For President Truman. The Brazilian Army feels itself overcome with the congratulations which Your Excellency sent them, by my intermediary, in virtue of your participating in the commemoration of the 125th Anniversary of our country. In appreciation of the honorable reference which your Excellency made to our soldiers, I desire to express the satisfaction with which all of them paraded before (the highest officials of the United States of North America, a nation to which Brazil is linked by bonds of old friendship, that the common ideal is each time made stronger and more effective. Devoted greetings. Signed, General Canrobert, Minister of War, Brazil” Friday, September 12th. (Enroute Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk, on course 320° (true), speed 20 knots). The President arose at 7 a.m. At 7:30a.m., he appeared on deck with his orderly for a walk around the ship. It was field day (general housecleaning day) aboard ship and the deck force was scrubbing down at the time, so the President cut short his walk and returned to his cabin at 7:40. At 8 a.m., the task force was in a position approximately 600 miles northeast by east from the mouth of the Amazon River. At 8:06 a.m., the MISSOURI slowed to 15 knots, preparatory to receiving the DYESS alongside for refueling operations. At 8:21 a.m., we slowed to 12 knots. The President dispatched the following radiogram to General of the Armies of the United States John J. Pershing, Washington, D.C. “In the name of a grateful people I send affectionate birthday greetings to a gallant and intrepid defender of American rights. Time, which has vindicated your vision and judgment, bas increased the debt which the nation owes you. With every good wish. (Signed) Harry S. Truman.” The DYESS was alongside from 8:34 to 10:20 a.m. for refueling. Two 5" hoses were rigged to the destroyer for the operation, one forward and one aft. As soon as refueling had been completed, the DYESS resumed her regular position in the screen. The SMALL then, at 10: 30 a.m., came alongside. She was refueled, and at 11:51 a.m., cast off from alongside, and returned to her regular station. At 1l:58 a.m., the task force resumed speed 20 knots. Our noon position was: Latitude 04°-36' North, Longitude 40° -31.5' West. We had made good 2187 miles since leaving Rio. The weather was slightly cloudy; the average temperature was 84°; and there was a slight sea running. A 10 knot wind was blowing from the southeast. Plans to catapult seaplanes from the MISSOURI this afternoon were called off because of an early afternoon rain squall. The President took a nap after lunch. Later in the afternoon, he and Mrs. Truman spent several hours on the surrender deck while they enjoyed the sun and watched Margaret and other members of his party play deck tennis and shuffle board. The cruise had now developed into the first real carefree vacation the President had had since taking office. He was following no set schedule. Official business was kept at an absolute minimum and emphasis was placed on taking things easy. Much time was spent in his cabin chatting with members of his party or in light reading. After lunch he would usually take a short nap and then spend an hour or so out on deck sunbathing or reading. The only chore of the trip was the steady stream of pictures, Neptune certificates and other paraphernalia that, despite our efforts to head them off, found their way to the President's desk for his autograph. Mrs. Truman spent most of her time about, the quarters, doing a great deal of reading. Afternoons she would usually join the President out on deck. Margaret devoted most of her mornings to resting. In the afternoons she usually joined Admiral Foskett, Mr. Woodward and General Graham on deck playing deck tennis or shuffleboard. Admiral Leahy, Mr. Steelman, Mr. Connelly, Mr. Ross, Mr. Hassett and General Vaughan were less active and stayed indoors most of the time during the cruise except when they came on deck to join the party in witnessing the various exercises that were staged for the benefit of the President. All hands took advantage of the MISSOURI's well stocked ship's store to complete their souvenir and gift purchases. Brazilian butterfly trays, alligator and crocodile purses and belts brought the most sales. The stock of the Officers' Uniform Shop on board was also somewhat dented, as several of the party bought shirts, (white, grey, blue and khaki) and undershirts and drawers by the dozens. Nondescript clothing outfits soon began to appear in the President's quarters - some members were wearing blue denim dungaree trousers and white shirts, some blue chambray work shirts with white sailor trousers. Any combination that caught their fancy seemed to be "uniform of the day” with them. The President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, and Admiral Leahy were dinner guests of the Wardroom Mess. After dinner they examined the silver service of the old battleship MISSOURI, which is now kept on display in the wardroom. They remained to see the motion picture "Holiday in Mexico.” The members of the Press were dinner guests of the Warrant Officers. This timely invitation allowed all ship’s wardroom officers to attend the dinner and to enjoy the company of the President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, Admiral Leahy and Captain Dennison. Because of the large number of passengers on board, a number of the ship's junior wardroom officers usually had to wait for a second setting. The Naval Aide sent the following congratulatory radiogram jointly to the Secretary of the Navy (Director of Public Relations, Navy Department), the Commanding Officer, U.S.S. MISSOURI, and the Director of Naval Communications: “The President is particularly well pleased with the news service he is receiving during this cruise. The amount of material is such that three editions are published daily. The scope of coverage and the manner in which the news is presented to him indicate much hard work and careful preparation. This reflects great credit on all hands who have a part in furnishing this superior service." Saturday, September 13th. (Enroute Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk (course .320° (true), speed 20 knots). The President arose at 6:30 a.m. and turned-to soon afterwards to complete his penance by autographing cards for each member of King Neptune's Court. At 7:30 a.m., he left his cabin for a 15 minute walk about the ship. He was accompanied by his orderly. At 8 a.m., we were in a position approximately 650 miles north by east from the mouth of the Amazon River. This is the area known as the doldrums, the region north of the equator at this time of the year characterized by calms and light breezes. Lieut-Comdr. F. G. Robinson, ship's aerological officer, told us this morning that the hurricane whose progress we had been following closely for the past several days was now 1300 miles away from us and was traveling west northwest to northwest about 20 miles an hour. Lieut-Comdr. Robinson forecast that the MISSOURI would get no closer than 600 to 700 miles from the center of the hurricane. No particular concern was felt for the safety of the President and the members of his party. At 9 a.m., the MISSOURI changed speed to 15 knots, and at 9:15, changed course to 280° (true). At 9:30 a.m., the President, Admiral Leahy, General Vaughan, Admiral Foskett and General Graham joined Captain Dennison in an inspection of the officers and crew. The President delighted the MISSOURI's men by showing a real personal interest in them. From time to time as he passed through the ranks, the President would be attracted by particular ribbons or stars and would ask the man the meaning of them. Invariably he would congratulate the man, say "fine" if he reported he hadn’t been hurt in the war, and shake his hand. During his inspection of the Marine guard he startled the Marines by taking every sixth rifle or so, raising it with the butt lifted to the sky and sighting along the barrel. The President visited the sick bay and talked with Theodore E. Nelson, F2/c, a patient from the U.S.S. SMALL. Nelson had suffered a fractured skull while saving the life of a shipmate in Rio de Janeiro. He was injured while rescuing C. V. Richardson (also from the U.S.S. SMALL) from underneath a trolley brakerail. The President also chatted with Charles A. Scott, the merchant seaman who had been transferred from the S.S. DEL SOL. Personnel inspection was completed by 10 a.m. At 10:13 a.m., we changed course to 320° (true) and at 10:34, we resumed speed of 20 knots. Our noon position was: Latitude 10°-29.8' North, Longitude 45°-21' West. We were now 2656 miles out of Rio. The weather was warm and cloudy, with an average temperature of 82°, and a moderate to light sea. A 12 knot wind was blowing from the east. At 12 noon, the President, Admiral Leahy, General Vaughan, Admiral Foskett, General Graham and Captain Dennison lunched with the Chief Petty Officers. . The President took a nap after lunch and later sat out on deck, where he read and sunned. During the afternoon the text of General Marshall's proposed speech before the next meeting of the United Nations was received