4th International Conference on Social Science Research

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					        4th International Conference on Social Science Research
                           Gaylord Opryland Resort, Nashville, TN
                                  December 9 – 11, 2009

Wednesday, December 9, 2:00 pm – 3:45 pm
Panel 1     Technology & Society
            Wednesday , December 9, 2:00 pm - 3:45 pm
Chair       Qi Tang , Tennessee State University
Paper       Opening the Gate: The Impact of Tw itter on the Tra ditio nal Gatekeep ing Fun ction s U tilize d in Spo rts Public
            Aaro n J. Moo re, Rider University amoor e@ri der .edu
            Overview: A qualitative case study analysis of how sports public relations professionals are losing their gateke epi ng and
            agenda setting r oles because of play ers on Twitter. This research ex amines th e cases of Antoni o Cromartie and Mic hael
            Beasley as exam ples of teams now unable to totally control the flow of inform ation because of Twitter. The paper also
            includes interviews with PR staffers who discuss the impact of Twitter in the sports medi a marke tpl ace.
Paper       Socia l Netw ork Citing and So cia l S cien ce Stu dies – An E thical In terse ction or Pa rallel Line s in the Sand?
            Ange la Co rbo , DeSal es Univ ersity amcorbo@ya
            Overview: Mai ntai ning an updated appr oac h to journalism instruction can prov e quite challenging. The professional climate
            reveals jour nalists using sources such as Facebook , Twitter, and other social netw orking sites as appr opriat e and “reliable”
            sources for informati on. The challenge for the classroom i nstructor is to provide awar eness to the Society for Pr ofessional
            Journalist Code of Et hics and inf ormation retrieval via el ectronic mediums.
Paper       An Analytica l S tatis tica l As sessmen t o f So cia l Media and Med ia Tech nolo gy Use Amo ng Unive rs ity Stu dents
            Jeff Hoyer, Univ ersity of Tennessee at Martin jhoy
            Gareth Thomps on, L ondon Metropolitan Univ ersity G.Thompson@londonm
            Teresa Co lla rd , University of Tennessee at Marti n
            Lisa Le Ble u, University of Tennessee at Martin
            Overview: This paper represents an analytical study of social media use am ong university students. It assesses several factors
            including social media use pattens, effectiveness, reasons for attenuation, willingness to pay for services and percepti ons o f
            the students regardi ng k nowledge of gatekeepers repr esenti ng the newly dev eloping medi a. Fi ndi ngs are rel ated to social
            media's dev elopment as perceiv ed by the sampl e with regard to educ ation, social and business settings.
Paper       Internationa l H uman Rig hts Iss ues in Cybe rspa ce
            Marvin E. Newman , Rollins Coll ege mnewman@rollins .edu
            Overview: A comparative study of gov ernm ent controls of the use of CyberSpac e communication amd the need for
            gov ernm ents of the worl d to excercise compassion for humanitarian concer ns i n the gov ernanc e of cyberspace.

Panel 9     Judicial Sy ste m & Crime
            Wednesday , December 9, 2:00 pm - 3:45 pm
Chair       Nikki S. Cu rrie, Wic hita State Univ ersity nikki.currie@wic
Paper       Evaluation of a D rug Co urt Serving Fema le Pres crip tio n D ru g M is use rs: Re lations hip of Su bsta nce Use to Co -
            Occurring T rauma H isto ry a nd Symptoms
            Amber Hanna h, Califor nia Stat e Univ ersity kkk@gm
            Overview: The present study ex amined the relationshi p between lifetime traum a, trauma symptoms , and substance us e among
            female prescripti on dr ug misusers enroll ed in a court supervised substance abuse treatment pr ogr am. Participants were sixteen
            women enr olled in the Pi nell as County Adult Dr ug Court WeCan out patient rehabilitation pr ogr am. Res ults indicated that
            lifetime expos ure to traum a was associated with trauma sympt oms and trauma sympt oms were in tur n related to conti nued
            substanc e use. Implications for trauma-i nformed substance abuse treatment pr actices and fut ure research are discussed.
Paper       Welcome to the J ung le: Agg ress ion and Sexua l Promis cu ity in Male Homo sap iens sap iens
            J. Keith Ak in s, University of Houston-Victoria akinsk @uhv .edu
            Overview: The paper reports of a sociobi ological comparison of viol ent activity and sexual activity among male college student s
            employe d as bouncers in a college-t ow n nightclub.
Paper       MMPI/ MM PI-2 s core s: Pred ictin g ag gres sive behavio r in Crimina l J ustice.
            Stepha nie L. G ib son , Capell a Univ ersity/Col umbus Ohio Police Department fletch1600@aol .com
            Overview: Gover ning bodi es and special commissions have ur ged upper police management to look at psychological testing as
            one ave nue of uses to avoi d hiring officers who ar e prone to engage in the use of excessive force. Many police departments
            hav e empl oye d the use of psychol ogical testing of all applicants. Researc h reveals that the Mi nnesota M ultiphasic Personality
            Inve ntory ( MM PI) is the one test consistently used by departm ents who perform psychological tests. The pur pose of this study

              is to determine if the MM PI/ MM PI-2 can identify officers who are pr one to engage in exc essive use of force. For the pur pose
              of this research study , the issue will center on w hether this one element of personality, im pulse control , can be predicted
              befor e it occurs.
Paper         Police Use o f Fo rce: A M odern Pers pective o f the J ust Wa r Trad ition
              Wendy L. H ick s, Loyola Univ ersity New Orleans wlhicks@loy
              Overview: This paper is a detailed application of the theor etical precepts of the Augustinian Just War tradition to the police use
              of force. Philos ophical work by August, Aqui nas, L ock, and Hobbes is used to dem onstrate how the concepts created under
              the guise of Just War ar e appropriate and applicabl e to the use of force by contem por ary police.
Discussa nt   Bra ckette F. William s, University of Arizona bfw @email
              Gerald Cap lan , Univ ersity of Pacific

Panel 17      Policy & P olitics
              Wednesday , December 9, 2:00 pm - 3:45 pm
Chair         Cecile M. Regne r, Ric har d J. Daley Coll ege
Paper         Econom ics and Security Studie s: I s the Sou th Af rican Milita ry Academy s till on T rack
              H.F. DeWe t, Military Academy De_Wet@ma2.s .za
              Overview: Shoul d selected officers from the South African National Defenc e Force ( SANDF ) doi ng their tertiary education in the
              art of war at the Military Academy in Sal danha Bay study Ec onomics.
Paper         Pin g Pong Diploma cy and its Role in Imp roving Sin o-America n Rela tions
              David G raham, Bowling Green St ate Univ ersity
              Overview: Pi ng Pong Diplom acy had a tremendous impact on the movem ent tow ard rappr ochement between C hina and the
              United States . The political savvy of Mao, Nixon, and even the pi ng pong players themselves allow ed for the success of the
              eve nt.
Paper         Critica l He rmeneu tic F ield Inq uiry in I nte rnationa l Developmen t: Resea rch Na rra tives f rom Af rica, the
              Caribbean, Sou theas tern Eu rope and Sou th Eas t As ia
              Ellen A. He rda, University of San Francisco her datem p@y
              Albe rto Andre tta , ChildFund Inter national aandretta@gmail .com
              Karen Ramorino , Lawrence Berk ely Nati onal Laborator y KBRamorino@l
              Kelly Ca rey, West Valley College kelly _carey @w
              Overview: This panel ar gues for an inter pretativ e orientation towar d researc h and inter national dev elopment —one t hat seeks
              to generate data from an ont ological par adi gm in whic h certitude takes precedence over vali dity. Housed in our question and
              comment ary are the themes of identity, imaginati on, empl otment, and agency.
Paper         The Effe ct of F inan cia l T rans fer and Co res iden cy on Elderly Labou r Sup ply in Ghana
              Wumi Olayiwo la, Cov enant University kolayiw ola@gm
              Oluyom i Sod ipe, C ovenant Univ erity oluway omis@y
              Olu soji Bolade Abimbo la, Strategic Business Servic es, Covanant University boladeabim bola@y
              Overview: In Africa, the absence of a br oad-based pension system makes the majority of the el derly to rely on support from
              children. T his study analyze the ec onomic importance of net financial transfers, coresidency and the elderly labour supply as
              major sources of old age support in Ghana.
Discussa nt   Clemen tina E. Adams , Clemson Univ ersity

Panel 25      Child & Youth Research
              Wednesday , December 9, 2:00 pm - 3:45 pm
Chair         Tiffany R. Kin g, RTI Inter nati onal tking@rti .or g
Paper         Infant Atta chmen t a nd Lan guage Expos ure Acro ss Cu lture s
              Gail Fox Adams , UCLA
              Overview: This paper ex amines the cross-cultural applicability of the inter actional instinct theor y (Lee et al, 2009) . The theor y
              argues that typically devel opi ng i nfants have an instinct to interact with con-s pecifics, especially prim ary caregivers, and t hat
              primary caregivers may have an instinct to respond. The theory also positions attachm ent as a neurobi ological outcom e of
              these inter actions .  Because ther e is cultural variation in caretaki ng practices, however , one must ask if the studies that
              support the theory rely too heavily on dya dic childc are models and if it is relevant in societies that use socially - distributed care.
              From an ec o-cult ural perspective , different envir onm ents dem and different levels of attachment. Et hnographic studi es about
              childcare practices in India, the Ivory C oast, Kenya, Per u and the United States are reviewed in this paper and indicat e that
              dya dic and socially-distributed childcar e envir onments produce a range in the foc us and the intensity of infant attachm ents
              (Ochs & Schi effelin, 1984; Levi ne et. al ., 1994; Seymour , 1999; Gottlieb, 2004). While this may be influenced by a society‟s
              level of industrialization, the studies indic ate that other environmental factors such as infant-m ortality rates, living
              arrangem ents, pov erty, social val ues, and spiritual beliefs are also involv ed. Additionally, ev en though different types of
              interactions occur in vari ous societies, infant -car egiv er attachments still occur. How ever , the intense mot her-c hild attachm ent
              regularly seen in dy adic childc are settings is often intentionally pr evented in socially -distributed childcar e settings. I n light of

          these findi ngs , how attachment relates to language acquisition is t hen consi dered in terms of the cont ent , setting, source and
          style of infant language exposure.
Paper     What Makes Child a nd Yo uth Ca re Re search Re lationa l? The Ep istemo logy of Re lationa l In qu iry
          Gerard Be llefe uille , MacEwan Univ ersity bellefeuill eg@macew
          Overview: Rat her than relyi ng on researc h methods that conceptualize selfhood as an indivi duated center of consciousness
          and the doing of researc h as a process of first separati ng the “observer ” (self) from what is to be know n, in this workshop I
          adva nce the notion of a relational epistemol ogy as a basis for CYC research. Begi nning with the assum ption that all peopl e are
          social beings, relati onal epistem ology views knowledge as something that is socially constructed by people w ho are i n relatio n
          with each ot her . In relati onal inquiry , the self -other relation is foundational to the research design.
Paper     Effect of Adj us tment and Stres s on Academ ic Achievemen t Amon g D iffe rent Type of S choo l Stu dents
          Satyavir S ing h Phu lia , GOVERNMENT P.G. COLL EGE ssphulia@ya
          Jogin der Singh Kharb, GOV ER NMENT P.G.COLL EGE BHI WANI Overvi ew: Effect of Adjustment and Stress on Academic
          Achievem ent Among Different Type of School St udents
Paper     Investigating the Pe rcep tio n o f Ab ility amo ng J un ior H igh Schoo l S tude nts: The Case S tudy o f A Private Jun io r
          High S choo l in Middle -Clas s S choo l D is trict
          Yin -H ung Hsu , National Taiw an Normal University
          Chia -Yin g Wu , Nati onal Taiwan Norm al Univ ersity
          Overview: In school educ ation, the success in student‟s adaptati on is closely related to self perception of abilities, and the
          dev elop of student‟s percepti on of abilities varies with the macro social structure, school stratification, and classroom str uctur e.
          Moreover , due to the the sieving mechanism of the admission thres hol d, the family back grounds of the privat e junior high
          school students are almost the middl e class. In the past, many res earch took the success of middl e -class student for grant ed,
          ignored the inter nal diversity in the middle-class group, and under estimated the importance of the fail ure of the middle-class
          students. Based on the researc h back ground, the mai n pur pose in this research is discussing t he percepti on of the middle -cl ass
          students in Taiwan private juni or hi gh s chool, how the perc eption of abilities influenc es their correspondi ng strategy and self
          identity, and finally analyzing the rel ation between students„ percepti on of abilities and their adaptati on in school .    O n the
          whol e, this researc h takes the qualitativ e researc h methodology such as long-term participat ory observation, deep inter view
          and doc ument analysis. To sum up, understand the formi ng pr ocess and results of the perc eption of abilities of the juni or hig h
          school students will contribute to rev eal the possible factors of inequality education opportunity and broaden t he horizon of the
          compar ative and inter nati onal Soci ology of Educati on.

