Natoya Coleman December 13, 2006 EDUC 440 Prof. D. Birdyshaw Unit Plan: The Voice of Struggle According to Piaget, ninth graders are at the end of an important stage of intellectual development, where they are able to think in an abstract manner, and are able to recognize problems and develop multiple strategies for solving them. This unit is designed to help students to develop the voice of activism within them using texts which discuss challenging experiences and ways in which the characters or speakers chose to deal with the experiences they face. During these four weeks, the students will go through a process of brainstorming about issues, in their lives or society that is important to them, and work on creating a strategy for the writing process solving these problems. They will write an essay and then complete several revisions until they have arrived at a work in which they and I am pleased. I hope that students will learn from the importance of speaking out, and the power of their voice. Over half of the 60 students I will be teaching are ESL students, and are developing their ability to manipulate the language in reading, writing, and speech. This unit will serve as an important bridge for them. They will be encouraged to step into a realm of discomfort and actually deliver verbally what they have written. By writing, reflecting and revising, students will develop a level of comfort thus enabling them to present orally with a minimized level of fear. For those students who are fearful of speaking publicly, this unit will help them overcome such a fear. I believe this is important because according to the Michigan Curriculum Framework for English Language Arts, a literate student is one who is able to communicates skillfully and effectively through printed, visual, auditory, and technological media in the home, school, community, and workplace. Thus in attempt to raise the literacy levels of my ninth graders, writing and speaking together will be the main focus for this unit. In bringing all of the work together, students will present a multimedia version of their essay. They will digitally record their essay, and then prepare photo slides which will correspond with the text of their essay on Microsoft Movie Maker, or Microsoft PowerPoint. This presentation will help students to understand the importance of imaging in literature and also help students to be comfortable with hearing their own voice. Leading up to the final presentation, students will read portions of their essay to the class, in preparation for the final project. At the end of this project, students will be more confident in their writing and in their speech. Their confidence will cause them to produce well written and creative essays. The entire ninth grade year of English is dedicated to developing the writer. The preceeding unit’s themes were family and familial bonds. The novel read, The Glory Field, caused students to look through a familial legacy and pay attention to some issues and conflicts that were consistent throughout that lineage. They discussed family trees and how family members can separate and change locations over time. This particular unit wonderfully follows with a similar theme of struggle, and deals with ways in which people can deal with struggle. In the previous unit, the discussion was about the transferring nature of struggles within generations. This unit will deal with how one can address these struggles effectively, or how struggles have been effectively addressed in the past. It talks about the benefits of well organized writing, and effective demonstration. In this unit, we will read two speeches, and several non fiction literary texts. We will read “I Have a Dream” written by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and “Glory and Hope” written by Nelson Mandela. These two speeches will expose students to rhetoric, and we will identify the difference between rhetoric and expository language. Next we will read “The United States v Susan B. Anthony”, a non fictional narrative, discussing Ms. Anthony’s struggles fighting for Women’s rights. This is another text in which we will emphasize possible reactions to struggle. Following “The United States v Susan B. Anthony” we will read a selection from “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings” and discuss Maya Angelou’s biography, and how she chooses to deal with some of the issues she has experienced in life. We will also read the poem “Caged Bird”, and discuss as a part of our Author study of Ms. The following text, along with some information regarding the authors, will be the source of our information and the foundation for all of our writing assignments. This is the skeletal structure of how the unit will be executed. Day 1 Objectives: 1) Students will generate a list of things they will “speak out” about and begin thoughts about how they will write or “speak out” on these things. 2.) Students will discuss liberty When students first enter the classroom, there will be a prompt on the board and students have to write three or more sentences in response to this prompt. The prompt will be as follows: Your school has instated a new rule that all students must participate in one sport. How do you feel about this? How are you going to justify your opinion? After 10 minutes of writing, I will ask the students to tell me about this proposed rule. Is it problematic? Why or why not? This will generate some debate about fairness. Here are some questions I will use to navigate the discussion (about 30 minutes): How do you determine what is fair and what is not? How do you respect individual rights and beliefs while at the same time prompting fairness? If fairness is not being promoted, what can one do? As students discuss these issues I will close the discussion by telling then that these are some of the issues we will be dealing with this unit. We will be observing characters in the stories we read, and how they choose to deal with some of the issues they face. We will use some of the same techniques we read about to deal with the issues that we have identified as a class. Following this discussion, I will ask the students to skim through the pages of the unit, and look at some of the stories we will be reading. Once they finish skimming, I will ask them what types of things they saw in the unit, and how it relates with what we have been talking about. If the class goes as planned, the hour will be long spent at this point. If not, I will go into a study of the Civil Rights Movement. Day 2 Objectives: 1) Students will become familiar with the timeline of the Civil Rights Movement. 