by radio. The President studied it and radioed his approval to Secretary Marshall. He told General Marshall that he considered it an excellent statement of our position. Margaret, Admiral Foskett, General Graham and Mr. Woodward tried a game of deck tennis during the afternoon, but it was a bit too windy. There was occasional high spray and the deck became wet, so they gave up the attempt after both Margaret and Mr. Woodward had slipped and fallen on deck. At 6:30 p.m., Miss Truman dined with Captain Dennison in his mess. Ensigns E. A. Drabent, W.H. Blandy, D. Toll and E. Kelly, junior officers from the Wardroom, were also dinner guests of the Captain. Afterwards, Miss Truman accompanied them to the motion picture in the Wardroom (“Brazil”). The folks in the President's country took a night off from the movies. Sunday, September 14th (Enroute Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk, course .320° (true), speed 20 knots). The President arose at 7:10 a.m., and spent the next hour in his cabin reading. It was raining lightly at 7:15 when he first came out, so he postponed his usual morning walk until 8:15 a.m. During his walk he met several of the newspapermen on deck and stopped to chat briefly with them. He returned to his quarters at 8:45 a.m., and had breakfast with his party at 9. At 8 a.m., we changed course to 318° (true). We were then approximately 650 miles due east of Guadeloupe Island, one of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles. This is the approximate position in which the hurricane which originated on September 11th was first reported. The majority of the tropical disturbances known as hurricanes, which form generally in the month of September, originate in this area. At 10 a.m., the MISSOURI slowed to 15 knots, and the main deck aft was rigged for church services. t 10:15 a.m., the President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman and all members of the President's party braved a threatening shower to join Captain Dennison, Commander Colwell and some 200 ship's officers and other members of the crew at non-denominational services conducted by Commander L. R. Schmeider, the ship's Chaplain. Chaplain Schmeider's text was taken from Romans 8:28 – “To them that love God, all things work together unto good, to such as according to His purpose are called to be saints." The Chaplain made no reference in his short sermon to the President, Mrs. Truman, or Margaret, who sat in the front row of chairs. Margaret's trained Soprano voice could be heard above the voices of the officers and men singing such old favorite hymns as "Holy, Holy, Holy", "Onward Christian Soldiers"; "Rock of Ages”, and "Eternal Father, Strong to Save" Music was under the direction of Bandmaster W. H. Sorrell, with Calvin Hauffe and Fred Russell (Musicians Second Class) as violinists. Hauffe, accompanied by John Wigent, played a Bach air. Divine services were over at 10:45 a.m. and the MISSOURI resumed her regular cruising speed of 20 knots. Our noon position was Latitude 16°33' North, Longitude 50°-42' West. We had now made good 3138 miles since leaving Rio. The weather was warm and slightly cloudy, with a moderate sea and an average temperature of 81°. The wind was from east northeast, force 16 knots. The President and Mrs. Truman spent some time this afternoon out on the surrender deck, where they read and enjoyed the warm sun. They looked on from time to time as Margaret and Mr. Woodward teamed up against General Graham and Admiral Foskett in a game of deck tennis. The President had wanted to listen to the broadcast of Secretary Marshall's speech but atmospheric conditions prevented satisfactory reception. At 7 p.m., the President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman and their entire party had dinner with Captain Dennison in his mess. Commander Colwell was also a guest. After the dinner, Captain Dennison presented the President with the "Jolly Roger" flag that had been flown in the MISSOURI during the Crossing the Line ceremonies last Thursday. Also, in answer to rumors of a mild complaint registered by Mr. Steelman concerning personal damages suffered last Thursday, Captain Dennison "published" to Mr. Steelman the following statement of his account: “U.S.S. MISSOURI September 14, 1947 From: Commanding Officer. To: The Honorable John R. Steelman. Subject: Statement of your account. 1. Your attention is invited to the following incredible state of economic affairs arising from "Crossing the Line" ceremony. DEBIT To 5-1/8 1bs. grade AAA black grease $0.12 1/10 kilowatt electricity (applied indiscriminately) 0.11 3 oz. quinine 0.27 500 gallons bath water (unfit for re-use) 0.25 682.5 man-hours (processing charge, cleaning, greasing, adjusting brakes, etc.) 0.23 1 egg shampoo (molasses, marshmallow and flour extra) 0.18 High 0.28 Low 0.07 Good Will 0.01 Laundry (one pr. white pants) 0.13 1.65 CREDIT One pr. white pants (alleged to have been soiled in initiation) $1.65 RECAPITULATION Debit (You owe us) $1.65 Credit (We owe you) $1.65 BALANCE 0.00 2. Converting the balance into dollars Yuan, Milreis, Cruzeiros, and back into U. S. Dollars (at the current rate of exchange) it still comes out zero. There must be something wrong. We are still working on the problem. /s/ Mr. ROBERT L. DENNISON.” At 7:01 p.m., all clocks were set back one hour, to conform to Zone Plus Four time. After dinner, the President and his party returned to his cabin where they whiled away the evening until time to retire. Monday, September 15th. (Enroute Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk, course 318° (true), speed 20) The President arose at 7:30 a.m. and came on deck at 7:40 for a 15 minute walk. At 7:30 a.m., the DYESS left her regular cruising position on our starboard bow and took station for gunnery exercises. At 8 a.m., the MISSOURI was 600 miles east by north from St. Thomas, Virgin Islands (on the same parallel of latitude as Cuba and Hawaii). At 8:46 a.m., the MISSOURI commenced maneuvering at various speeds and on various courses preparatory to catapulting two observation seaplanes to spot main battery fall of shot. At 9:01 a.m., a seaplane piloted by Lieutenant H. L. Joslyn was catapulted to starboard; at 9:02 a second plane, piloted by Lieutenant (jg) N. P. Currin, was launched to port. The President and most members of his party observed these operations from the main deck, aft. At 9:03, the MISSOURI resumed course 318° (true), and at 9:05, slowed to 10 knots. The ship went to "General Quarters" at 9:06 a.m. At 9:37 a.m., the MISSOURI fired the first of 5 salvos, from turret one of her main battery. The DYESS, which was then on a parallel course, 5,000 yards distant on our starboard quarter, was used as a target. The guns were offset 70 mils (1050 yards) to the right, which meant that although the gunners took aim at the DYESS the projectiles fell 1000 yards astern of the target vessel. A total of eleven rounds were fired in five salvos (3-2-2-1-3) . Obsolete armor piercing projectiles and reduced powder charges were used. The Presidential Party, including Mrs. Truman and Margaret, witnessed the firing from the open bridge (05 level). The President was to have fired one salvo but the portable firing key failed to operate after an earlier satisfactory test. The splash of the projectiles as they plunged into the sea beyond and to the right of the DYESS could be clearly seen from our vantage point. This was the first time that the President had ever witnessed the firing of such heavy guns afloat, and he remarked afterwards that he thought it was a fine show. Mrs. Truman said she expected more noise. Margaret said it shook her all over. The firing was completed at 9:41 a.m. and all hands returned to their quarters. At 11:29, the ship changed speed to 15 knots and commenced maneuvering to make a slick preparatory to recovering its two planes that were aloft. The first plane (Lt. Joslyn) landed safely, taxied alongside and was picked up by crane and hoisted aboard at 11:40. The second plane (Lt. Currin) damaged his pontoon as he landed, but he was able to taxi up alongside and was taken aboard at 11:50 a.m. No one was hurt in his rough landing. The Presidential party watched these operations from the main deck with keen interest. We changed course to 315° (true) at 11:55 am. We continued at speed 15. At 12 (noon), our position was Latitude 22°-07' North, Longitude 55°57' West, or 3582 miles out of Rio. As we were running well ahead of our schedule, which called for our arrival at Norfolk on the 19th, Captain Dennison slowed the task force down to cruising speed of 15 knots. The weather was fair and hot, with an average temperature of 83°. There was a slight sea running and the wind (force of 12 knots) was from the east. The President took a nap after lunch. Later he and Mrs. Truman sat out on the surrender deck, where they read, and enjoyed the sun. Other members of the party engaged in deck tennis. The President took dinner with the ship's Warrant Officers in their mess this evening. Captain Dennison was also their guest. We changed course to 314° (true) at 8 p.m. At 8 p.m., all hands, except the ladies, filed aft to the fantail where they were