Wednesday, December 9, 4:00 pm -5:45 pm
Panel 2   Terrorism and Risk
          Wednesday , December 9, 4:00 pm - 5:45 pm
Chair     Robert C. Davis , RAND Cor por ation robert_davis@rand.or g
Paper     Secu rity, Race an d R isk in the po st 9/11 era: An Exam ina tion of the Expe rie nces of Ra cia lized Pop ula tio ns a t
          the Canad ian Bo rde r
          Aazade h Adamo , Sim on Fr aser Univ ersity
          Overview: While muc h has been written about changes at the Canadian border in the wake of the Septem ber 11 terrorist
          attacks, there is a lack of literature and em pirical data on the lived ex peri ences of racialized groups at the Canadian borde r,
          particularly on the West Coast. This paper provi des a pr eliminary understandi ng of the impact of immigration enf orcement on
          racialized populations ent ering Canada.
Paper     Dying to Die: S uicide Bom bin g
          Ariel Bab insky , Columi bia University ab3109@col
          Overview: The scholarly inter est in suicide bombi ng is reflected in a fascinating body of researc h that pres ents an extr emely
          diverse set of observ ations and outl ooks. Sc hol ars of different disciplines hav e tried to expl ain w hy „ordi nary‟ people woul d
          sign on to becom e suicide bom bers. I will look at the matter from various poi nts of view, and ex plai n what motivates
          indivi duals to turn to terrorism and why the suicide bom bing method was embrac ed in the first place. I will also deal with t he
          pur pose and origi ns of suicide bombi ng, the drive behi nd this self-immolating act, and the reasons for its sustainability.
Paper     Graham Allison 's Th ree Frames f rom the Cu ban Missile Cris is revisited to eva luate Emergency Manageme nt
          sin ce 9 -11.
          Phillip Da walt, Ivy Tec h Community College pdawalt
          Overview: In 1971 Gr aham Allison developed a model to view the Cuban missile crisis from a rational actor , organizati onal and
          political-bureaucr atic perspectiv e. This model will be used to consi der disasters that have arisen after 9-11. How have i ncidents
          like hurricane Katri na been handl ed acc ordi ng to the models presented by Allison?
Paper     Crime of Terro rism in T he World
          Zahoor Mahd i, zahoormehdi @ya
          Overview: Crime is Faliur of Justice for all

Panel 10      Public Health
              Wednesday , December 9, 4:00 pm - 5:45 pm
Chair         Dorit Sabe ri, UCLA - David Geffen Sc hool Of Medicine dsaberi @dm
Paper         A Participa to ry Impleme nta tio n M odel fo r Collabo rative Commu nity Health Prog rams
              David Tata w, Jackson State University davi d.b.tat aw@
              Ester Stokes , Jacks on State University Ester.w Overview: This paper reviews dominant impl ementation
              models and then uses three comm unity healt h collaborativ e policies and pr ogr ams to illustrative how a participat ory
              implementation model has been actualized.
Paper         Compariso n o f S tanda rd and We igh ted Measu res of Alcoho l Availab ility
              William F. Wieczorek , Center for Healt h and Social Researc h
              Ala n M. Delme rico, Center for Health and Social Research delm eram
              Sheldo n J. Tetew sky, Center for Healt h and Social Researc h
              Kelly S. Marczyn ski, Center for Health and Soci al Researc h
              Overview: Alcohol use is the second leadi ng risk factor for the entire bur den of premat ure mort ality and current disease
              disability in North America. Alcohol availability weighted by outlets sales volume is conceptually attractive; however , data on
              alcohol sales by outlet is almost never available in most US states . Lottery sales can be conceptualized as a proxy for over all
              outlet sales. This study ex amines if alcohol availability that is weighted by lotter y data res ults in a measure that is more
              closely associated with alc ohol use and pr oblems than the standar d, unw eighted measur e of availability. The res ults suggest
              that a weighted measur e of alcohol avail ability is preferable to an unw eighted measur e. Use of the w eighted measur e may
              improv e our understandi ng of the role of avail ability in alcohol us e and pr oblems by i ndivi duals, and also impr ove the targeting
              of alcohol prev ention pr ogr ams and public health policies.
Paper         Advan tages a nd Disadvanta ges o f Keyboa rd Cou nseling
              William R oss , Prairie View A &M University wiross@pv
              Overview: Counseli ng organizations would do well to conduct reviews of their ethi¬cal gui delines to keep pace wit h
              tech¬nology . Laws must be strengthened and enforced to penalize those who abus e the system or clients. Finally , ther e
              should be a National Standar d for the key board counselor . Like it or not, clients will seek this kind of counseling, and if t rained,
              technical¬ly com pet ent, et hical counsel ors are not provi ding these services , who wi ll be?
Paper         Gender D iffere ntial M igra tion a nd the AI DS E pidem ic
              Ilhan Ca n O zen , Johns Hopkins University ozeni24@gm
              Overview: Thus paper shows the theoretical underpi nnings of the socioec onomic variabl es that correlate wit h aggregate HIV
              rates of countries .Particular importanc e is paid to incom e and population inequality between the genders within an urban
              context ,and the correspondi ng marital and extr a-marital mark et equilibriums w hich might create conducive environments for
              rapid HIV spread.
Discussa nt   Wei Wa ng , Stanford Univ ersity wwang6@stanfor
              Linda Wilcox, Southern Nazarene University

Panel 18      Civic Education
              Wednesday , December 9, 4:00 pm - 5:45 pm
Paper         Moving From Sa lsa to Social Jus tice: H ow a nd Wha t Ou r Bo rderland Schoo ls Shou ld Teach
              Azade h Osan loo , New Mexico State University
              Overview: The many discourses surroundi ng bor derland students place existing educati onal policies in a tenuous space. The
              theori es of cosmopolitanism and dem ocratic ed ucation will be used to hi ghli ght how our borderland schools should appr oac h
              education taking into account this specific student population.
Paper         Teaching Peace I n a nd Out of Class room
              Grace Auyang , University of Cincinnati grace.auya
              Overview: This paper will share i nnovativ e ways of involvi ng students and fac ulties in peac e studies thr ough course wor k,
              service learni ng, college conference participation and dir ect action for peace pr oject. T he pr esenter will shar e her indivi dual
              pedagogy appr oaches(Pr obl em-based learni ng and Conc ept Mapping) , instructional experiences and her collaborative w ork
              with colleagues to prom ote peace educati on.
Paper         How does Con scious ness Forma tio n a t the G loba l Level gene rate ways to crea te a frame wo rk fo r Globa l Jus tice,
              as a fo unda tio n f or Glo bal Ha rmony?
              Martha Ro ss DeWitt, Medical Coll ege of Wisconsin mrossdewitt@sbcgl
              Overview: A model of general , social causality is used to show how societies are abl e to reor ganize at higher lev els of shared
              responsibility. The model provides a basis for recognizing A Need to Establish Equity in the distribution of rights, pr ivileges and
              rewar ds for sustainabl e economic development. Releva nt questions: Who owns the means to sustain life on the pl anet? Who
              controls the means? Who uses the means? What are the rights of each gr oup? What are the privileges of each group? What
              are the rew ards of eac h group?
Paper         Bring ing Pea ce into the U nive rsity Cu rricu lum
              Wm. George He ss, Kennesaw State University

           Overview: Research demonstrates when lear ners engage in collaborativ e and peaceful res olutions of issues they ow n as their
           personal and social pr oblems, they dev elop long term critical thinking strategies that result in higher measured achi evem ent
           (Del pit, 2006). T he pr esenter will report on a critical thinking exercise wherei n he challenged his under graduate
           elementary/ early childhood education majors to read a New Times news article on overfishi ng and to gener ate questions they
           believ ed wer e not addressed i n the article but necessary to deci sion maki ng regar di ng social justice based on the informati on
           provi ded as well as in answer to their questions (Hess, 2009). A comparative ex amination of the critical thinking that emer ge
           among the under graduates and school age childr en raised in a West Af rican indigenous culture will be used to assert the
           necessity of provi ding curricul a for the peaceful resol ution of thor ny social issues and matters of social justice (Hess, Bri nging
           Peac e to Early Chil dhood, 2008).

Panel 26   Teaching and Learning
           Wednesday , December 9, 4:00 pm - 5:45 pm
Chair      Kecia Ad dis on -Sco tt, Montgomery C ounty Public Sc hools kecia.scott@gm ail.c om
Paper      Learner Expe rien ces a nd Grad uate Edu cation: He rmeneu tics as a n O rga nizin g Conce pt
           John R. Goss, I II, Shenandoah University
           Overview: Gr aduate programs whic h deli beratel y choose to approach k nowl edge creati on as a collabor ative ent erprise, we are
           working against the grai n. Most institutions seem to focus on instruction, couc hed in terms of "academic achiev ement" or
           "outcomes-based assessment", w her e the end pr oduct of education (lear ni ng facts) is seen as a more important measur e of
           success than the process of instruction (l ear ning to lear n). To achi eve a shift in focus from instruction to educ ation requires
           more than simply stating that we are focusing on the pr ocess of education. Tinto ( 1987) posits that learni ng comm unities
           involv e co-creati ng k nowl edge thr ough relationshi ps among students and teac hers, and through the envir onm ent in w hich they
           operate. This paper will ex plore t he differential conc ept ualization and lever agi ng of experi ence ( a priori and a posteriori ,
           leverages and ac quired) is different across degrees and within stages of learners‟ devel opm ent . And suggests that a
           pur posef ul creation and lever agi ng of experi enc e, gr ounded in a herm eneutical construct, can aid in the dev elopment and the
           implementation of lear ning at the graduate lev el. The challenge w e face in experientially informed gr aduate programs is the
           negotiation of formal and ex periential knowledge and ex peri enc e, and the respective r oles of the teacher and the student in
           that proc ess. A related and pr obably preliminary challenge is the role that experi enc e plays in the construction of the lear ni ng
           program (the curricul um). The following offers a suggested approach to understandi ng and negotiating these competing
Paper      Astros ociolo gy in the Cla ssroom: Deve loping a Practical Applied Socio logy Cou rse
           Ken D uffy, Webster University kennet hduffy09@w ebster .edu
           Overview: MAI N FEAT URES OF ASTRO SOCIOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM The course will include and apply the ma jor
           theor etical perspectives of sociology as they apply to the subject matter of space expl oration and comm ercialization. It will
           follow in cont ext the macro impact on the major i nstitutions, groups and organizations of society. The major pers pectives wi ll
           include ecol ogical theory , whic h studies the adaptation and reorganizati on of a society to its changing envir onment; the
           structural- functionalist view, w hich analyzes any societal phenom enon from the standpoi nt of organization, purpose,
           dev elopment, maint enance and change; the social conflict perspective, which ex amines societal elements pertai ning to the
           existing, inter nal, or external competition and conflict that lead to societal change; the symbolic -interactionist theory , which
           examines societal factors with regar d to the meani ng that is placed upon human inter action, and the symbolic significanc e of
           these meanings; the Social Exc hange view , which studies the social inter action between two or more people, based on the
           efforts of each person to maximiz e their rew ards and minimize their punishm ents; and dev elopmental theory, w hich is the
           study of a dy namic, pr ogressive, and ever changing society and the effects of these changes on i ndivi duals, gr oups and social
Paper      Acce ss ibility o r Accoun tab ility? The R heto ric a nd Rea lity of No Child Lef t Beh ind
           Laura Co nno lly, Univ ersity of Norther n Col orado laur a.connolly
           David Aske, University of Nort her n Color ado davi
           Rhonda Corma n, University of Nort her n Color ado rhonda.c orman@unc
           Overview: Can school choice and school accountability truly leav e no child behi nd? Politically and socially popular beli efs in the
           miracles performed by the invisible hand of the free mar ket hav e led to a mov ement towar ds accountability and quality
           assuranc e that relies on the powers of competit ion. The No Child Left Behi nd Act (NCLB) pr om otes the idea that competition
           between schools will increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the educ ation system. At the same time, the rhetoric of
           NCLB maintai ns the pr ogr essive message of the “Common Sc hool” er a. Specifically, the forms of school choice and school
           accountability are at odds with the concept of universal pr ovisioning of education outlined in the verbi age and title of NCLB .
           This article employs economic theory to ex plor e the dic hotom y existing between the rhet orical intent and practical implications
           of the NCLB. The analysis centers on the classic efficiency/equity trade-off to show that NC LB is leading to an educ ational
           envir onm ent deadlocke d in a battle with itself over how to reach t wo conflicting and inc ompatible goals.