2) Students will learn about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 3.) Students will begin reading the “I have a Dream” speech. Students will be placed in groups of 4. When they enter the class, there will be a handout that will tell them a brief history of the Civil Rights Movement, and a plastic bag with an activity where the goal is to align dates with events in the movement. After reading the handout, students must infer which activities came first and put them in order. This activity will take about 15 minutes. We will take the next five minutes to report out. After this, we will have a discussion about the nature of events that happened during this time period. We will then move into a discussion about Dr. Martin Luther King, his biography, and the background information for his “I Have a Dream Speech.” We will begin reading the speech pages 440-442 as a class. We will stop and interpret what King is saying in these first paragraphs. For homework, students must define the following words using their textbook: default, legitimate, inextricably, mobility, discord, and use them in a sentence. Day 3 Objectives: 1.) Students will be able to appropriate verb tenses in various situations. 2.) Students will finish reading “I Have a Dream Speech” 3.) Students will discuss the use of Metaphors in King’s speech When the bell rings, I will give a mini lesson on verb tenses and have students to correct improper verb tenses in a set of sentences (see Appendix) individually, and then we will discuss as a class once they have been turned in. I will assess them according to how well they paid attention during the lesson. They will be able to refer to the notes. Going into our Literature Lesson, students will complete reading the speech individually. Upon the completion of a comprehension activity found in the workbook, we will go into another lesson about metaphors. We will define metaphors, and then students will point out metaphors in the text, with my assistance. Students will then break up into groups and create their own metaphors for any two of the following words: Anger, Fear, Poverty, Excitement. Students will turn work in, and be dismissed. Day 4 Objectives 1.) Students will discuss the history behind Nelson Mandela and apartheid. 2.) Students will listen to “Glory and Hope.” 3.) Students will draw connections between two speeches. For Bell work, students will answer questions on page 444. Ten minutes later, students will receive handout of biography of Nelson Mandela, and some information about apartheid. Students will discuss, and then listen to “Glory and Hope.” (30 minutes) I will bring out some highlights in the text, and class will end. Day 5 Objectives 1.) Students will compare and contrast both speeches. In the beginning of class, I will ask students to review both texts and highlight points in which they thought the rhetors brought out valuable points. We will discuss these points and talk about ways in which these speeches are similar and different. We will talk about the style of the two speeches. King uses metaphors, and repetition, and Nelson does not. We will talk about the themes. King says he has a dream, and Nelson says the dream is here. Finally, we will talk about the audiences, and how they are similar and different. After this conversation, students should fill out their graphic organizer with similarities and differences, along with quotes to support them. This assignment should carry over into the next class. I will collect them at the end of the day, and we will finish the next class. Day 6 Objectives: 1.) Students will complete compare and contrast graphic organizers. 2.) Students will study the structure of a compare and contrast essay. Students will complete graphic organizers. Upon completion, I will present students with the structure of a compare and contrast essay. I will place a sample essay on the overhead, and go through the structure of it with them. We will together as a class write out an outline for how an ideal essay should be formed. Equal suffering? We will talk about discrimination and apartheid. We will discuss in class, which is worse? How do the speeches deal with these issues? How would you have addressed these issues? I will then ask the students to reflect on what we have talked about, with the following prompt: If I were MLK or Nelson Mandela, I would have……. Day 7 Objectives 1.) Students will receive their assignment for the Compare and Contrast Essay. 