entertained at a ship's smoker, or "happy hour". There were several musical numbers by the ship's orchestra (under the direction of Bandmaster Sorrell), one by a hill--billy band led by Ernest Leach, and three by guitar-playing crooner Clemente Boulette. The feature of the evening, however, was the boxing. Five fast, savagely fought bouts put the large crowd in a rousing mood and all hands regretted to see the finis come. A bit of fun was injected into the program when 6'7” John Holeman (New York Daily News) clowned two rounds with diminutive Dave Lu (5'4") of the Central News Agency of China. Bill Hillman (MBS) "refereed" this special bout. John Adams (CBS) MC'd and did his usual fine job and made a big hit with the crew. General Graham refereed the regular bouts. Gerald Behn was a boxing judge. The President was asked to say a few words to the crowd. He told them: "I want to say to you that this has been one of the happiest evening's entertainment that I have ever enjoyed. I have seen more fighting here in the last thirty minutes than you will see at any professional bout in Madison Square Garden. In a memorandum just issued to us a little earlier, I was very proud to read of your record in Rio. The more I see of your work and operation of this great battleship, the prouder I am of you. Keep it up.” On the conclusion of the smoker, the President and his party returned to his cabin and joined the ladies. On the trip north the MISSOURI had proceeded generally clear of steamer lanes but during the day we crossed the Gibraltar-Caribbean and the North Europe-Caribbean lanes. Due to favorable winds and currents in this region, many sailing ships proceeding from Europe to the United States sailed as far south as this latitude before turning northwest to arrive at East Coast ports. The voyages of early explorers from Europe passed along these routes carried by the northeast trade winds and resulted in the discoveries of the islands in the Caribbean. Tuesday, September 16th. (Enroute Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk, course 314° (true), speed 15 knots.) The President arose at 7:10 a.m. He came on deck at 7:35, accompanied by his orderly, and took a 20 minute walk about the ship. At 8 a.m., we were in a position approximately 540 miles northeast by north from San Juan, Puerto Rico, or about 1000 miles due east of Miami, Florida. This is the area known as the Sargasso Sea. The Sargasso Sea will not be found on any chart by name but it may be located roughly on pilot charts which indicate ocean currents. The name comes from the large quantities of Sargasso or Gulf weed which are found floating on the surface of the ocean in this region. The Gulf Stream picks up the seaweed known as Sargassum or gulf weed from coasts of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico and as the stream passes northeastward in to the Atlantic it deposits the gulf weed on its edges where the current is greatly diminished. Between the parallels of 20°35° North Latitude and meridians of 30°70° West Longitude, no well defined ocean currents occur. However, the Gulf stream flowing northeastward and across the Atlantic to the eastward and the north Equatorial current flowing westward result in the clockwise currents enclosing this area into which gulf weed is deposited. At one time it was widely credited that some ships lost at sea had become embedded in a mass of this vegetation beyond possible escape. As late as 1910, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica, an expedition was launched to disprove this theory. To date, no vessels caught in the seaweed of the Sargasso Sea have ever been discovered. At 9:23 a.m., we changed course to 030° (true) preparatory to launching a drone -- a small radio controlled robot plane used as a target for anti-aircraft practice. This drone had a two cylinder engine and a wing span of 13 feet. At 9:28 a.m., the ship began maneuvering on various courses and speeds and the first drone was launched preparatory to target practice firings by the 40 millimeter machine gun batteries. Four drones were lost because of transmitter failures. A fifth one had to be launched before we could get one to keep to the air. Finally, at 10:46 a.m. the 40MM machine guns opened up to port and the drone was shot down. When hit, it appeared to disintegrate. The First Family and the members of the President’s party were interested spectators, watching the operation from the wing of the open bridge (on the 05 level). Cease firing was ordered at 10:54 a.m. A total of 1704 rounds (40 MM) of ammunition had been expended. We changed course to 314° (true) at 10:59 a.m., and resumed speed of 15 knots. The SMALL came alongside to port again at 11:30 a.m., to be refueled, preparatory to making a high speed run to Hamilton, Bermuda, to deliver mail and newsreel and still films for air shipment to New York. The SMALL finished refueling at 12:29 p.m. Mail and film were transferred and she departed immediately, at speed 20, for Hamilton. Our noon position was: Latitude 26°-24' North, Longitude 60°-09.5' West (3930 miles out from Rio); the average temperature was 84°; there was a slight sea running but the weather was clear. A fifteen knot wind was blowing from east-southeast. The ship's aerologists kept a close watch on the hurricane to the north. Thus far the MISSOURI had been maintaining its course and speed. At 12:31 p.m., we changed course to 310° (true). Mr. Ross lunched with Captain Dennison in his cabin. After lunch, the President donned his sun suit (bathing trunks and helmet) and spent more than an hour on the surrender deck. Mrs. Truman kept him company for a part of the time. Mr. Woodward, Admiral Foskett, General Graham and Lieutenant Moore engaged in a game of deck tennis on the main deck. The President and Mrs. Truman looked on from time to time. Margaret dined with the Wardroom officers this evening and remained to witness a showing of the motion picture "Song of the Scherherazade” (Yvonne De Carlo and Brian Donlevy). She was the guest of Ensigns Drahent, Blandy, Toll and Kelly, the young gentlemen with whom she dined in the Captain’s mess on Saturday last. There was no movie shown in the President’s country. Wednesday, September 17th (Enroute Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk, course 310° (true), speed 15) At 3:26 a.m., we changed course to 280° (true); at 3:43 a.m., we went to 310° (true). The President arose at 6:50. He came on deck at 7:10, for a 20 minute walk about the ship, during the course of which he stopped to inspect one of the drones. The President showed considerable interest in the machine and asked several questions of Aviation Chief Machinist's Mate John W. Gaut, the petty officer in charge of its maintenance. At 8 a.m., we were in a position approximately 210 miles south of Bermuda and 875 miles east of St. Augustine, Florida. At 9:25 a.m., the task force changed course to 330° (true), and at 9:32 a.m., to 010° (true) and speed to 10 knots preparatory to launching a drone for 5” firings. A type "TTD" drone was launched to starboard at 9:36 a.m., and we changed course back to 330° (true). At 9:45, the ship opened fire on the drone with the starboard 5" battery. The President observed this firing from sky control four (in the mainmast) from where the fire as well as the flight of the radio-controlled drone, was directed. One hundred and ninety-seven rounds were fired at the elusive drone with no hits being registered. After the MISSOURI had completed her firings (at 10:13 a.m.), the DYESS - then in position astern - tried vainly to shoot down the drone. The drone finally exhausted its fuel supply and crashed into the sea, and was picked up by the DYESS. Mrs. Truman and Miss Truman “listened” to these firings from the open bridge (05 level) and were noticeably relieved when told that the practice had been completed. At 10:27, we changed course to 010° (true); at 10:40, we went back to 310° (true); and at 10:46, we resumed speed of 15 knots. Our noon position was Latitude 30°-18.5' North, Longitude 65°-09’ West; the average temperature was 84°; the weather was fair, with a slight sea. The wind was from the east southeast, force 14 knots. We were now 4,273 miles distant from Rio de Janeiro. After lunch, the President sunned for a while and then watched the skeet shooting on the forecastle. At 4:05 p.m., the SMALL rejoined our formation, having completed her special mission to Bermuda, and took her regular station on our port bow. This afternoon the President “met” on deck with the “Truman Athletic Club” – a group of newspapermen who had decided they needed to get in better physical condition so that they could better keep pace with the President. The President accepted appointment as their coach, donned his lettered T-shirt and led the group in “mild” calisthenics (finger and wrist exercises principally). Moving and still pictures were made of the “workout”. At 7:01 p.m., all clocks were turned back to conform to zone plus five times (Eastern Standard Time). Norfolk was on this time. Washington was on Eastern Daylight Time, or one hour faster. During dinner tonight the President passed out to members of his party bronze medallions