Paper         Perce ption of Aca demic Change by Lon gevity and Gende r
              Michelle Blake, University of Evansville mb187@eva
              Hanns Piepe r, Univ ersity of Evansville dp5@ev
              Davies Be llamy , Univ ersity of Evansville db24@ev
              Overview: The study is based on a sam ple of faculty members randomly dr awn from 20 colleges. Topics included changes in
              the role of college pr ofessor, standar ds in hi gher education, as well as changes in clientel e (students) and administration.
              Results have been reported relative to lengt h of career and to gender. The disc ussion addr esses implications for academics i n
              general , and for women academics in partic ular.
Discussa nt   Robert Z. Carr, J r., Langston University

Thursday, December 10, 8:30 am – 10:15 am
Panel 3       A griculture & the Economy
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 8:30 am - 10: 15 am
Chair         Kasi Eswa rappa , University of Hyderabad kasieswar@gmail .com
Paper         Did suga rca ne expa nsion lead to GDP g row th in São Pau lo sta te ? An a nalys is a t m unicipal level us ing
              prope nsity s core -ba sed es tima tors
              Anne lie s Deus s, Cor nell University ad328@c
              Overview: This study analyzes the im pact of sugarc ane expansion on local economi es in São Paulo state. In partic ular, w e
              examine whether m unici palities that hav e increased their sugarcane pr oduction hav e as a result experi enc ed a hi gher GDP per
              capita gr owth. Using estimators based on the pr opensity score, w e compare GDP per capita growt h in sugarcane -expanding
              munici palities with suitabl e controls . Our results suggest that, contrary to pr evious studies, t here is a positive yet weak
              statistically significant impact of sugarcane expansi on on GDP per capit a growt h.
Paper         Land Refo rms in Ind ia : Inte r -sta te a nalys is
              Deelip Mhaske , Foundation For Human Horizon advdeelip@gmail.c om
              Vis hnu Ja dhav, A urangabad University hum anhorizon@gm ail.c om
              Sangita Mha ske, Bom bay High Court humanhorizon@gmail .com
              Overview: Doreen Warriner‟s definition of land reform gives devel opm ental and revol utionary aspects of land reforms as “ land
              reforms means the redistribution of property or right in Land for the benefit of small farmers and agricult ural labours”.1
              Anot her rev olutionar y and social policy aspect was given by Mao Ts -tung “ If we can solve the land problem univ ersally and
              completely w e shall have obtained the most fundamental condition for the defeat of all our enemi es”2        Further a different
              perspective of land reforms give n by Dr . B.R . Ambedkar i n Small Holdi ngs in I ndia and Their Rem edies published in 1918 in the
              Journal of the Indian Economic Society , He adv ocate for his idea of collective farming is easily understandable in the sense
              that it was the surest way of endi ng i nequality in land ow nershi p perm anently abolis hing the distinctions of landlor d, tenant
              and agric ultural labourer .3  Land reform , in its simplest meaning is breaking up of large hol dings and redistribution of the
              land to peasants, cultivat ors or landless workers. L and reforms mainly incl ude the consolidation, distribution of surpl us lan d
              receive d from ceilings, abolition of interm edi aries, reduction of rent , resum ption of land for personal cultivation, voluntary
              surrender of surplus land (I ndi an Boodan M ovem ent lead by Gandhian follower Shri. Vinoba Bhav e in 1970) and pr eservation
              of the ow nershi p of tenants, etc    Scope of Land Reforms: The La nd being one of the primary sources of livelihood and
              wealth, its control and ow ners hip is matter of consider able significance i n India who is traditionally agricult ural society. La nd
              Reforms are necessary for the em anci pation of peasantry from the economic ills. Whic h serve two purposes :                    (a)
              Social justice: Dr. B.L M ungekar a Indian Planning Commission mem ber ex pressed land reform as I way of serving social
              Justice Stating “In an agrarian econom y like Indi a, ownership of land and other land-related assets are directly related, and
              they together determi ne one's creditworthi ness and also social prestige4 I n India possession of a plot of agric ultur al land,
              how ever small, carries with it high psychological and social val ue, it helps to raise the status of the weaker sections of the
              society and give them a sense of bel ongi ng to the hub of social life.            (b) Improvem ent in A gricultur al Productio n.: Dr.
              B.R. Ambedk ar in his paper „ Small Holdi ng in I ndi a and their Rem edi es” published in 1918 in the Jour nal of the Indian
              Economic Society, em phasized on Input-output relations in the cont ext of land ref orms which are needed for increasing
              agricult ural pr oduction. Consoli dation of hol dings, size of hol dings, and treati ng it as industry. La nd Ref orms shoul d be
              recognized to constitute a vital element both in terms of the anti poverty strategy and for moder nization and increased
              productivity in agricultur e5     In moder n peri od, land reforms came to be recognized as a fundamental condition for economic
              dev elopment. It is, thus, rightly felt that land reform is an enorm ously important issue for theor etical discussion and em pir ical
              investigati on. It has been highly emphasized in the reform of' agr arian structure by Dor een Warri ner in her lectures on 'Land
              Reform and Ec onomic Devel opm ent .6       Land reforms , ther efore, are not just a matter, of social justice to the peasants but
              also vital. for provi ding suitable institutional framew ork for agric ultural devel opm ent . Hence the measur es; of land reform
              occupy pivot al position in the pl anned devel opment of agric ultural land use. The state of Maharas hatra and West Bengal ar e
              one the two important states to study land reforms in regar ds of           The pace and pr ogr ess of land reforms in the post
              reforms period in the selected states, Selected states status of the tenants, recordi ng of tenancy , Accessibilit y of
              land to the landless and poor farmers, and Effectiveness of the Governm ent policies and pr ogr ammes relating to the
              land reforms. Statement of Problem:            Agriculture based I ndian Ec onomy: India is predomi nantly an agricultur al country

              wher e 68 to 69 per cent peopl e depend on land for their livelihood in comp arison wit h 6 per cent in the U.S.A., 20 percent in
              the U.K ., 50 per cent in France and Germany . Land Ref orm are directly link ed with Hum an Devel opm ent I ndicat ors: Land is a
              resource touc hing every as pect of hum an living. 'It runs like a thread through alm ost the whol e fabric of geogr aphic and
              economic thought.La nd is important as a status symbol; which determines the human rights of Individuals i.e., educ ation,
              healt h, F ood and Hosing etc. Mor eov er, inasmuc h as landow ners and moneyl enders tended to belo ng to hi gher castes and
              petty ow ners and tenants to lower castes, land tenure had strong social as well as economic impact The tillers of the land ar e
              poor laborers and shar e-croppers. whil e the excess land ow ners are alw ays rich persons. Land Reform as catalyst for
              Economic Devel opm ent: In I ndia, the majority of land holdi ngs are ec onomically not viabl e, the producti on is low and the man -
              land ratio is high. A well planned measure of land reform can act as a catalyst that sets in motion the whol e system o f
              economic, social and political changes of land use patter n and agrarian social make- up for economic dev elopment. Constant
              Increase i n Landless Laborers Population : Accordi ng to 1961 Census the inci dence of agric ultural labor ers was 23.65 per cent
              for India as a whole, while i n 1971 Census the percentage of shar e-croppers and landless labor ers was 25.8 per cent for the
              whol e country. In any country, the form of gov ernm ent and the society may be eit her capitalistic or socialistic but the
              problem of land reforms over whelms all of them. Regardi ng land reforms these questions are often put forw ard. : - (a) How
              can land fulfill utmost needs of the society?        (b) What should be the pattern of land us e?       (c) What sort of land
              managem ent is necessary? And            (d) How the measures of land reforms shoul d be impl emented to ac hiev e the target?
Paper         Powe r an d Politics in the Managemen t o f U.S. Marine F ishe rie s: Fishe ries Scie nce a nd F ishe ries E conom ics as
              Socia l Te chno log ies and Tech nolo gies of Po wer
              Denise J ohns on, NOAA Fisheries Service
              Overview: This power exami nes how power is expr essed in fisheries science and fisheries economics discours es. These
              discourses are described as social technologies and tec hnologies of pow er that transfer decision-m aking to centr alized sites
              and create particular relationshi ps of labor , capital and nat ural resources.
Paper         Land mono poly a nd urban structu re a t Barran quilla, Co lomb ia
              Nesto r Ga rza,
              Overview: This article anal yzes the CBD (“central business district”) displac ement process in Barranquilla, Colom bia during the
              period from 1995 to 2006, using inform ation from appr aisals conducted by local real estate busi ness association (L onja) . La nd
              price gradients are estimated for three different “candidate” CBDs maki ng use of 1662 spatial poi nt appraisals, in the cont ext
              of reasonabl e land market controls.       The results support the hypothesis of a displacement of the city‟s CBD towards its
              nort her n fringe, particularly since 2001 and the construction of the Buena Vista Shopping Cent er. The estimated gr adi ents
              were analyzed and validated, taki ng int o account the reasonability of the slope when compar ed wit h monetary and opport unity
              transportation costs. These results coincide with the fact that high priced land of the nort her n fringe of the city is owned
              almost entirely by a single firm. In that sense, we shoul d be able to identify the existence of monopoly land rents , over a nd
              above location or land irreproducibility rents.   An explicit test of the monopolistic behavior had no statistical significance,
              meani ng that the ur ban pr obl ems associated with CBD displacem ent ( particularly congestion and infrastructur e costs), cannot
              be ex plai ned by market power .
Discussa nt   Bu lent Acma , Anadol u University bacma@anadol

Panel 11      Public Health
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 8:30 am - 10: 15 am
Chair         Sheying Chen , Indiana University Sout heast sheyingc hen@ya
Paper         Role of Demog rap hics in the Pe rfo rmance of I nf luenza In terven tio n Strateg ies
              Clau dia Taylor, Univ ersity of Pittsburgh
              Ach la Ma rathe, Virgi nia Tech amar athe@v bi.vt .edu
              Richa rd Beckman , Virgini a Tech rbeckm an@v
              Overview: This researc h analyzes the effects of applying the same vaccinati on strategi es to two different metropolitan areas,
              Miami and Seattle, w here the population differs significantly in age distribution and the househol d size distribution. Age -
              targete d vaccination strategies are applied to people to control the transmission of a ``flu-lik e" virus . Results show that: (1)
              age com position of the city matters in determini ng the effectiveness of a vaccination strategy, ( 2) vaccinating the school
              children outperf orms every ot her strategy .    We believe that the difference in the age distribution of the populati ons will play
              a significant role i n the performance of the age targeted vaccinati on strategy. To analyze this hy pot hesis we simulate
              distribution of Influenza v accines accor ding to the followi ng age groups: preschool; school -age; adults; and seni or citizens.
              For both areas, we distribute the vaccine eit her at random acr oss the population or to one of the age gr oups, in an am ount
              equal to 10% of the total population of the area. Vaccinating school chil dren with a fixed supply of vaccine that totals 10% of
              the compl ete populations in Miami and Seattle leads to some very inter esting com parisons. In Seattle 20.33% of the
              popul ation is composed of school chil dren. Ther efore, in this study where the vaccine is available to only 10% of the
              popul ation, one half of the school chil dren in Seattle are vacci nated. I n Miami where the percentage of school children is
              15.03%, about 2/ 3 of the school childr en ar e vac cinated. This differential in the perc entage of school childr en vacci nated has a
              great effect on the attack rates in the two regions. This scenari o leads to an attack rate in Seattle of 10.86% but it is onl y half
              that in Miami where the attack rate is just 5.5% .     For all household size subgr oups , vaccination of school-aged children was
              the best strategy . It is the only strategy that came close to ev eni ng out the attack rate difference between househol d sizes .

              In Miami, under this strategy , the attack rates wer e 4.5% for small households , 4.7% for medi um households, and 6.2% for
              large households . In Seattle, attack rates when vacci nating schoolchil dren were 8.5% for small househol ds, 9.8% for medium
              househol ds, and 12.4% for large househol ds. Int erestingly, the groups that faced the highest attack rates gained the most
              from this strategy i.e. the large families. O ur results suggest that age is an important factor in disease transmission. The
              disproporti onate attack rate among schoolchildr en, and the v ast reduction in the over all attack rate among all subpopulations
              when schoolchil dren are vaccinated, shows them to be crucial disease vectors . Vaccinating school chil dren reduced the overal l
              attack rate by 18 -22% and eve n mor e not ably , by 27-30% in lar ge hous eholds. The results of this research hav e import ant
              implications for the policy makers . The most important is that there may not be a univ ersal vaccinati on strategy that works
              across all cities with the same level of effectiveness. It is important to be cognizant of the differences in the demographics of
              the cities to accurately estimate the performance of different intervention strategies . Secondl y, in light of this research and
              other rec ent studi es on the important role of school childr en in infl uenza transmission, the United States gover nment should
              consider the vaccination of school chil dren a top pri ority.
Paper         Fubarnom ics: T he S tudy of E conom ic Ma ladie s f rom Con struction to Health Ca re
              Robert E. Wrigh t, A ugustana College SD robert.wri ght
              Overview: All the major lagging economic institutions and sectors, incl udi ng construction, financial services, healt h care, higher
              education, marriage, real estate, and retirement savings are caus ed by hybri d failures , her e defined as com plex com binations
              of market failures (e.g., asymmetric informati on, exter nalities, mark et pow er, public goods, etc .) and gover nment failures
              (e.g., distortionary tax ation, inappropriate regul ation, mission creep, and so forth).
Paper         How Do Hig h-Cos t Patients Fare u nder the G loba l Bud get Po licy? --- Evide nce from China
              Wei Wa ng , Stanford Univ ersity wwang6@stanfor
              Overview: TBA
Discussa nt   Godw in Sree K ulakka l, Gover nment College for Women godwinsk @ya hoo.c om