commemorating his visit to Brazil. The medallions had been given to him by President Dutra. After dinner the President signed some official mail that had collected during our cruise. Then followed a showing in his cabin of the motion picture “Possessed”, starring Joan Crawford, Van Heflin and Raymond Massey. At 8:13 p.m., we changed course to 307° (true). We learned tonight that the hurricane that had been playing around in the Atlantic for several days had veered westward and had struck south Florida with considerable damage. There was little likelihood, however, that its path and the MISSOURI’s path would cross at any time. The President sent the following radiogram to the Federal Works Administrator in Washington: “I find that the damage, hardship and suffering which have been caused by the hurricane in the State of Florida and which may be visited upon Georgia are already of such severity and magnitude as to justify invoking the provisions of Public Law 233, 80th Congress. Thereby Federal aid will be extended by making surplus personal property available to the states and local governments in the area affected by the catastrophe. Accordingly, I hereby now determine that it is necessary and appropriate for the War Assets Administration to transfer, without reimbursement, and in accordance with the provisions of Public Law 233, 80th Congress, to the Federal Works Administration such articles of surplus personal property as in your judgment and in the judgment of the War Assets Administrator can be presently utilized by the state and local governments in alleviation of hardship and suffering.” A radiogram was also sent making the President's railroad radio car available to the Red Cross for hurricane relief work if needed. Thursday. September 18th. (Enroute Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk, course 307° (true), speed 15 knots) The President arose at 6:30 a.m., and at 6:50, went to the open bridge (on the 05 level) where he sat and read until 7:20 a.m., when he returned to his quarters. At 8 a.m., the task force was about 400 miles east of Wilmington, North Carolina, or approximately midway between Bermuda and Hatteras. At 8:04 a.m., we changed course to 304° (true) and speed to 14 knots. The President spent the forenoon in his cabin. Our position at. noon today was Latitude 34°-07' North, Longitude 70°-56' West (4648 miles from Rio); the weather continued clear; the average temperature was 83°; there was a slight sea running, and a wind of 14 knots from the east southeast. All hands spent the afternoon packing, in anticipation of transfer to the WILLIAMSBURG tomorrow. Captain Dennison and his senior officers conducted an inspection of the ship's lower decks during the afternoon. A general invitation was issued for any, or all, of the newspapermen to accompany the various inspection parties but there were very few takers. We crossed the approximate outer edge of the Gulf Stream about 7 p.m., and cleared the inner edge shortly after midnight. The Gulf Stream is the most remarkable of all ocean currents -- remarkable both for its strength and consistency. It has its origin, as its name implies, in the Gulf of Mexico, where it is formed by the junction of the North and South Equatorial currents flowing westward from the African coast through the Caribbean. One branch of these Equatorial currents passes south of Cuba towards the Yucatan Peninsula where it follows the shore line of the Gulf of Mexico to the Straits of Florida, while the other passes along the north coast of Cuba to the Straits of Florida. Here the two branches meet to form this remarkable stream which passes through the Straits of Florida, northward and northeastward along the East Coast of the United States. The Stream is further strengthened off the Florida Coast by the Antilles current, a portion of the Equatorial currents which failed to enter the Caribbean but passed north of Puerto Rico and Hispanola. In the narrow Straits of Florida the Gulf Stream reaches a velocity of 3 ½ knots along its axis. Hydrographic charts show the location of the approximate axis of the stream. A vessel proceeding north along this axis will rarely encounter any southbound traffic, which usually follows the shoreline remaining as far off the axis as possible. When abreast Jacksonville, Florida, the Gulf Stream gradually turns to the northeastward about 85 miles off shore, paralleling the Georgia and Carolina coasts at about that distance until its axis reaches a point about 35 miles southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, by which time its mean velocity has decreased to about two knots. Continuing on a northeasterly course it decreases in velocity until it reaches the easternmost portion of North America where it is generally conceded to cease to exist as a steady, consistent current. However by this time, it has reached the region of prevailing westerly winds giving rise to an easterly current towards Europe until the continental shores are approached. Here the remaining current divides, one branch going to the northeastward into the Arctic regions, the other going to the south and east in the direction of the African Coast and completing the clockwise cycle of North Atlantic currents. Captain Dennison and Commander Colwell were dinner guests in the President's mess. No movies were shown. At 8:32 p.m., we changed course to 302° (true). The President autographed photographs for: Captain Dennison, Commander Colwell, Commander R. L. Fulton, Commander W. R. Barnes, the Wardroom Mess of the MISSOURI, the Warrant Officers' Mess of the MISSOURI, the Chief Petty Officers' Mess of the MISSOURI, and one for the crew of the MISSOURI. Friday, September 19th. (Enroute Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk, course 302° (true), speed 14 knots). At 2:21 a.m., we changed course to 272° (true); at 2:45 a.m., to 302° (true); at 4:32 a.m., to 332° (true); and at 5:04 a.m., back to 302° (true). The President arose at 6:45 a.m. He spent the next hour and fifteen minutes clearing up miscellaneous papers that had come to his desk, most of which sought his personal autograph. At 6:55 a.m., we changed course to 272° (true); and at 7:07 a.m., to 285° (true). At 7:22 a.m., the Chesapeake Bay approach buoy was sighted, bearing 340° (true), distant one thousand yards. At 7:28, we changed course to 277° (true); and at 7:32 a.m., we passed this buoy abeam to starboard, distant one thousand yards. At 7:59 a.m., the SMALL and DYESS left the formation, to proceed independently to the Naval Operating Base at Norfolk. At 8:26 a.m., we sighted channel entrance buoy 2CB. At 8:30 a.m., we could see the Cape Henry Lighthouse, bearing 301° (true), distant five thousand yards. This was our first sight of land for twelve days. At 8:36 a.m., we changed course to 318° (true); and at 8:48, we passed Buoy 2CB abeam to starboard, distant one thousand yards. At 8:55 a.m., we overtook and passed the U.S.S. MUIR (destroyer No. 770) to our port. At 9:15 a.m., the U.S.S. BEATTY (destroyer No. 713) and U.S.S. GREEN (destroyer No. 711) passed us to starboard, headed for Hampton Roads. All three ships manned-the-rail and rendered passing honors. At 9:40 a.m., the U.S.S. MOUNT OLYMPUS (communications ship) passed us to port, headed out to sea. She also manned-the-rail and rendered passing honors. At 11:16 a.m., we passed Fort Wool abeam to port. The Naval Station, Norfolk, fired a 21-gun salute to the President. At 11:35 a.m., the President and members of his party appeared on deck (port side of the surrender deck), where they posed for still and newsreel pictures. The President later went to the main deck and posed with the ship's Marine guard for newsreel pictures. A light rain began falling about this time, which drove the President and his party to cover. The Marine guard, the ship's band and the sailors manning-the-rail remained at their stations and were doused after a bit. The rain was soon over, however, and uniforms and decks dried out quickly under a hot sun. The MISSOURI put over her first mooring line, to Pier Seven at the Naval Operating Base, Norfolk, at 11:59 a.m. We had made good 316 miles since noon Thursday. The total distance traveled from Rio de Janeiro to Norfolk was 4964 miles. By 12:15 p.m., the MISSOURI had been moored (port side to) to the south side of Pier Seven. Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman, Mr. Steelman, Mr. Connelly, Mr. Hassett, Mr. Ross and Mr. Woodward left the ship and walked down the dock to the WILLIAMSBURG. They were greeted there by Captain Freeman, who escorted them aboard the WILLIAMSBURG. Captain Freeman had brought the WILLIAMSBURG down from Washington on Thursday and had moored her at the outer end of the north side of Pier Seven. Other U.S. Naval vessels present at the Naval Operating Base were: the aircraft tenders ALBEMARLE and CURRITUCK, the heavy cruiser ALBANY (flying the three-starred flag of Commander Battleships and Cruisers, U. S. Atlantic Fleet), and the destroyers KENNETH D. BAILEY, DYESS and SMALL. There were also numerous unidentified craft at anchor in Hampton Roads. The giant aircraft carrier MIDWAY stood in as the MISSOURI was mooring. At 12:15 p.m., Lieutenant General D. C. Emmons, U.S.A. (Commandant of the Armed Forces Staff College at Fort Monroe, Virginia), Major General C. L. Bolte, U.S.A. (Chief of Staff, Headquarters, Army Ground Forces), Rear Admiral W. L. Ainsworth, U.S.N. (Commandant of the Fifth Naval District), Rear Admiral E. P. Forrestel, U.S.N. (Commandant of the Naval Station, Norfolk), Rear Admiral J. E. Whitbank, U.S.C.G. (District Coast Guard Officer), Brigadier General R. M. Lee, U.S.A.F. (Deputy Commander, Headquarters Tactical Air Command), the Honorable Porter Hardy (Member of Congress), and the Honorable Richard D. Cook (Mayor of Norfolk) came on board the MISSOURI and paid their respects to the President. They left the ship in a group at 12:30 p.m. At 12:17 p.m., the United States Customs and Public Health officials came on board the MISSOURI. By 12:50 p.m., their examinations had been completed and all baggage for the WILLIAMSBURG had been transferred. The President went on deck where he shook hands with Captain Dennison, Commander Colwell and the various Heads of Departments, and told them goodbye. Then, at 12:55 p.m., with the crew at man-the-rail, the President, Admiral Leahy, General Vaughan, Admiral Foskett and General Graham officially left the MISSOURI. Departure honors were rendered by the ship's band and the Marine guard, and the President's flag was hauled down. As the President descended the gangway, he noticed a crowd of several hundred people, roped off at the head of the pier, at such a distance that they couldn’t see him very well. He walked up the pier in their direction, waved a greeting with his wide-brimmed hat, and then turned and walked directly in front of the ropes to give them a close-hand look at him. He passed along the ropes at a slow pace, then turned and walked down the pier to the WILLIAMSBURG. Before leaving the MISSOURI, the President addressed a letter to the Task Force Commander, expressing his appreciation to the Commander and to the personnel of the task force for a most enjoyable cruise. The sea voyage home had certainly afforded everyone a needed rest. The President and his Aides went aboard the WILLIAMSBURG at 1 p.m., and his flag was broken. They were welcomed aboard by Captain Freeman. At 1:14 p.m., the WILLIAMSBURG was underway for Washington. The ship's band and Marine guard of the MISSOURI rendered honors again as the WIILIAMSBURG pulled away from Pier Seven, and a 2l-gun salute was fired by the Naval Station. The Presidential party had lunch at 1:30 p.m., and then settled down to read the mail and newspapers that were awaiting them. The WILLIAMSBURG had brought mail, and a pouch had been flown down from Washington this forenoon. The DYESS, with most of the newspapermen embarked, departed from the Naval Operating Base, Norfolk, at 1:25 p.m., and joined up with us a short while later, to escort the WILLIAMSBURG to Washington. Several of the newspapermen and photographers left our company at Norfolk, to make their own way to Washington. The WILLIAMSBURG and DYESS passed Smith Point Light at 6:01 p.m., and entered the waters of the Potomac River. At this time, speed of 13.8 knots was set. The cruise up the Chesapeake Bay and on up the Potomac River was particularly enjoyed because of the delightfully cool breezes encountered. It had been quite warm at sea during the past several days. The ladies spent some time on the after deck, while the menfolks remained in the after lounge. There were no movies. By 11 p.m., all hands had turned in, in anticipation of an early arising on the morrow as we were due to dock at Washington at 8 A.M., Saturday. Saturday, September 20th. (Enroute Norfolk] Virginia to Washington, Do Co) As the President did not want to reach Washington before 8 a.m., it was decided that the WILLIAMSBURG and DYESS should anchor at Quantico and remain there until about 5 am. They dropped anchor off the Marine Base at Quantico at 1:17 a.m. Several of the newspapermen left the DYESS there. The WILLIAMSBURG and DYESS were underway again at 4:47 a.m., to continue on to Washington. On leaving Quantico, the DYESS took the lead, so that she could moor at the Naval Gun Factory before the WILLIAMSBURG and afford the newspapermen and photographers embarked the opportunity to cover the President's arrival. The WILLIAMSBURG moored to Pier One, Naval Gun Factory, Washington, at 7:46 a.m. It was misty as we tied up but there was a crowd of approximately one hundred people waiting on the dock to greet the President and his party. In the group were Rear Admiral G. B. Davis, U.S.N. (Commandant of the Potomac River Naval Command) and Mr. Clifford. The DYESS had arrived a few minutes earlier and had already disembarked her passengers at a nearby pier. The President, Mrs. Truman, Miss Truman and members of the President's party left the WILLIAMSBURG at 8:05 a.m. After an exchange of pleasantries with the crowd on the dock, they embarked in White House automobiles and left for the White House. It had been a pleasant and memorable journey, but all hands were glad to be home once again. * * * Appendix “A” Text of Address of the President delivered at the Rio de Janeiro Conference -- the Inter- American Conference for the Maintenance of Continental Peace and Security on September 2, 1947. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mr. President, Delegates to the Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Continental Peace and Security, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is a distinguished privilege to address the final session of this historic conference. You are assembled here as the representatives of the nations of this hemisphere which have been banded together for over a half century in the Inter-American System. You have successfully accomplished the task of putting into permanent form the commitments made in the Act of Chapultepec. You have made it clear to any possible aggressor that the American Republics are determined to support one another against attacks. Our nations have provided an example of good neighborliness and international amity to the rest of the world, and in our association together we have strengthened the fabric of the United Nations. You can be justly proud of the achievements of this Conference and I commend the noble spirit which has inspired your efforts. The cordial and gracious invitation of President Dutra to visit this beautiful land has allowed me to fulfill a desire I have long cherished. I consider it most fortunate that I am enabled also to meet with the Foreign Ministers and other leaders of the American Republics. Thus, in a sense, I am visiting not only Brazil, but I am visiting all your countries, since each of you carries his country in his heart. While we are assembled here together, I wish to discuss with you the responsibilities which our nations share as a result of the recent war. For our part, the United States is deeply conscious of its position in world affairs. We recognize that we have an obligation and that we share this obligation with the other nations of the Western Hemisphere. Therefore, I take this occasion to give you a frank picture of our view of our responsibility and how we are trying to meet it. The people of the United States engaged in the recent war in the deep faith that we were opening the way to a free world, and that out of the terrible suffering caused by the war something better would emerge than the world had known before. The postwar era, however, has brought us bitter disappointment and deep concern. We find that a number of nations are still subjected to a type of foreign domination which we fought to overcome. Many of the remaining peoples of Europe and Asia live under the shadow of armed aggression. No agreement has been reached among the allies to maintain the outlines of a peace settlement. In consequence, we are obliged to contemplate a prolonged military occupation of enemy territories. This is profoundly distasteful to our people. Almost everywhere in Europe, economic recovery has lagged. Great urban and industrial areas have been left in a state of dependence on our economy which is as painful to us as it is to them. Much of this economic distress is due to the paralysis of political fear and uncertainty in addition to the devastation caused by war. This situation has impeded the return to normal economic conditions everywhere in the world and has hampered seriously our efforts to develop useful forms of economic collaboration with our friends in other areas. We did not fully anticipate these developments. Our people did not conceive, when we were fighting the war, that we would be faced with a situation of this nature when hostilities ceased. Our planning for peace presupposed a community of nations sobered and brought together by frightful suffering and staggering losses, more than ever appreciative of the need for mutual tolerance and consideration, and dedicated to the task of peaceful reconstruction. In view of the unfortunate conditions which now prevail, we have faced some difficult problems of adjustment in our foreign policy. I would not say that we have made no mistakes. But I think that the elements of the policy we have evolved thus far are sound