Panel 19      Ge nder & Work
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 8:30 am - 10: 15 am
Chair         Dimeji To gun de, Albion College Dt ogunde@Al
Paper         The Effe ct of Wife’s Employme nt on Marita l Happ iness
              Ats uko Kawakami, Arizona State University akaw akam
              Overview: The Japanese General Social Survey is utilized to test the relationship between a wife‟s empl oyment and the self
              evaluated marital happi ness. Unlike other industrial countries where both the divorc e rates and women‟s labo r participation
              rates are high, Japan‟s divorce rate is still one of the lowest among the industrial countries. At the same time, the gener a l
              attitude tow ard the environment for women‟s labor participation has been showi ng more gender equal orientation. Logistic
              regression analysis revels that a wife‟s employment does not have a significant effect on either men‟s and wom en‟s self
              evaluated marital happi ness. The insi gnificant effect of wife‟s employment remai ns after controlling basic demographic facto rs
              such as age, educati on, incom e, and num ber of chil dren. The res ults were rather sur prising consi dering the fact that gender
              roles are more salient in Japan.
Paper         Gender integ ration in the Canad ian Forces: a n ana lysis of the te stimon ies o f w omen in comba t a rms
              Stepha nie Belan ger, Roy al Military College of Canada stephanie.belanger@rmc.c a
              Overview: Social, tec hnological and demographic factors foster the prec onditions for integrati ng w omen into com bat arms.
              Within the Canadi an F orces, the policies of integrating wom en w ere effective in 2002. It seems, from literature revi ew, that
              the success in recruiting women in com bat arms would be directly linked to the prom ulgation of gender i ntegr ation in the
              society. An analysis of the content of testimonies of women who hav e recently been in com bat arm in the CF reveals
              sometimes contradictory strategi es and feeli ngs about their position, rangi ng from hi ding female attributes in or der to fa cilitate
              female integration into a perceiv ed male envir onm ent to seei ng com plete assimilation, rather than an integr ation, of wom en in
              the CF.
Paper         Reconcep tua lizin g S ES a nd Ge nde r: De bt, Gen der Role Attitudes, a nd the Men tal Health of Married People
              Victo ria S tay, American Public University System
              Overview: Traditi onal stratification measures of socioec onomic status (SES) and gender serve as perennial pr edictors in t he
              study of poor mental health outcomes. This study set out to explor e and reconceptualize how w e measur e socioec onomic
              status (SES) and gender . With significant findings for the effects of debt included as a measur e of SES and gender r ole
              attitudes incl uded as a measur e of gender, this study provi des a muc h clearer pict ure of how these stock variable are act ually
              affecting ment al health outcome. It further opens the door to expand how we concept ualize these variables in future
Discussa nt   Lisa Ba ttag lia , Ohio Univ ersity battagli@ohi
              Wumi Olayiwo la, Cov enant University kolayiw ola@gm

Panel 27      Educa tion
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 8:30 am - 10: 15 am
Chair         Doro ta Ce lin ska, Roosev elt University dceli nska@y

Paper         Nikkei Peruvian Child ren be twee n Pe ru and Japan : Educa tional Env iro nment
              Ana S ueyosh i, Utsunomiy a University sueyos hi@cc.utsunomiy
              Overview: TBA
Paper         The Impact o f Hype rlink on On l ine Cou rse Des ign: A Case S tudy of MBA Econ omics Cou rse
              Chie n-Ping Chen, Univ ersity of Houston-Victoria
              Overview: This paper ex plor es the impact of simulation and reference hyperlinks , which ar e inserted in WebCT online course,
              on students‟ grade perform ance. Two online sessions with hy perli nks and two onli ne sessions without hyperlinks of the same
              MBA Economics course serv e as samples of case group and control gr oup res pectively . The hy pothesis testing on grade and
              tracking rec ord over different course assessments shows that hy perlinks have significant positive impacts on students‟
              perform ance on homew ork and discussion boar d questions but insignificant impacts on exams and term paper. The over all
              impact of hyperlinks on the semester gr ade depends on the w eight distribution ov er assessments not on the am ount of
              browsi ng time. Hyperlink install ation enhances teachi ng efficiency of online course design in non- quantitative assessments.
Paper         Examining Im pact of Expo sure to Commu nity Vio lence on Ind icators of Adole scen t Academ ic Pe rfo rmance
              Kecia Ad dis on -Sco tt, Montgomery C ounty Public Sc hools kecia.scott@gm ail.c om
              Syretta R. James , Baltimore County Public Schools syrettaj99@ya hoo.c om Overview: this study ex amined the impact of
              exposure to comm unity violenc e on i ndicat ors of adol escents‟ academic performance. This topic is important as ex pos ure to
              community violence may have long-t erm ramifications on the academic futur e of children.
Paper         Instructional Practices I nvento ry
              Pat D iPillo, Falmouth Public Schools Perseus813@aol .com
              Overview: The I nstructional Pr actices Inventory is a useful prot ocol used as a tool to meas ure student engagement and
              interaction in the classroom based on a conti nuum of six stages. Coupled with faculty discussions, it is a prime example of t he
              Professional Lear ni ng Comm unity in action and can contribute to whole school improv ement efforts
Discussa nt   Diana S. Pe rdue , Virgi nia State Univ ersity dper due@vs

Thursday, December 10, 10:30 am – 12:15 pm
Panel 4       Prison
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 10: 30 am - 12:15 pm
Chair         Gerald Cap lan , Univ ersity of Pacific
Paper         Race-base d Prison Gan gs, D rug s, Racial Cleans ing, a nd the Expan sio n of So litary Lockdo wn un its
              Bra ckette F. William s, University of Arizona bfw @email
              Overview: The presentation ex plores the r ole of race-based gangs in ex panding the us e of lockdown units in Arizona and the
              functions these gangs engage as they w ork to contr ol drugs enteri ng the prison and to cleanse race gr oups of persons whose
              offenses are socially disdained withi n and outside the prison.
Paper         A Case Stu dy of Inca rce rate d Ma les Pa rticipating in a Can ine Tra in ing Prog ram
              Nikki S. Cu rrie, Wic hita State Univ ersity nikki.currie@wic
              Overview: This multi-media pres entati on will focus on the results of a qualitative case study research dissertation whic h
              expl ored the use of canines with inc arcerated males . The outcomes of the study along with im plications for pr actice and
              further research across disciplines will be discussed.
Paper         Correctio nal Ph ilosop hies ’ Ro le in the Supe rvisio n, Mana gement and Trea tmen t of Pe rson s with Men tal Illness
              in U.S. a nd F inn ish Prison s
              Rose-Ma rie Aikas, CUNY/Q ueensborough CC raikas@qcc.cuny .edu
              Overview: The lar ge body of inter national em pirical researc h on perso ns with mental illness in prisons indicates that individual
              countries vary greatly in their treatment, managem ent , and supervision of this population. In order to understand this
              varianc e, this study em ploys a qualitativ e cross -national data collection strategy to inv estigate the role of correctional
              phil osophies in the treatment, management, and super vision of persons with mental illness in prisons in Finl and and the Unite d
              States. Of particular inter est is how such people receive treatment , in addition to their levels of satisfaction with that
              treatment , in eac h national context . In adopti ng a com parativ e approach, this research attem pts to discern common trends in
              treatment , identify the most effective, pr oficient , and results -oriented of these treatments, and set a cross-national agenda for
              future collabor ation on similar projects.
Paper         A Room w ith N o View : The Role of Lite rature in the Jo lie t Pen iten tia rie s u nde r Warde n Jo seph Ragen
              Amanda Win ters, University Of Illinois Spri ngfiel d
              Overview: My pr esent ation will exami ne Warden Ragen‟s use of literatur e as rehabilitation, his ow n personal literary
              endeavors, and the role that literature played in the i nstitutions of Joli et. It will utilize excerpts from the prison magazi ne to
              illustrate the effect of imprisonment and total Panopticon surveillance on the i nmate‟s creative works . This evidence will be
              linke d with the Warden‟s theories about rehabilitation and his succes sful tenur e in Joli et.
Discussa nt   Carl Jense n, University of Mississippi
              Silv io Dob ry, Hostos Comm unity College sdobry

Panel 8       Society & C ulture
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 10: 30 am - 12:15 pm
Paper         The My ths and Facts abo ut the Circu lation of Satirica l Verse s Pro duce d in Ch ina
              Helen Wu, Univ ersity of Toronto helenxy.w u@ut
              Overview: TBA
Paper         Depiction o f ad ultery in Japane se Ladie s Comics' magazines
              Michiko Yamada, yamadami
              Overview: La dies‟ Comics is a genre of sexually explicit cartoon magazines is considered as liberating wom en‟s sexuality
              because they accept wom en‟s sexual desires. How ever , through semiotic analysis, what La dies‟ Comics actually depict was
              found to be the “cognitive dissonanc e” of prot agonis ts which they have contradicting ideas and “double consciousness” w hich
              means that women believe somet hing against their inter est.

Panel 20      Economics and De mographics
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 10: 30 am - 12:15 pm
Chair         Xiao shuo Hou , St. Lawrence Uni versity xiaoshuo.hou@gmail.c om
Paper         Corpora te Firms, Manage rs and the In come D is tribu tio n
              Sang Yoon Lee, UW-Madison
              Overview: I introduc e corporate firms and managers in an entr epr eneuri al model. Entrepreneurs face the choice of remaini ng
              private or selling the firm on the stock market, w hich inv olves a cost for entry. Onc e a firm is listed on the mark et, ow ners hip
              is relinquis hed, and investors hire a manager to run the cor porate firm. In equili brium , positive assortativ e matching between
              managers and cor por ate firms imply that managerial com pensation and cor por ate profits grow disproporti onately larger with
              the quality of the manager and th e firm. Lower entry costs increase the size of the corporate sector , which i n turn res ults in a
              larger share of labor incom e for high incom e househol ds and also a stronger ex pos ure of their labor inc ome to aggr egate
              fluctuations. This is in line with recent trends in the U.S. inc ome distribution.
Paper         Hous ing Refo rm, Social S tra tif ica tio n, and Agin g in Ch ina
              Sheying Chen , Indiana University Sout heast sheyingc hen@ya
              Bin L i, Central- South University leebi
              Tan Chen , Central-South University cnchentan@126.c om
              Ka Lin , Zheji ang University ka_lin_2004@ya hoo.c om.c n
              Overview: This paper ex amines the relationshi p betw een housing and social stratification as they bear on the living
              arrangem ents of older peopl e in Chi na. Data from case studi es in Changs ha, the capit al of Hunan Province, and a national
              sample surve y are used. Public policy responses are analyzed by reviewi ng China‟s devel opm ent strategy and the rol e of its
              changi ng general public policy (GPP) , whic h has recently shown to be in another transition towar d a more balanced mode of
              dev elopment. Implications to ur ban social welfare pr ovision ar e also discussed.
Paper         The re lation ship be tween Birth Rate and Eco nomic Developmen t in Taiwan
              Shih -Chie h Liao , China Medical Univ ersity liao@mail
              Wan-Hs in Hs u, C hina Medical Univ ersity happyk umquat @hotmail.c om
              Yen-Ju Chen , China Medical Univ ersity louiseclarinet@hotmail .com
              Jim-S hou ng Lai, China Medical Univ ersity
              Overview: Taiwan has the lowest birth rate i n the worl d. This study aims to predict the demographic structure of Taiwan i n the
              future and infl uence national public health policy by analyzing the rel ations hip am ong birt h rate, femal e empl oyment rate and
Paper         Perso nality, Ge nder and Ma nagerial Ca reer S ucce ss in Germa ny
              Simon Fie tze , Researc h Associate fietze@hsu-
              Elke Holst, Senior R esearc her eholst@diw .de
              Verena T obsch, R esearch Associate tobsc h@hsu-
              Overview: TBA
Paper         Pub lic Se cto r E nte rp rise Refo rm in Camero on; a n ap pra isa l
              Wilfre d Awung , Shady Gr ove Adventist Hospital wawung@y
              Overview: This paper will exami ne the proc ess, problems and constraints to the public enterprise ref orm reform proc ess in
              Cameroon. It analyz es the vested int erest and the rol e of gov ernm ent in stalling the pr ocess
Discussa nt   Juan J. Fe rna ndez Ansola , Int ernational Monetar y Fund jfer nandez1@imf.or g

Panel 29      Psychology a nd Sociology
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 10: 30 am - 12:15 pm
Chair         David W. Chan ce, University of Phoenix
Paper         Living Be tte r in a Bette r Wo rld: A New Deal on the Prob lems o f D iff icu lt Se ttlement or So lution in the Wo rld
              And re F rancis co Pilon , Univ ersity of São Paulo gaiari

              Overview: Contem porar y problems depend on com plex configurations enc ompassing i ndivi duals, gr oups, society, nat ural and
              man-made envir onm ents and shoul d be dealt with consideri ng the inter play of the different dimensions of being-i n-the- worl d:
              intimate (subject‟s cognitive and affective proc esses), inter active (gr oups‟ mutual support and val ues), social ( political,
              economical and cult ural systems) and biophysical (bi ological endowment, natur al and man-m ade environments).
Paper         Mothe r T urkey and Automa tic Pilot: A Critical Asse ssmen t of Robe rt B. Ciald in i’s Meta pho rs for Us Mother
              Turkey a nd Au tomatic Pilo t: A Critica l Asses sment of R obert B. Cia ldini’s Metap hors fo r Us
              Herbe rt W. Simon s, Emeritus, Tem ple University hsimons@tem
              Overview: Social psychologist Robert B. Cialdini ( 2009) has compiled some pow erful techniques of pers uasion. But he offers
              two contrasting and seemi ngly opposed ex planations for their power: "mot her turk ey" and "aut omatic pilot." The question to
              be addr essed in this paper is whet her Cial dini‟s metaphors are contradictory or com plementary .
Paper         His tory of Sociolo gy in WW II Ra dio: Robe rt Me rto n, Talcott Pars ons, Pau l Laza rsfe ld & T heodo r Ado rno
              Susan Cavin , New York Univ ersity susan.cavi n@ny
              Overview: Sociologists Analyzed WW II Radi o for O.S.S. and O.W.I .
Discussa nt   Adam Jona s, University of Kent ucky
              Yin -H ung Hsu , National Taiw an Normal University

Thursday, December 10, 2:00 pm – 3:45 pm
Panel 5       Economic Downturn
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 2:00 pm - 3:45 pm
Chair         Anne lie s Deus s, Cor nell University ad328@c
Paper         Sufficie ncy E conomy is se lf- imm unity of re silien ce aga in st econom ic do wnturn
              Benjamas S iripa tra , Local Devel opm ent I nstitute ldi@loxi h
              Overview: “The Sufficiency Econom y is about finding knowledge and putting i t to use, overc oming pr obl ems, correcting
              mistakes and learni ng by doi ng so that the end pr oduct is a truly better and happier life. Anyt hing done must be done with
              commitment, without fear about maki ng mistake, because you can always try agai n. L ear ning by doing is the way to a happy
              life.” Sources: UNDP, Thailand Hum an Devel opm ent report 2007 “Sufficiency economy and Human Development, page 48.
Paper         The le gal foun dations of financial co lla pse
              Caro lyn S issoko , csissoko5@gmail.c om
              Overview: The 1984, 1990 and 2005 laws that grant "safe har bor " from the bankr uptcy code to financial contracts were
              passed wit h the intent of prom oting financi al stability. Recent evi dence indicates that the theory behind these laws was flawed
              and that they i n fact destabilized the financi al system.
Paper         Did the "Ame rican Recove ry and Reinvestmen t Act" Fu nd a n Optimal M ix of Ta Re ductions and Direct
              Governmen t S pend ing?
              L. Jan Reid , Coast Ec onomic Cons ulting janrei d@coastec
              Overview: Once the American Recov ery and Rei nvestment Act (ARRA) was introduced, the ec onomic debate centered on the
              optimal mix of tax reductions and dir ect gov ernm ent spending. I briefly review the economic literatur e and discuss the
              economic arguments of both sides. My paper accounts for economic adjustment and calculates the optimal mix of tax
              reductions and dir ect gov ernm ent spending using three different standar ds: effect on Gross Dom estic Product, effect on the
              stock market, and effect on the U.S. unempl oyment rate. Finally, I discuss the relative im portance of these thr ee ec onomic
              standar ds.
Paper         Beyond Failure and Forgivenes s: T he De bto r's Place in Ame rican Fis cal Iden tity, Bank ru ptcy and Ca pitalism
              Linda Co co, Barr y Univ ersity, School of Law lcoco@mail
              Overview: Bankruptcy and the American Fiscal Identity
Discussa nt   Ilhan Ca n O zen , Johns Hopkins University ozeni24@gm

Panel 13      Ethnicity a nd Ra ce
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 2:00 pm - 3:45 pm
Chair         Hassan D hou ti, Booz Allen Hamilton hdhouti@y
Paper         Booke r T. Wash ing ton
              Bertis D. E ng lis h, Alabama State University Beng102170@aol .com
              Overview: Numer ous schol arly monographs have been published about Booker T. Was hington. He nevert heless remai ns one of
              the most controversial and misunderst ood African Americans in United States history . In general , modern scholars hav e
              portray ed Washi ngt on as a self-serving accommodati onist who thought legally emancipat ed bl acks placed too muc h emphasis
              on the social and political possibilities that Reconstruction promised. By doing so, the blacks failed to take full adva ntage of the
              economic opportunities that vocational and industrial education coul d pr ovide. Although a small cadr e of revisionist writers has
              challenged this inter pretati on for decades, it warrants a broader reconsideration. This presentati on is intended to help t he
              revisionists forge a new par adi gm for analyzing Washi ngton. The presenter pr oposes to show that Washi ngton w as a drive n,
              bol dly optimistic, and pr ophetic individual w hose chil dhood enslavement, reli gious convictions, and adult residency in the
              segregated Sout h compelled him to “wear the mask” in the words of the celebrat ed bl ack poet Paul L. Dunbar . Unlike
              Washi ngt on‟s staunchest supporters, the presenter will not deify the man. On occasion, he was authoritarian, vindictive, and
              presum ptuous. Howev er, these mortal traits did not stop Washi ngt on from w orking tirelessly to provi de thousands of black
              yout h, men, and women with lay and professional opportunities in an age w hen black uplift was dependent on white
              acqui escenc e. Rat her than being the perpetually selfish, anti -int ellectual , power-seeking "Uncle Tom " suggested by orthodoxy ,
              the pres enter seeks to demonstrate that Washi ngton was an intensely reflective equalitari an w hose pri ncipal beliefs regardi ng
              economics, educati on, politics, and ot her important matters that affect human behavi or are as instructive today as they wer e
              duri ng the late ni neteent h and early twentieth centuri es.
Paper         Images and Na rra tives in Harlem: The Ma skin g of the Bla ck Mid dle Class
              Roderick G raham, City University of New York Gr aduate Center rgraham 1@gc.c
              Overview: In w hat ways do images in Harlem effect the percepti ons of whites entering its spaces? This paper is a visual case
              study of three blocks of upper M anhattan - the geographic spac e that connotes symbolic Harl em to citizens. This paper is
              divided int o three sections, eac h section supported by images taken in Harl em from 2006 to 2009. The first narrative,
              supported by images from adv ertisements , suggests that African-Americans work largely outsi de of mainstream society . The
              second narr ative, supported through the iconogr aphy sol d by street merchants, spotli ghts the singul ar achievements of
              African-Americans. The third narrativ e, supported mostly by left leaning political organizations and gr oups , suggests that
              Harlem is a space for political action outside of the mai nstream. I argue that these three narr atives work toget her to make the
              working and middle class Harlemites invisibl e in the w hite mind.
Paper         Explo ring And Mea surin g Res ilien ce I n S uccessf ul Af rican -American Adults
              Tiffany R. Kin g, RTI Inter nati onal tking@rti .or g
              Overview: Over the past forty years, the devel opment of resilience researc h has yiel ded insight into certain qualities,
              characteristics and behavi ors that an individual may possess or exercise that contribute to their having the fortitude to bou nce
              back or persever e through adverse situati ons. R esearc h on resilience continues to grow yet to date, fe w studies have focused
              on how African-Am erican chil dren have been able to survi ve and thriv e amidst adv ersity, and to bec ome successful adults. This
              study also sought to expl ore how successful African Americans who have ex peri enced adversity and har dshi p, vi ew resilience
              as it relates to their own success, as well as African American people as a whol e. Qualitative and quantitative research
              methods were us ed to ex plor e the researc h questions. Int erviews were transcribed for content analysis, with several the mes
              emergi ng. Major infl uences of resilience in res pondent‟s interviewed i ncluded spirituality or strong connections with a hi ghe r
              pow er, racial identity and connectedness, w ork ethic , supportive rel ationships and a strong desire to overc ome hards hips to
              achiev e a better life. Analysis of survey data rev ealed relati ons hips betw een resilience and factors includi ng w ork ethic , des ire
              to succeed, and parental expectations.
Discussa nt   Diana S. Pe rdue , Virgi nia State Univ ersity dper due@vs
              Doro ta Ce lin ska, Roosev elt University dceli nska@y

Panel 22      Ge nder
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 2:00 pm - 3:45 pm
Chair         Francisca Is i Om oro dio n, University of Windsor omor odif @uwi nds
Paper         Explo ring Ge nder Is sues and the Use of E th nomedicine amon g Women in Latin America n Cultu res
              Clemen tina E. Adams , Clemson Univ ersity
              Yanh ua Zhan g, Clemson Uni versity
              Overview: A study of wom an's Gender issues related to their developmental pr ocess, child beari ng care, searc h for beauty and
              yout h, menopause, and others on their motivation for using ethnom edici ne and trusting their effectiveness.
Paper         My Body, My Blog: Fema le Body Image and Sexua lity in the Ira nian “We blo gesta n" (A m onth of deba te ove r
              perso nal narratives of body an d sex)
              Leva Ahma di, Californi a State University, Sacramento balootak@gmail .com
              Overview: This researc h is a case study of one month of debate ov er personal narrativ es of body and sex among Iranian
              bloggers in Persian blogos phere.
Paper         Extrin isic ve rsus In trins ic Dynam ics In Unde rg radua te Married Women
              Michael W. F irm in, Cedar ville Univ ersity firmin@cedar
              Jillia n Pie rce , Cedarville University
              Vale rie Bou cha rd, Cedarville Univ ersity vbouc har d@c
              Ruth ie Firm in , Cedarville University
              Overview: The present study is a qualitative, phenomenol ogical research study that ex plored the potentially stressor dynamics
              among 24 female, married univ ersity students. The sample w as equally divi ded among junior and seniors at a comprehensive ,
              private, Ohio univ ersity enrolli ng 3000 students. In- depth i nterviews wer e admi nistered to each of the students in order to
              investigat e the wom en‟s‟ personal constructs regar di ng w here their roles as students and married w omen touc hed. Constant
              comparison data analysis was applied as we generated codes. Emer gent themes wer e those that repres ented the consensus
              of most participants in the sam ple. Internal validity for the study inc luded independent researc her ev aluation, mem ber
              checking, use of NVIVO-8 qualitative software, regular meeti ngs among the research team , and generating a dat a trail.
              Satur ation occurr ed w hen analyzing the researc h transcripts, provi ding additional confide nce that our criterion sample met hod
              was adequate for the study‟s intended purpose. At a national researc h conference, w e presented the results regardi ng the

              financial consider ations that these females contempl ated prior to maki ng their weddi ng decisions . We also consider ed the
              domi nant stressors of the women since marriage and are pr esenti ng the results at this conference as well. Here, we will focus
              on the extrinsic and the intri nsic dynamics affecting the undergr aduate marri ed w omen. Femal es in our sam ple identified four
              main extrinsic dy namics which affected their lives as under graduate married students. A dditionally , they described shifts the y
              experi enc ed in rel ation to these dy namics while transitioni ng from single to married life. First, they descri bed time commitment
              issues relating to changes in scheduling, contrasts in marriage versus dati ng, added responsi bilities, and social limitations .
              Secondly, the women described friends hip shifts that occurred since the marri age. Thir dly, the dy namic of mis s opport unities
              arose. Finally , the last extrinsic dy namic was academic shifts, whether through spousal support or a changed mi ndset
              regar di ng academic pri orities since the marriage. We also discov ered four intrinsic or personal dy namics affecting the sam ple
              of under graduate, marri ed female students. First, the sampl e described a need to “transition” i n how they view ed their roles as
              students. Sec ondly , they felt an added need for bal ance between their roles as wife and student. Next, the women descri bed
              an inter nal rel ease of “pr essure” bei ng marri ed, as compar ed to their previ ous relationshi p state of dating. L astly, the wom en
              described a sense of contentment from the decision to marry while still in their under graduate studi es.
Paper         Small Tow n T rans ition: A Case S tudy of Two Tra nsgen der Studen ts in Sou theas tern New Mexico
              Penny G. Sande rs , Easter n New Mexico Univ ersity penny.sanders@enm
              Overview: This is an expl oration of the challenges of embr acing one's transgender identity in a rur al community.
Discussa nt   Ange la Moo re, National Institute of Justice Angel a.Moore.Parml
              Grace Auyang , University of Cincinnati Grace.Auy ang@uc .edu