and justifiable. The fundamental basis of the policy of the United States is the desire for permanent world peace. We are determined that, in the company of our friends, we shall achieve that peace. We are determined because of the belief of our people in the principle that there are basic human rights which all men everywhere should enjoy. Men can enjoy these rights--the right to life itself, the right to share fully in the bounties of modern civilization--only when the threat of war has been ended forever. The attainment of world-wide respect for essential human rights is synonymous with the attainment of world peace. The peoples of the earth want a peaceful world, a prosperous world, and a free world, and when the basic rights of men everywhere are observed and respected, there will be such a world. We know that in the hearts of common people everywhere there is a deep longing for stability and for settled conditions in which men can attain personal security and a decent livelihood for themselves and their children. We know that there are aspirations for a better and a finer life which are common to all humanity. We know--and the world knows--that these aspirations have never been promoted by policies of aggression. We shall pursue the quest for peace with no less persistence and no less determination than we applied to the quest for military victory. There are certain important elements in our policy which are vital to our search for permanent peace. We intend to do our best to provide economic help for those who are prepared to help themselves and each other. But our resources are not unlimited. We must apply them where they can serve the most effectively to bring production, freedom, and confidence back to the world. We undertook to do this on an individual basis in the case of Greece and Turkey, where we were confronted with specific problems of limited scope and peculiar urgency. But it was evident, at the time that the decision was made early this year, that this precedent could not be applied generally to the problems of other European countries. The demands elsewhere were of far greater dimensions. It was clear that we would not be able to meet them all. It was equally clear that the peoples of Europe would have to get together and work out a solution of their common economic problems. In this way they would be able to make the most of their resources and of such help as they might receive from others. The representatives of 16 nations are now meeting in Paris in an effort to get to the root of Europe's continued economic difficulties and to chart a program of European recovery based on helping themselves and each other. They will then make known their needs in carrying this program to completion. Unquestionably it is in the interest of our country and of the Western Hemisphere in general that we should receive this appeal with sympathy and good will, prepared to do everything we can, within safe limits, that will be helpful and effective. Our own troubles--and we have many--are small in contrast with the struggle for life itself that engrosses the peoples of Europe. The nations of free Europe will soon make known their needs. I hope that the nations of free America will be prepared, each according to its ability and in its own manner, to contribute to lasting peace for the benefit of mankind. Another important element of our policy vital to our search for peace, is fidelity to the United Nations. We recognize that the United Nations has been subjected to a strain which it was never designed to bear. Its role is to maintain the peace and not to make the peace. It has been embroiled from its infancy in almost continuous conflict. We must be careful not to prejudge it by this unfair test. We must cherish the seedling in the hope of a mighty oak. We shall not forget our obligations under the Charter, and we shall not permit others to forget theirs. In carrying out our policy we are determined to remain strong. This is in no way a threat. The record of the past speaks for us. No great nation has been more reluctant than ours to use armed force. We do not believe that the present international differences will have to be resolved by armed conflict. The world may depend upon it that we shall continue to go far out of our way to avoid anything that would increase the tensions of international life. But we are determined that there shall be no misunderstanding in these matters. Our aversion to violence must not be misread as a lack of determination on our part to live up to the obligations of the United Nations Charter or as an invitation to others to take liberties with the foundations of international peace. Our military strength will be retained as evidence of the seriousness with which we view our obligations. This is the course which our country is endeavoring to follow. I need not tell you how important it is to our success that we have your understanding, support, and counsel. The problem is in the deepest sense a common one for this hemisphere. There is no important aspect of it which does not affect all of us. No solution of it can be fully successful in which we do not all cooperate. I have already mentioned our collective responsibility for economic assistance. By the grace of God and by our united armed efforts our countries have been saved from the destruction of war. Our economies are intact, our productive powers undiminished, our resources not even yet fully explored. In consequence, our collective importance in the affairs of a distressed world has become immense. The Western Hemisphere cannot alone assure world peace, but without the Western Hemisphere no peace is possible. The Western Hemisphere cannot alone provide world prosperity, but without the Western Hemisphere no world prosperity is possible. Insofar as the economic problems common to the nations of North and South America are concerned, we have long been aware that much remains to be done. In reaching a solution there are many subjects which will have to be discussed among us. We have been obliged, in considering these questions, to differentiate between the urgent need for rehabilitation of war- shattered areas and the problems of development elsewhere. The problems of countries in this hemisphere are different in nature and cannot be relieved by the same means and the same approaches which are in contemplation for Europe. Here the need is for long-term economic collaboration. This is a type of collaboration in which a much greater role falls to private citizens and groups than is the case in a program designed to aid European countries to recover from the destruction of war. You have my solemn assurance that we in Washington are not oblivious to the needs of increased economic collaboration within the family of American nations and that these problems will be approached by us with the utmost good faith and with increased vigor in the coming period. If acceptable solutions to these economic problems can be found, and if we can continue to work with mutual confidence and courage at the building of the great edifice of political security to which this Conference has made so signal a contribution, then I believe that we can look with high hopes on the further development of our community life in this hemisphere. I have no desire to overlook the difficulties that have been encountered in the past and will continue to be encountered in the future. All of us are young and vigorous nations. At times we have been impetuous in our relations with one another. There has been a natural tendency for us to exhibit the same exuberance in our differences and our criticisms as in our friendships. Wide differences of background and tradition have had to be overcome. But I believe that we may view with sober satisfaction the general history of our hemisphere. There has been steady progress in the development of mutual respect and of understanding among us. As the United States acquires greater maturity, as its experience becomes deeper and richer, our people gain in appreciation of the distinguished cultural traditions which flourish among our neighbors in the Western Hemisphere. I hope that as your acquaintance with us broadens, you will appreciate our fundamental good will and will understand that we are trying to bear with dignity and decency the responsibility of an economic power unique in human history. There are many concrete problems ahead of us on the path to inter-American relations. They will not be solved with generalities or with sentimentality. They will call for the utmost we can give in practical ingenuity, in patience, and good will. But their solution will be easier if we are able to set our sights above the troubles of the moment and to bear in mind the great truths upon which our common prosperity and our common destiny must rest. This Western Hemisphere of ours is usually referred to as the New World. That it is the New World is clearer today than ever before. The Old World is exhausted, its civilization imperiled. Its people are suffering. They are confused and filled with fears for the future. Their hope must lie in this New World of ours. The sick and the hungry cannot build a peaceful world. They