Panel 28      Crime & Unrest
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 2:00 pm - 3:45 pm
Chair         David T. R itch ie, Mercer University School of Law ritchie_d@law .mercer .edu
Paper         The Correctio nal Wh ipp ing Boy: Pa ro le Au tho rities, Priso ner Reen try a nd Ev iden ce -Based Practices
              Mario Papa rozzi, Unversity of Nor h Caroli na at Pem broke mario.papar ozzi@unc
              Roger Guy , guyrs@unc
              Overview: To reduce offender recidivism, corr ectional systems will need to devote significantly more attention, than they have
              in the past, to provi ding hi gh quality programs and services that target criminogenic needs and also enhance prospects for
              successful reentry .
Paper         Car Sp inn ing in R iyadh: The Politics of Ma rg inalized Sa udi Yo uth
              Pasca l Meno ret, Pri nceton University pmenoret @pri
              Overview: this talk will present the under worl d of saudi car drifters, and show how this street culture of resistance is fought by
              islamist preachers and the police
              1942 -19 50
              Paul U gboajah , University of Ibadan ugboajahpaul@y
              Overview: The paper ex amines one of the major consequenc es of social change br ought about by col oni alism in Lagos. This
              work deals with the attempt to deal with juvenile delinquency w hich was a major social pr oblem i n colonial Lagos, Ni geri a. In
              this regar d, the paper critically examines the origi n a nd devel opm ent of social welfare services in the crown col ony of Lagos as
              the inevit able sol ution to a new form of negative social behavi ours ex hibited by L agos which came i nto limelight in the 1920s
              and becam e pr onounced during the Second Worl d War as to hav e caught the attenti on of the British colonial gover nment thus
              compelli ng them to take meas ures in cur bing them . This led to the impl ementation of new administrative and judicial
              machinery whic h legislated 'juv enil e deli nquency' into existence as a clearly identifiable social pr oblem and criminalized a large
              portion of ur ban youth.
Paper         Enhancin g the S uccess of Co rre ctiona l Reha bilitation th rou gh Via ble Commu nitie s
              Roger Guy , Univ ersity of North Car olina at Pem brok e guyrs
              Overview: This paper analyzes the state of correctional rehabilitation in the United States, and propos es an integrative
              approac h to successful reentry with a focus on social institutions, and macr o pr oc esses in the community to whic h offenders
              return after sentenci ng.
Discussa nt   Phillip Da walt, Ivy Tec h Community College pdawalt
              Stepha nie L. G ib son , Colum bus Ohi o Police Department fletch1600@aol.c om

Thursday, December 10, 4:00 pm – 5:45 pm
Panel 6       Religion
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 4:00 pm - 5:45 pm
Paper         Rust to Renewa l: America n Re lig ion, Dein dus trializa tio n, and the Tof fle rian So cioe conom ic Wave Mode l
              Joshua D. Re icha rd , Oxford Gr aduate School joshua.reic har d@gmail .com
              Overview: The article analyzes dominant American religi ous mov ements of the twentiet h centur y through the lens of the
              socioeconomic wav e model of futurist Alvin Toffler. The article identifies the promi nent religious movem ents associated with

              the Sec ond and Thir d Waves of Toffler‟s model and proposes three prim ary religi ous val ues that char acterized the economic
              engagement of each w ave .
Paper         Gender Iden tity Politics in Budd hism: The Se lf-Definitio n of Tha i Bud dh ist Nu ns and the Prob lem of Authenticity
              Lisa Ba ttag lia , Ohio Univ ersity battagli@ohi
              Overview: Determini ng t he authenticity of women‟s religi ous identity has been an issue of great concern thr oughout
              Buddhism‟s history. The question of who is a “real” nun surfaces in bot h early I ndi an Buddhist canonical literat ure and
              contem por ary discourse. Indeed, this question has very real implications for Buddhist women w orldwi de. In Theravā da
              Thailand and other B uddhist cont exts, the issue of deciding who is a nun is multifaceted and controversial . The debate on
              women‟s full ordination as Buddhist nuns (bhikk hunī) is a hot topic in the Buddhist world today. The present researc h
              examines the “bhikk hunī mov ement” in contemporar y Thailand from the pers pective of mae chis, w hite -robed Thai B uddhist
              nuns who abi de by ei ght precepts yet do not hav e full ordi nation or or dination lineage. Empl oying an ant hropol ogical
              approac h heavily inform ed by postcol oni al critical theory, my research rev eals that mae chis, w omen who lead a B uddhist
              monastic lifestyle characterized by celibate practice and spiritual discipline, ar e not , on the whole, eager to relinquish their
              present status, fight against the existing socio-reli gious order, or purs ue bhikk hunī or dination. A critical-empathic
              consideration of the perspectives of mae chis bri ngs to light a discernable wester n feminist thrust in the bhikk hunī mov ement
              that does not necessarily resonate with the motivations, aims or cultural sensibilities of the white-r obed nuns. These
              disjunctur es call for critical reflection on the very par ameters by w hich w omen‟s religious identity and authenticity are
              evaluated. As this paper suggests, the bhikk hunī movem ent rests on the orthodox (and a ndrocentric?) view that full or dinati on
              is the seminal criterion of authenticity. Albeit obli quely, mae chis challenge this conv entional stanc e. As women w ho hav e
              gone forth i n their ow n right, mae chis attest to the heter ogeneity of female Buddhist reli giosity.
Paper         Explaining the Emerge nce of Re lig iou s E ntrepre neu rsh ip in the Axia l Age
              Seth Abrutyn , University of California-Riv erside sabr
              Overview: The Axial A ge has been more often ignor ed as a rev olutionar y moment in hum an history bec ause it was a cultural
              and not "mat erial" rev oluti on in the moder n sense of the term. T he generally accepted historical narr ative recognizes the
              impact that religi ons like Christianity , Islam, and Buddhism have had in pacifying larger popul ations to further imperi alist
              policies while i gnoring the ways in which (a) new reli gious symbols were part of resistance movem ents against the traditional
              political centers , (b) reli gious entrepreneurs duri ng the Axial Age distanced themselv es from kinshi p and political actors, and
              (c) the impact that cultur al forces had on materi al conditions. The paper pr esented here in looks to formulate a general theo ry
              explai ning w hy the Axial Age happened i n the first place.
Paper         Shif ting Re ligio us Attitude s And Behavio rs of You ng I ran ian Adults
              Shireen Keyl, Univ ersity of Arizona skeyl@email
              Overview: Thr ough in-dept h interviews, this paper describes the shifting philosophic al and religious attitudes and behavi ors of
              young, ur ban Iranian adults. These young people recognize a disconnect between the aut hority of the Islamic state and
              society at large, w hich res ults in many young people shifting away from Islam to other forms of religious ideology .
Paper         Globa lization a nd Re ligio us Cha nge
              Tom W. Sm ith, NORC /University of Chicago
              Overview: TBA
Discussa nt   Leva Ahma di, Californi a State University, Sacramento balootak@gmail .com

Panel 14      Educa tion, Ethnicity , Gender
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 4:00 pm - 5:45 pm
Paper         Cultu ral and academ ic dive rs ity in studen t na rrative disco urse
              Doro ta Ce lin ska, Roosev elt University dceli nska@y
              Overview: This study analyzed personal and fictional narratives of cultur ally/ethnically div erse students with and without
              learni ng disabilities. The participants were 82 fourt h to sevent h graders from ur ban and subur ban schools located in a
              Midwest metropolitan area. Narratives wer e elicited in the context of naturalistic conv ersation and analyzed using High Point
              Analysis and Epis odic Analysis. The significant effects of student ethnic/cultur al back ground, lear ning disability and the
              interaction of the two factors were found on several narrative facets in both personal and fictional genr es. The findings are
              interpr eted bey ond the traditional deficit-bas ed appr oac h, poi nting out to possible influences of student et hnic/c ultural
              back ground. Educational implicati ons for assessment and narrative- based instruction for divers e narr ators are discussed.
Paper         Ethn icity, Ine quality, an d Lang uage
              Irma N. Guada rrama , University of Texas Pan American iguadarram
              Jessica Lava riega -Mo nfo rti, University of Texas Pan American
              Overview: This researc h paper ex amines compar ative institutional policy across several school districts in South Tex as, all
              majority- Hispanic student districts. The data addresses key issues that challenge policy makers to re-ex amine t he decision
              making structure and the manner by whic h the districts implement effective educational programs.
Paper         Can F ree Primary Edu cation Achieve Un iversa l Primary Edu cation? A stu dy of the inte rsectio ns of s ocial
              exclu sion, gende r a nd ed uca tio n in Kenya.
              Judith Bie ro, Univ ersity of Massachusetts jobi ero@

              Overview: Femi nist researchers view ge nder as a basic organizing pri nciple that shapes the conditions of people‟s lives. Thus
              Feminists pose questions that relate to the centrality of gender in the shaping of indivi duals‟ conscious ness. However, t hey also
              recognize that ot her aspects of identity interact with gender to pr oduce a uni que lived ex peri enc e (Collins , P, 1990) . This
              study adopts a feminist theoretical framewor k known as Int ersectional Theory whic h focuses on the very specific ways that
              gender intersects with a num ber of ot her dim ensions in the lives of women, such as race, et hnicity , class or poverty .
              Specifically, This study exami nes the concrete experi enc es of primary school girls who have been caught between multipl e
              systems of oppression, and the ways in whic h these inter act to shape their educati onal experiences. It offers comprehensive
              analysis of the ways in w hich the i nterpl ay of social identity vari ables suc h as gender , ethnicity, and class coupled with ot her
              emergi ng sources of disadva ntage might impact the schooling of the most vul nerable and mar gi nalized chil dren. By so doi ng it
              attempts io identify relevant strategies for change.
Paper         Experie nces of First -Gene ration Immig ran ts as F irst-Gene ration Co llege S tuden ts
              Rhonda Adam s Sm ith, Texas St ate Uni versity
              Overview: TBA
Discussa nt   Ad rien ne D. Dix son , The Ohi o State University
              Robert Z. Carr, J r., Langston University

Panel 21      Energy & Environme nt
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 4:0 0 pm - 5:45 pm
Chair         Bu lent Acma , Anadol u University bacma@anadol
Paper         Price E ffects of S ubs id ized Etha nol Prod uctio n
              Doug las Auld , University of Guelph
              Overview: This paper ex amines how the dem and for corn for use as a fuel additive has increased the price of cor n and
              substitute agri-food pr oducts leadi ng to mark et inefficiency and unwanted redistributions of income.
Paper         Energy Efficie ncy a nd Con servation Po licie s: What D iffe rence Do They Make?
              Richy Pa lmer, Indiana University richpalm
              Overview: Using meta-anal ysis and case studi es, this paper pr ovides sound advice to policy makers by showing what the
              relative impacts on ener gy demand ar e for various types of efficiency and conser vation policies .
Paper         Intercu ltu ra l Commun ica tio n: An Environme nta l Pe rs pective
              Thomas Ba glan , Arkansas State University tbagl
              Overview: Summary of a measure for progress in the country of Bhutan: Gr oss National Happi ness, foc using on the aspect of
              envir onm ental preserv ation.
Discussa nt   Denise J ohns on, NOAA Fisheries Service

Panel 30      Leadership & Politics
              Thursday , Decem ber 10, 4:00 pm - 5:45 pm
Chair         Joe Jack son F raze r, J r., Judson College jfrazer
Paper         Usin g So cia l Netw ork Analys is to Study of Po wer at the Loca l Level: A case stu dy in the a nalys is of urba n
              Adam Jona s, University of Kent ucky
              Overview: Social netw ork analysis is used to exami ne local power and decision making in a city of roughly 275,000. Findings
              poi nt to an inability of local activists to defeat pro-gr owt h coalitions due to a relative lack of netw ork actors who hav e financial
              resources and social 'access' to public officers through local boar d direct orates and campaign financing.
Paper         The Po litics of Fo rens ic Analys is of Electo ral Malpra ctices in N ige ria
              Aluko Fo lorunso S unday, State Inform ation Technol ogy A gency, SITA funs oal uko@ya
              Overview: TBA
Paper         Comparin g the Values o f Best and Worst Leade rs
              Herbe rt Geo rge Baker, Alliant Int ernational Univ ersity hbak er@alliant .edu
              Sharo n Shmu lik , Alliant Int ernational Uni versity
              Overview: The perceiv ed val ues ex hibited in the behavi ors of best and worst leaders differ markedly from one anot her , as well
              in their pr oximity to an establis hed empirical norm for most effective.
Paper         The S tate of Rep resen tative Bu reaucracy in S tate Government Agencies: An Emp irica l Ana lysis.
              O.C. N waebu be, ASPA
              Overview: The Equal Empl oyment Opportunity Act of 1972 ( EEOA) mandates that qualified job applicants regar dless of race,
              color, reli gion, sex , or nati onal origi n hav e similar and equal opportunity to be hir ed and prom oted. The EEOA also mandates
              that public organizati ons‟ workforc e be reflective of the demographics of their populati on. Besides , the EEOA dem anded that all
              ethnic gr oup mem bers in the w orkforce have an equal opport unity to be pr omoted not just at the lower lev el positions but also
              at the upper hierarc hies of the or ganization. Although Black males‟ penetration and/or stratification in the state gov ernm ent
              workforce have significantly impr ove d since the EEOA , repr esent ation at the exec utive level positions has generally rem ained
              dismal when com pared to other major dem ogr aphic groups in the state gov ernm ent w orkforce.

Paper         Democra tic Gove rnan ce a nd Commu nica ting Con flict in Af rica: Is sues and Pe rspe ctives in Nige ria’s Niger Delta
              Uchechukw u Mad u, Center for Me dia and Peace, Lagos ucheamagu@y
              Overview: The im portance of effective leadershi p in convinci ng citizens to engage in positive social change through civic
              engagement and denounciation of violence is key to the resol ution of major conflicts and disagreem ents that characterize
              dem ocratic gov ernance
Discussa nt   Ch ris ty Sto rey, Kennesaw Stat e Univ ersity
              Herbe rt W. Simon s, Emeritus, Tem ple University hsimons@tem

Friday, December 11, 8:30 am – 10:15 am
Panel 7       Turkey
              Friday , December 11, 8: 30 am - 10: 15 am
Chair         Hakki Gu rkas , Kennesaw State University hgurkas @kennesaw .edu
Paper         Big Bro the r Reb orn : Tu rk ish Sta te an d I ts Su rveillan ce of Public Sp here in Tu rkey
              Banu Baybars Ha wks, Kadir Has University Comm unicati on Faculty banubhawks
              Mura t Ak ser, Kadir Has Univ ersity
              Overview: The aim of this study is to expose the relati ons hip between Turkis h state‟s foundi ng (moder nizing) operating
              princi ple i.e. contr olling its citizens rather than serving them and how this control is achieved thr ough the control of
              communication technologies , in this case through inter net surveillance.
Paper         The AK Pa rty’s Fo reig n Policy: Con tinu ities a nd Chan ges
              Kilic B. Kanat, Syr acuse Univ ersity kbkanat@gmail.c om
              Overview: TBA
Paper         New Pub lic Managemen t an d F lexib ility Implemen tation in Pub lic Se cto r: I nte rnationa l Perspective a nd Guide
              for T urk is h Pub lic Adminis tration Re form s
              Mehmet Ak if Demircioglu, I ndi ana Univ ersity
              Abd ullah Ciftci, Indiana University
              Overview: I) Intr oduction II) New Public Managem ent III) Pr ogr esses in Public Empl oyment IV) lexibility Implementations in
              the USA and the EU IV) Flexibl e Empl oyment Turkish Public Sector V) Concl usion and Recomm endations
Paper         An I ns igh t into Pe rfo rman ce Bud geting a nd Some De rivatio ns for Tu rkey
              Seyit Ali Das tan, L ondon Sc hool of Economics and Political Scienc e
              Mehmet Ak if Demircioglu, I ndi ana Univ ersity at Bloomington mdemirci@i Overview: 1. Introduction 2.
              Perform ance B udgeting 2.1 The I dea behind Perf ormance Budgeting 2.2 Performance Budgeting Mec hanisms 2.3
              Perform ance B udgeting Pr actices 3. Turkey‟s Reform Initiativ es 3.1 Back ground 3.2 The Rem aking of Public Financ e 3.3
              Practice So F ar and Challenges 4. C oncl usion
Paper         From Village -Tu rks to Eu ro -Tu rks: T urk is h S tate's Perception of T urk is h M ig ran ts in Eu rope
              Zeynep Se len Artan , Graduate Center , CUNY zartan@gc
              Overview: TBA
Discussa nt   Hakki Gu rkas , Kennesaw State University hgurkas @kennesaw .edu

Panel 15      Crime & Corruption
              Friday , December 11, 8: 30 am - 10: 15 am
Chair         Silv io Dob ry, Hostos Comm unity College sdobry
Paper         An Analys is o f the Imp lemen tation of I nte lligence -Led Po licing in Mis sissippi
              Carl Jense n, University of Mississippi
              Overview: Si nce the attacks of 9/ 11, much discussion has ens ued regardi ng impl ementing intelligenc e-led policing (IL P) in
              American law enforcem ent agencies. How ever , little in the way of empirical researc h has emerged to indicate the extent to
              which IL P is actually bei ng utilized. In our study, we surv eyed ever y law enforc ement agency in Mississippi as well as 267
              law enforcem ent leaders from throughout the United St ates to determi ne w hether ILP is actually being practiced and how
              Mississippi agencies compar e to the rest of the United States. Res ults will inform training and res ourc e needs as well as
              personnel assignm ent .
Paper         What Do They Kn ow? J uveniles T ried a s Adu lts and the Need fo r Qua litative Da ta to In form Evide nce -Ba sed
              Karen M iner-Roman off, Walden Univ ersity romanoff11@c opper .net
              Overview: In the Unit ed St ates, appr oximately 200,000 juv enil es are tried as adults yearly. How ever , this sentencing policy has
              produc ed only erratic deterrent results. Some studi es illustrate higher reoff endi ng rates for those bound over , and juve nile
              crime remains high. Clearly, t his nationwide sentencing trend is less than fully effective. Few qualitative studies exist reg ar ding
              juv eniles' knowledge and understandi ng, essential com ponents of deterrent theories, of their punitive and costly sentences.
              This ongoi ng research utilizes phenomenological inquiry to contribute understanding of juv enil es‟ decision-m aking pr ocesses as
              they committed their offenses. Fi ndings should pr ovide essential inf ormation for future policy formation regardi ng the best
              means by w hich to deter youth and control crime
Paper         Practices in Co ndu cting Co ld Case Inves tiga tions: A Na tio nal Su rvey of Law E nfo rcemn t Agen ices
              Robert C. Davis , RAND Cor por ation robert_davis@rand.or g
              Carl Jense n, University of Mississippi Overview: National surv ey of law enforcm ent appr oac hes to cold
              case investigati ons
Paper         The Na tu re of Co rrup tio n an d the Mu lti-T iere d Sys tem of Anti-Co rruption Regu lation in T rans ition Eco nomie s
              Yulia Kry lova, Saint Petersburg St ate University ulia.kryl ova @gm ail.c om
              Overview: The paper is dedic ated to the specific natur e of corruption i n transition ec onomies and the need to create t he multi -
              tiered system of monitori ng corr uption and rent -seeking behavior .
Discussa nt   J. Keith Ak in s, University of Houston-Victoria akinsk @uhv .edu
              Roger Guy , Univ ersity of North Car olina at Pem brok e guyrs

Panel 23      Economics
              Friday , December 11, 8: 30 am - 10: 15 am
Chair         Caro lyn S issoko , csissoko5@gmail.c om
Paper         Usin g M 1 Versus M2 in Cointeg ration Tes tin g with Debt, Outpu t, and the Def lato r in the U.S.
              Harris on C. Ha rtma n, University of Georgi a hartman@terry
              Overview: This paper finds cointegration among money, dom estic nonfinanci al debt (DNFD), real GDP, and the implicit GDP
              deflator in the U.S. using quarterly data, seas onally adjusted. The study concl udes that the vari ables are coi ntegrated in t he
              specification of the model with the lag structur e (of one through four lags) minimizing the Schw a rz (1978) criterion. The tests
              for cointegr ation assume either (1) a time trend term in the data only but not in the cointegrati ng equation or (2) a time tr end
              in the coint egr ating equation. The study concl udes cointegration at the ten per cent level in all cases and at the five per cent
              level in most cases. I discuss advantages of using M 1 versus M 2 in coint egr ation testing. One adv antage of usi ng M 1 is th at
              the components of M1 are more under the direct contr ol of the central bank than the “non M1” components of M2. Anot her
              adva ntage of M 1 rather than M 2 is that the results tend to support the hypothesis of one unique coi ntegrating equation when
              M1 is used, while it is more likely to have m ultiple coi ntegr ating equations using M 2. However , policy makers may focus more
              on M 2 than M1 following the de-trendi ng of the growt h of M1 vel ocity.              The study als o considers Granger (1969)
              causality. Changes in DNFD m uch mor e likely Granger cause changes in output and prices than do changes in M1. The study
              recommends that scholars consider includi ng a meas ure of credit in parsimonious econometric models. Fut ure wor k coul d
              include studyi ng whet her the cointegration between DNF D and the other v ariabl es coul d hav e hel ped to forecast the curr ent
              financial crisis. JEL codes: C10, E00, E40, E50
Paper         Forecas ting Cre dit Ratin g Jum ps: A Depen dent Com peting Risk Mo del
              Nilay Chan dra , Univ ersity of Missouri
              Overview: In this paper, I developed a correl ated com peti ng risk framework to predict the deviati on from the firm‟s current
              credit rating status . A firm with a given rating can mov e up or down in the rating strata and movem ents towar ds one rating,
              hinders the movements towar ds the other. F urther the risk of going dow n the rating strata is negativ ely correlated with the
              risk of going up. To eval uate the predictive performance of this techni que, I com pared the res ults with the out put of the
              ordered l ogit model and the cohort (frequentist) appr oach. Another dimension of this paper is to analyze the significance of
              covariates . First I used the covari ates as firm specific financial ratios from Altman and Rijk en‟s paper and then i ncor porat e d
              market drive n variables from Shumw ay‟s paper , which incr eased the ps eudo R 2. I found that the vari ables , which ar e
              statistically significant in ex plaini ng the mov ement towards dow ngr adi ng and up-gr adi ng, are not same.A n important
              implication of this paper is that the statistical technique menti oned in this paper is uni que and will hel p the lender / bank to
              forecast the future capacity or the willingness of the firm to repay back the loan and will also hel p them to adjust the futu re
              interest rate.
Paper         NAFT A's Impact in the Sta te o f Florida
              Teresa A. Tha rp , Valencia Comm unity College TeresaT har
              Overview: Nowadays , topics of discussion at the loc al, national, and i nternational level happens to be the impact of
              globalization, the allocation of scarce resourc es, and the effect of international trade agr eem ents. M any y ears later, after
              international agr eem ent implem ent ations have been in pl ace, researchers stand either in favor or agai nst those historical
              arrangem ents. Suc h multifaceted, extensive, contr oversial , and in dept h-analyses are the grounds for this research, whic h
              entail the Nort h America Free Trade Agr eement (NA FTA). The study focuses using a backwar d-looking appr oach. The
              research analyses secondary data collected on a yearly basis. M oreover , the St ate of Florida has been selected for economic
              comparison with the U.S. due to its natural resources, its geographical location, and its role in inter nati onal trade.
Paper         Does the Re lation ship Between Mortality and the Bus iness Cy cle Va ry by the Level of Economic Developmen t?
              Evidence f rom Mexico
              Troy Qua st, Sam Houston St ate Uni versity tcq001@shs
              Fidel Go nzalea , Sam Houston State University eco_fx g@s
              Overview: We i nvestigate the relati ons hip between mortality and business cycles within Mexico, wher e development varies
              significantly . We ex ploit this variation by separately analyzi ng the top ten and bottom ten devel oped states. We find that w h ile
              mortality is procyclical nationally and in the top ten states, it is countercyclical in the bottom ten. Furt her, w e show that in the
              top ten states mortality due to nonc ommunicable conditions is procyclical, while i n the bottom ten mort ality due to

              noncomm unic able conditions and i nfectious and parasitic diseases is countercyclical . This suggests that the relationshi p
              between mort ality and busi ness cycles may vary by level of development.
Discussa nt   Harris on C. Ha rtma n, University of Georgi a hartman@terry
              Terence Go urv ish , London School of Ec onomics t.r.gourvis

Panel 31      Langua ge a nd Discourse
              Friday , December 11, 8: 30 am - 10: 15 am
Chair         Qi Tang , Tennessee State University
Paper         Space a nd T ime as S tra tegie s in Polem ica l Commun ica tio n I nvolving the Use of Z oonyms in Tra ditio nal Af rica.
              Atoma Batoma , University of Illinois
              Overview: This paper ex plai ns how space and time are us ed in Africa as verbal strategies in the polemical comm unication
              involvi ng the use of animal nam es or zoonyms.
Paper         Universals, Discou rse s, Sub jects an d Agen ts: The case o f f reedom in develo pment d isco urse.
              Efrat Sadra s-Ro n, Mic higan St ate Uni versity
              Overview: The paper addr esses the symbiotic relations between a univ ersal and a discourse, each creati ng and sustaining the
              other . Furt herm ore, I look int o univ ersals as both produc ers -of-subjects and motivators- of-action wit hin a discourse and how
              these functi ons are reflected in the loc al scale. Finally, I pres ent a worki ng definition of the term universal i n the contex t of
              global discourse.
Paper         Sactioned and Illicit Politene ss Acro ss Cu ltu res
              Mary Jeann ot, Gonzaga University
              Ayuko Mom ono , Gonzaga University
              Amber McKen zie , Gonzaga University
              Overview: Using dat a from classroom researc h, the presenters will investigate the similarities and differences in conversati onal
              hierarc hies among Japanese and Saudi Arabian students toget her with American and Japanese teachers. We provi de
              classroom vignettes that are not only hum orous, but effective for uneart hing and managi ng communication break dow ns.