must have the support of the strong and the free. We cannot depend upon those who are weaker than we to achieve a peace for us to enjoy. The benefits of peace, like the crops in the field, come to those who have sown the seeds of peace. It is for us, the young and the strong, to erect the bulwarks which will protect mankind from the horrors of war-- forever. The United States seeks world peace--a peace of free men. I know that you stand with us. United, we can constitute the greatest single force in the world for the good of humanity. We approach our task with resolution and courage, firm in the faith of our Lord, whose will it is that there shall be Peace on Earth. We cannot be dissuaded, and we shall not be diverted, from our efforts to achieve His will. APPENDIX "B" ADDRESS BY PRESIDENT TRUMAN BEFORE A JOINT SESSION OF THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF THE BRAZILIAN CONGRESS, AT TIRADENTES PALACE, FRIDAY, SEPI'EMBER 5, 1917. - - - - - - - Thank you very, very much. You overwhelm me. President Dutra, Mr. President of the Congress, Senators and Deputies: I am deeply grateful for the invitation to appear before the Congress of this great Nation whose history is so entwined with that of the United States. Speaking as one who has come to executive position from legislative hails, I am all the more appreciative of the honor you have extended to me. The legislature of a democratic country is identified with the people themselves. This must be so if responsible self-government is to be accomplished. Brazil is justly proud of a history of government by free men. I salute the Congress of this great Brazilian nation, and I extend my best wishes to the noble people which it represents. The ties between the United States and Brazil have always been close. It is not too much to describe our relations as those of "lifelong friendship." Your declaration of independence was brief, but just as challenging as ours. The Cry of Independence, uttered on that famous September 7, 1822, told the world that the time had come when Brazil was to be governed by its own people and for their own welfare. I am happy to recall that the United States was the first of the nations of the world to recognize the new independent state. We were not troubled by the fact that it took the form of an empire, for the foundations of the empire were democratic. The Constitution which was adopted two years later was the expression of the ideals of free government, not those of an absolute monarchy. The history of Brazil in many respects parallels that of the United States. Both are nations which have carved civilizations out of the wilderness. Both have been endowed with great natural resources and both have been developed by people whose dominant motive is freedom. If I am happy that the United States was the first to recognize the new nation of Brazil, I am equally happy that it was the United States that Brazil turned for support in its struggle for independence. The alliance which Brazil proposed to us was a singular mark of confidence. It was the beginning of our historical friendship which I have described as "lifelong." The long reign of the great Dom Pedro, second, put Brazil among the leading democratic nations. Americans of today know him well, for you have engraved his noble features upon a postage stamp which comes to the United States with every mail from Brazil. We recall with pleasure that he was the first monarch to visit the United States, when he came to the exposition at Philadelphia in 1876 which marked the centenary of our independence. Then in 1889, when Brazil felt that the form of a Republic fitted better its national aspirations, the Congress of the United States of America adopted a joint resolution congratulating the country upon its new form of government. It is interesting to note also that Brazil adopted a Constitution modeled closely upon that of the federal system of the United States. Why are these ties so close? The distance between our countries is great and until of recent years communications were slow and difficult. But it is not physical proximity alone that makes friends and neighbors. It is rather the fact that we have common interests, common principles, and common ideals. We look upon the state as the agent of the people for the attainment of the general welfare. We have the same belief in the fundamental rights of man. We have the same respect for the dignity of the individual. We look upon international relations as governed by the same moral standards of conduct by which individuals are governed. In short, the declarations of September 7th and July 4th demonstrate that we have the same concept of freedom and democracy. One of your great statesmen, Ruy Barbosa, whose name has left an imperishable memory, once said that the nations of the world constituted a single society and that the principles which formed the basis of stability and justice within each state should be applied equally to nations. He felt that this was the only hope of maintaining civilized relations between them. The idea was not new. It was part of Brazil's inheritance, as it is a part of the inheritance of every other Christian nation. But Ruy Barbosa's eloquence has made it a living principle of the foreign policy of Brazil. His declaration that there can be no neutrality between right and wrong will remain forever a part of the moral traditions of your country. In a recent exchange of correspondence with Pope Plus the Twelfth, I said that I desired to do everything in my power to support and to contribute to a concert of all the forces striving for a moral world. I believe, in making that statement, I expressed the thought not only of my own country but of Brazil as well. The United States has been fortunate in having Brazilian friends who have been wise counselors when joint action was called for. The name of Ambassador Joaquim Nabuco--who served in the spirit of your great Foreign Minister, Rio Branco, will always be associated with the maintenance of the Monroe Doctrine within its proper limitations. He is but one of a long line of your distinguished countrymen who have contributed so greatly to the understanding that exists between us. Through the years we have learned that because there is agreement between us upon the fundamental principles of justice and equity, we can face our common problems with an assurance of agreement upon the ways and means of solving those problems. The recent war again gave convincing proof of our friendship. The mutual trust and confidence that exists between us manifested itself at an early date in the immediate response of your Government to our need for air bases and for supplies and strategic materials. And I am here to say to you that we are not people who forget our friends, when those friends are friends in need. When both our countries were attacked, our people fought side by side until victory was attained. The bravery of your fighting men, against an experienced and resourceful enemy, cemented our comradeship and gave us another reason to feel a deep sense of pride in our friendship. The memory of those days of struggle and sacrifice together will always be a sacred bond between us. But today, the problems of peace still lie ahead of us. They are more difficult than we could have anticipated. They will require the closest collaboration between us. But I am confident that we can solve them with mutual good will and forbearance. The one essential is that we maintain our common ideals and our common principles of morality and justice. With these to guide us we can go forward together, and we shall not permit any minor differences to divert us from the pursuit of our common objectives. We are in a period in which Brazil and the United States must continue to cooperate with their sister nations of the Western Hemisphere in the development of a strong and concerted force for the good of mankind. One of the great lessons we have learned in recent generations is that we do not dwell alone. Destruction, suffering, and confusion in other parts of the world confront us now as never before. Our nations made great sacrifices throughout the war, but we have been spared the wanton destruction and dislocation suffered by many. I am confident that Brazil and the United States will be faithful to a great trust on which depend the lives and liberty of so many millions of disillusioned and discouraged people. The people of the United States followed with keen interest and high hopes the progress of the Inter-American Conference which has just ended. The splendid result attained brings to us a sense of deep satisfaction. We in this hemisphere have demonstrated to the world that right- thinking men can submerge their individual prejudices and their individual aims in the accomplishment of an agreement that will bring great benefit to the world. The Conference of Rio de Janeiro will go down in history as a tremendously important milestone in our progress toward the outlawing of force in international relations and the establishment of the rule of law and order. In some quarters today one hears expressions of disappointment in the accomplishments thus far of the