Friday, December 11, 10:30 am – 12:15 pm
Panel 12      Health Care
              Friday , December 11, 10:30 am - 12:15 pm
Chair         David Tata w, Jackson State University davi d.b.tat
              Elias O luko rede Waha b, Lagos state university eliasphd@ya hoo.c om
              Overview: Ni geria will ex perience a steep rise in its elderly populati on in the coming decades. In the 80 y ears betw een 1911
              and 1991, the el derly popul ation of Ni geria has gone from 1.21 to 4.60 million. By the year 2000, the pr ojected el derly
              popul ation was 7.25million and by 2025, the a bsol ute number of the elderly population will be 17.62million (World Bank ,
              1990) . Literatur e on the elderly in Nigeria is scarce, although social scientists have started to give incr easing attenti on to the
              problem . The gover nment has not yet launched any formal pr ogr amme for the welfar e of the elderly. Som e recent small -scale
              surveys show a depressing picture. Findings from recent micro lev el survey indicate that all is not well for the country‟s el derly
              popul ation. So far, they hav e been supported mainly by their adult childr en, but owing to deteriorati ng ec onomic conditions,
              this support may not be expected to continue for long ( United Nations , 1987). In t he wak e of urbanization, modernizati on and
              the participation of women in economic activity outside the home, the el derly of Ni geria ar e bei ng exposed to a situation in
              which they will lose their age long hi gh status in society (Ogunbodede, 1998) .
Paper         Long Te rm Me nta l Hea lth Impa cts of Hu r rica ne Katrina
              Steven J. Picou , University of South Alabama picou@cent urytel .net
              Overview: This researc h reports results of an analysis of 2,548 surviv ors of hurricane Katrina residing in Louisiana and
              Mississippi. Patterns of mental health impacts and residential rebuil ding are revi ewed. The lack of community rec overy thr ee
              years after Katrina's landfall is discussed and suggestions for facilitating community recover y are pr ovided.
Paper         A Qualita tive Study of Cogn itive Factors in U nive rsity S tude nts Coping with Ch ron ic Pa in
              Michael W. F irm in, Cedar ville Univ ersity firmin@cedar
              Amanda L. She rman, Cedarvill e Univ ersity asherman@cedar
              Amanda J. Burger, Cedarville University aburger@cedarvill
              Megan E. Grigs by, Cedarville University megangrigs by@cedar
              Overview: This study qualitativ ely exami ned the phenom enon of cognitive factors present within university students copi ng
              with chronic pai n. Three themes em erged from dat a analysis: perceived defect , identity, and rel uctant acceptanc e.
Paper         Inventing Trad ition fo r the Care of Mode rn Bodie s: A Case Study of Pa idu (Expelling Toxins) The rapy in
              Contem pora ry Ch ina
              Yanh ua Zhan g, Clemson Uni versity
              Overview: This paper ex plor es the cultur al meanings and social life of paidu (expelling toxins) therapy and the connection of
              the practice to health product markets a nd industries, and to the changing patterns of cons uming traditional Chi nes e medicine
              in contem por ary Chi na. Relying on ethnographic observ ations and i nterviews in Beiji ng and Dali an, and inform ation available
              from various health car e related Chinese WWW resources, this study illuminat es the compl ex interconnections among cult ure,
              healt h care consum ption, and gl obal capitalism.
Discussa nt   Sheying Chen , Indiana University Sout heast sheyingc hen@ya
              Sudhanva Cha r, Life University

Panel 16      Group a nd I de ntity
              Friday , December 11, 10:30 am - 12:15 pm
Chair         Thomas Ba glan , Arkansas State University tbagl
Paper         Leavening Lake Akse hir: T he Ro le o f Fes tive Space in Res toring the Sa cred Top ogra phy of a T own in So uth
              Central Anato lia
              Hakki Gu rkas , Kennesaw State University hgurkas @kennesaw .edu
              Overview: This paper addr esses the question of the role of festive space in restori ng sacred topography from a cross -
              disciplinar y perspective inv olving history , folklore, and anthr opology . It explor es the role of Nasr eddin Hodja F estival (NHF) in
              Aksehir, Tur key in the proc ess of constructing sec ular local identities while pr ovi ding an opport unity to restore the suppres sed
              local sacred topography wit hout conflicting wit h the s ecular national identity.
Paper         Scien tific Sp irit an d Ideo log ica l Ed uca tio n in Ch ina
              Hongmei Zhu , Sout h China Agricult ural University zhuhongm n
              Overview: Comm unist ideological educati on, which had fed up both the faculty and students for decades, has play ed a
              significant role i n the development of the contemporar y China. This paper ar gues that the prom otion of the idea of scientific
              spirit is responsible for the rec ent enthusiasm, reflected i n the impressively growi ng positive students‟ eval uations, to the
              communist educati on at Chi nese univ ersities. The political and economic implications of such enthusiasm are also exami ned.
Paper         The Iden tity Argumen t
              Hsin -we n Lee, USC
              Overview: I discuss three important steps in the identity argument and eval uate if these steps successfully justify the right of a
              national gr oup to build a state. T he ar gum ent relies on the Optimal Pr otection Princi ple, which does not apply to national
              groups . Thus , the ar gum ent fails.

Panel 24      Perspectives on Economics
              Friday , December 11, 10:30 am - 12:15 pm
Chair         Sang Yoon Lee, UW-Madison
Paper         The Concep t o f H ome as a S urroga te fo r I nclus ion in a Fam ily Gro up
              Cynth ia Lepow , Loy ola Univ. Coll ege of Law clepow
              Overview: This paper revi ews the role of the hom e in the indivi dual, comm unity ex peri ence and the legal recogniti on of the
              child as part of the family unit, the right to vote or to be counted in the census.
Paper         Of Aff luen ce an d Lavis hnes s
              Dibaka r Pa l, Civil Serv ant in I ndia & Independent Sc hol ar dibak ar1956@gm
              Overview: As you k now well that Francis Bacon( 1561- 1626), the imm ortal essayist, wrote many essays viz., Of Love, Of
              Friendshi p, Of Ambition, etc. The myriad-mi nded genius rightly poi nted out that all the w ords of the dictionar y can be the
              themes of essays one can write. But little has been done, in this regard, since his death to finish his unfinished monumental
              works. In fact Bacon's way of representation i.e., his rare indivi dual style kindl ed the imagi nation already in me and
              encouraged me as well to write essays, in the light of creative writing, thus to get relief through Catharsis.
Paper         Poverty co ndictions and the rela tio nal con text: commen ts on a n emp irica l su rvey
              Elisa Matutini, University of Pisa e.matuti ni@s p.uni
              Overview: The paper inv estigates some non-economic issues relating to poverty and, mor e precisely , to the role ev olvi ng from
              the relational context in terms of the connections that an indivi dual has with the social context in w hich they live, enablin g
              them to access a multiplicity of social resources. Such an analyt ical pers pective in fact provides a usef ul means of
              interpr etation that goes bey ond a quantification of the impact of the phenom enon and expands it to the mechanisms that
              produc e, rei nforce or contrast the dy namics of pov erty. Such observ ations wer e dev el oped using an em pirical surv ey carried
              out ov er 100 structured intervi ews with families living in the m unicipality of Capannori in the provi nce of Lucca, Italy. T he aim
              was to analyse the existenc e and the possible correl ation of a series of individual and social factors influencing the capacity of
              the subjects to deal with stressful phenomena that can lead to poverty. The res earch therefor e, was based on the recognition
              that, although economic issues constitute an inevitabl e element in the definition of deprivation associated with poverty , non
              monetary factors can also play a role in devel opi ng an inter pretati on of the phenomenon, leadi ng to a better understandi ng of
              the mechanisms involv ed. The study was dev eloped with the creati on and com parison of mult idim ensional pov erty indicat ors
              using the fuzzy methodol ogy and individual social capital indicators .
Paper         Socioe conom ic Impact o f Cons umer Prote ction a nd Awarene ss: With S pe cial Re feren ce to Wes tern
              Mahara shtra
              Shrikan t R. Koka re, Raje Ramrao College,Jath kshirika nt@Yahoo.c om

              Overview: The consum er movem ent in Indi a is as old as trade and commerce. In Kautilya's Arthashastra, ther e are refer ences
              to the conc ept of cons umer Pr otection against expl oitation by the trade and i ndustry, short weighment and measur es,
              adulteration and punishment for these offenc es. How ever , ther e was no or ganized and systematic movement actually
              safeguardi ng t he inter ests of the consumers . Prior to independence, the main law under w hich the consum er interests were
              considered were the Indian Penal Code, Agricultur al Production, Grading and Mar keting Act, 1937, Dr ugs and C osmetics Act,
              1940. Ev en though different parts of India ex hi bited different levels of awar eness, in gener al, the level of awar eness was
              pretty low.In 1986, t he Consumer Protection Act (the Act) of 1986 was passed and has been hail ed as landmar k legislation in
              national and i nternational fora. It has formed the basis for drafting s imilar legislations by many dev eloping countries in the
              world. Through the course of it being put into use, it has gone through some am endments, whic h hav e sought to make it
              more compr ehensive and meani ngful. It has incl uded in its purvi ew, medical and ot her pr ofessions , gover nment departments
              and public utilities (telecom, railways , postal and m unici pal services, hospitals, ins urance com panies, nati onalized banks,
              etc.), w hich tried har d to keep themselv es out of its ambit. The Act saw a mushroomi ng of consumer organizations all over
              the country and by 1992, the Mi nistry of Civil Suppli es & Cons umer Affairs estimated that there w ere about 3000 gr oups
              registered with them , and more seeki ng registration. How ever , the politically motivated ones dropped out after 1992. At
              present, there ar e about 1500 registered consum er or ganizations in the country. T he consumer redressal fora have been set
              up in every district as envisaged under the Act. The Supr eme Court enforc ed its implementation in its direction in Decem ber
              1989. Howev er, the functioning of these fora still suffer from a lack of infrastructure facilities, adequate regular staff, t imely
              appoi ntment of pr esiding officers etc...
Discussa nt   Teresa A. Tha rp , Valencia Comm unity College TeresaT har
              Troy Qua st, Sam Houston St ate Uni versity tcq001@shs
              Wilfre d Awung ,     wawung@y

Panel 32      Race and Ethnicity
              Friday , December 11, 10:30 am - 12:15 pm
Chair         Carleen Ba sle r, Am herst College
Paper         A Criminolo gical Pe rspective of R ichard Wrigh t’s Native S on: A Study in Ra cia l Politics, Racial disparity and
              Racial In carcera tio n.
              Emmanuel N gwan g, Mississippi Valley St ate Univ ersity engw
              Bess ie Hu tch in s, Mississippi Valley Stat e Univ ersity bhutc h2@ya
              Overview: TBA
Paper         The Un docume nted Immig ran t Ex perience
              Hila rio Mo lina, II, Texas A&M Univ ersity hmolina2@gm
              Overview: Important insights are gained by joi ning undocum ent ed immigr ants, smuggl er selection, networks, and culture
              inequalities at all three levels. These factors that have been studied separately and isolat ed withi n their res pective areas , are
              salient featur es in expl oring the or ganic composition of networks, immigr ant‟s ability to adapt to racial cult ure, and (the recent
              trend) combi ning of quantitative and qualitative research met hods. As a result, hum ane and effective measur es may emer ge
              from understandi ng the dy namics operating withi n the worl d of undocum ented imm igrants. Also, this pr oject is significant to
              other social scientists who ar e seeking a compr ehensiv e expl anation of the migration pr ocess
Paper         What is h is tory fo r? An exp lo ration of what British ch ildre n of Africa n Caribbean des cen t an d their mo the rs
              thinks a bou t h is tory and histo ry lesso ns.
              Kay Tra ille, Kennesaw Stat e Univ ersity etraille@kennesaw .edu
              Overview: „School History and perspectives on the past: A study of students of African-Cari bbean descent and their mot hers‟
              completed at the I nstitute of Education, Univ ersity of London, in 2006‟ is an attempt to ex plore how students of African
              Caribbean descent and their m others understood, perceiv ed and valued an educati on in his tory.       Why is this significant? As
              teachers of history it is important to understand how childr en ex peri enc e and understand history . By being abl e to tap into the
              preconceptions and misconceptions of what children thi nk and parents want from history lessons , we can perhaps meet them
              part way .
Paper         John R oss and the Cherokee Ind ians
              Leah Wiley , Ball State University
              Overview: Many have questioned the validity of John Ross being in the position of leadershi p of the Cher ok ee Nati on in
              Geor gia due to his racial and ethnic back ground. Even though the decisions made by John Ross may always be questioned, he
              is considered by many to be a her o of the Cher okee people. It is difficult to point fingers and decide who is to blame for the
              decisions made in regar ds to the pain the C her okee peopl e suffered as they w ere forced to move to Oklahom a. John Ross and
              the Cher oke e Nati on wer e defeated by circumstanc es that were gr eatly out of their hands . Even though John R oss was facing
              bad odds, he did everyt hing he could to represent the will of the Cherok ee Nation and had faith in the federal gov ernm ent the
              entire time.
Paper         Bu ild ing re lation ships between d iverse racia l a nd cu ltu ra l ind ividua ls by g ro uping by s imilar persona lity.
              Sara Wo rley, Mac on St ate College sara.w orley @mac
              Elise Lan gan, Macon State C ollege elise.langan@mac

              Overview: Instruct ors and professors serving inter nati onal students duri ng a rel atively brief time hav e a unique opport unity to
              bring them together with american students and build rel ationships that can alter their perspectiv e towar ds diverse individuals
              in our global community. T hese relationshi ps will have a long lasting effect on the way thos e student perc eive those countrie s,
              communities and indivi duals in busi ness and politics the rest of their lives.
Discussa nt   Carleen Ba sle r, Am herst College
              Amani M. Awwa rd, SUNY Canton awwada@canto


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