United Nations. This must not deter us in our constant effort to build the organization that the world needs so badly. Furthermore, we must keep ever in mind that the United Nations was not intended to settle the problems arising immediately out of the war, but to provide the means for maintaining international peace after just settlements have been made. The United Nations was not born fully developed by the signing of its charter at San Francisco. It will take steadfastness of purpose, unremitting toil and infinite patience to achieve our goal. The United Nations is not a temporary expedient. It is a permanent partnership--a partnership among the peoples of the world for their common peace and their common well- being. The difficulties that we have encountered in this early phase in the life of the United Nations have not discouraged us. On the contrary, they have increased our determination that it shall succeed. The United States is resolved to support the United Nations with all the resources at our command. Brazil and the United States have advanced side by side in developing progressive concepts of the democratic way of life. We have proved to ourselves that policies founded firmly on belief in the dignity of man and in his possession of certain inalienable rights inspire us to greater endeavor and lead us to new heights of achievement. I shall leave Brazil with the conviction that here flourishes a people dedicated to the firm ideals upon which my countrymen and I were nurtured. It is difficult for me to tell you how deeply I appreciate the wonderful reception I have been accorded in your country. Because this Congress consists of the chosen representatives of the people, and because you men, through the operation of the democratic process, are so closely identified with the people, I wish to express my heartfelt thanks, through you, to all the people of Brazil. As I passed through your beautiful capital city on the day of my arrival, the warm expressions of friendship on the faces of hundreds of thousands of your people deeply moved me and left me with an impression that I shall never forget. When the time comes for me to depart I shall carry away in my heart strengthened confidence in the enduring friendship of our two countries and in the goodness and generosity of the people of Brazil. Appendix "C" Toast by President Dutra at the Banquet in Honor of President Truman, Itamaraty Palace, Rio de Janeiro, September 5, 1947. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - My welcome on behalf of the people and the Government of Brazil, Mr. President, must be expressed, I feel, in simple words such as we use with friends at our table and in our home. This is a propitious moment in the life of the Hemisphere for demonstrations of friendship. It has brought the fulfillment of the prophecy made by Joaquim Nabuco at the final session of the 3rd Inter-American Conference where he affirmed: The tree which is to live for centuries must be given time to grow; we must not expect shade before it has grown roots. Now it still depends on each of us; the time will come in which all of us will depend upon it”. Nurtured by the feeling for and the reality of American solidarity the roots planted forty years ago are now robust and strong. That solidarity gave us shelter in the course of two great wars and even now we feel flowing within us the substance which nourishes the vitality of the commitments freely and conscientiously assumed. Brazil, Mr. President, when collaborating in this great word has only remained faithful to the foresighted genius of those of our statesmen who undertook to mold our political thinking. The attitude we adopted in 1942 was implicit in the written mandate penned by Alexandre Gusmao, of Santos, in the Treaty of when he stated that Meridional America would "not allow the use of its ports and much less permit transit through its territories" by those who wished to use them for hostile action against an American State. For 122 years the archives of the State Department have preserved Brazilian thought on the matter of reciprocal Pan American responsibilities. Because the policy enunciated by President Monroe, in his message to the Union, could not be applied without the sacrifice of lives and property, we declared, at that time, through our 1st. Charge d'Affaires, that it would not “be right, just or reasonable for the Government of Brazil to receive these sacrifices gratuitously". It was thus that from the very beginning, we understood the obligations involved in the “American system" postulated by Jose Bonifacio. If this system submitted to the supreme test of the greatest of all wars has revealed the might of the thing achieved we owe it to the foresight of a great American. Franklin Delano Roosevelt contributed to the evolution of continental solidarity, above all of the imponderable factor of confidence. The leader of his people in a time of crisis, his extraordinary gifts as a war leader were revealed by the armed conflict. But even greater is the tribute of humanity whose leader in the conflict of ideas he became. Neither the internal difficulties which he faced at the outset of his administration nor the disturbances which shook international relations caused him to depart for one moment from the fundamental values we associate with liberty and the dignity of the human being. When it seemed that our civilization was to be extinguished by the blows struck by totalitarianism, his faith and courage rekindled hope in the hearts of all. This your inheritance, this your responsibility, Mr. President, which you once shared and which are now entrusted to your care. You did not receive them solely from the man who personified them so magnificently; they come also from the peculiar genius of the people of the United States and from the civilization they wrought. Its essential traits are to be found in the progressive extension of its moral and material benefits to the greater number and in the sharing of its natural resources developed by man in the service of the welfare of all. It is this dynamic element which makes the American experiment in democracy something ever new, an experiment which constantly seeks to broaden equally for all the opportunities in the pursuit of happiness. The repeated demonstrations of American loyalty to the ideals of the Founding Fathers, constitute the basis of its moral influence in the world today and represents, in this moment of uncertainty, a hope for the human race which aspires for a just and fruitful peace so as to recover from its still smarting wounds. It is not by chance, Mr. President, that at all the crossroads of destiny citizens of the United States, have been found, whose names and work have become part of the patrimony of all men. By vocation and experience, masters in the art of self-government, your people sense the approach of storms and know how to express their will by these elected representatives. It is also not by chance that they have sought men like you, Mr. President, whose typically American character and career reflect the basic virtues which the family preserves and the school transmits. It is for these reasons, Mr. President, that the peoples of the world have deposited their faith in you, certain that the immense power of your land means justice for the conquered, help for those who need aid and comfort for the weak. I raise my cup to you, Mr. President, to your personal happiness and to the happiness of your distinguished wife and gracious daughter who honor us with their presence, and through you I salute the great American nation, our ally of yesterday and our friend in all the days to come. (The foregoing is a literal translation) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - President Truman’s reply: Mr. President, distinguished guests: I can’t tell you how very much I appreciated that heartfelt statement, Mr. President, because when you say it you are confirming what has been happening every day since we have been in Brazil. I have been welcomed in Mexico City, in the trip to Canada, in my own State, in my own home town, and never has there been such a welcome to me as here in Rio. Your sentiments as expressed on what you have just said, are the sentiments of the United States of America as well as Brazil. We are working for peace in the world. That is our objective. That is why we fought side by side in World War Two. We want world peace. We want to establish world peace for the welfare and benefit of the common every-day man. Your Constitution is like ours. It guarantees the rights of the individual. That is what we fought for. That is what we are trying to get the peace established for. And, Mr. President, again on behalf of Mrs. Truman and my daughter Margaret, I want to say to you that we have never had such a reception, such a welcome. As I told you this afternoon, I am tempted to come and run for Mayor of Rio de Janeiro, and I think I could be elected. I hope, Mr. President, that you and Mrs. Dutra and your lovely daughters will pay us a visit in Washington, and we will make every effort to make you welcome but we can come nowhere near doing what you have done. Thank you very much.