2.) We will begin working on our next piece of literature, “The United States v. Susan B. Anthony, and discussing women’s rights” Using page 453 in the literature book, we will read the background information as well as the active reading sections to prepare us for this biography. We will talk about biographies and I will assess student’s prior knowledge about biographies. We will generate a list of all things they believe are essential in a biography, and watch for them as we read the text. We will begin reading the biography as a class, and pausing to discuss important points or vocabulary in the text. Day 8 Objectives: 1) Finish reading “Susan B. Anthony v The United States” 2.) Talk about how this relates with our theme of speaking out The class will begin with bell work, where students will define vocabulary from text. After bell work, students will finish reading the biography. Students will discuss the following prompt: What would life be like today if women had the same rights as they did in the late 1860’s? How different are things today from how they were back then? They will write responsively at the end of the hour their own answer to that prompt. Day 9 Objectives: 1.) Writing Workshop 2.) Common Grammatical Errors Today students will complete peer editing of their compare and contrast workshop. They must use a rubric assigned by the school district in order to assess the work of their classmates. The goal of the day is for students to have an opportunity to revise the work they have completed before submission. I will assist students with editing. Following the workshop, I will take the students through a list of common grammatical errors they have made while writing their reflections, and teach them the correct forms. They will take notes and make the appropriate corrections on their essays. The essays will be due on day 11. Day 10 Objectives: 1.) Students will learn about the life and work of author Maya Angelou. 2.) Students will understand and appreciate an excerpt from an autobiography and a poem. We will begin class with the “Connect to Your Life” section as a reflection. Thanks to You. Think of someone you admire because of his or her influence on your life. Perhaps it was a teacher, a neighbor, a grandparent, or a coach. How did that person change your life? Did he or she make you feel less alone? Help you get out of trouble? Prove you could do more than you thought you could? Describe that person and his or her influence to a classmate. I will ask students to share their experiences with a friend in the class. We will then talk about the background of the story, the setting, the time and location, ect. We will talk about some of the work of Ms. Angelou, some of her accomplishments. I will ask the students what they think is necessary to obtain such a great level of success. What types of struggles could they imagine her having. After this conversation, we will begin reading the text. We will stop at intervals to discuss important points and vocabulary while reading. Day 11 Objectives: 1.) Students will submit essays. 2.) Students will appreciate poem “Caged Bird” and discover it as an inspiration for autobiography written by Angelou. I will open the class by asking the students to summarize for me what has happened thus far in the autobiography. After a brief discussion, we will finish reading Angelou’s autobiography, and discuss the outcome. Students will read poem “Caged Bird” and talk about symbolism. Students will discuss what the free and caged birds symbolize in the poem, and how that relates to Marguerite in the autobiography. We will have alternative endings activities. Students will get into groups of four, and they must write an alternative ending to the autobiography. They will be assessed on how well they understand what has transpired within the novel. Days 12-15 Objectives: 1.) Students will work on culminating project in which they will write a persuasive essay, and create a multi-media presentation on it. Day 12: In the beginning of class, I will place on the overhead, a list of the issues students talked about in the beginning of the unit. Students must select one, and write a persuasive essay on that issue. After selecting their topic, as a class, we will talk about how to write a persuasive essay. We will begin writing paragraph by paragraph, using the 131 method. By the end of the day today, all students will have completed their first paragraph. Day 13: Students will work on their body paragraphs in class. They will also edit and proofread their work. Those who are finished will work on their conclusions. The conclusion will be assigned as homework. By Day 3, students will have completed their projects. Day 14: Class will convene in the Library. Students will bring their completed essays to be workshopped. Once all errors have been corrected, they will record their project onto a digital recorder. In the meantime, students are searching for images for their multimedia presentations on the internet. Day 15: Class will convene in the Library. Students will continue recording their essays, and searching for images. The last half of classes will be dedicated to teaching students how to use Windows Movie Maker. This will be the end of the unit. Students must complete projects at home or at lunch The projects are due one week from the last day of the term. We will view all movies the week before the next vacation. Reflection This project was more than a notion. While I was planning this unit I ran into quite a few difficulties. I tried not to deviate too far away from what my mentor teacher is doing because I didn’t want to set myself up for a rocky start, but I wanted to include many more activities. My next unit will probably be more of my own style. I am also fearful that some of the tasks I am expecting the students to be able to perform may be too advanced for them. I am concerned about that. It was a rigorous process- planning a unit from scratch, and I found it challenging to bridge multiple texts as opposed to reading one novel. I found that I have a lot of repetition in my unit with hopes to ensure that the themes are driven home well. Over all, however, I think my planning went well. I would like to see how its going to be executed! Grammar Lesson: Verb Tenses Write the following paragraph on the board and underline the verbs in boldface. Have students correctly write the verb forms. He leaved in a few minutes to go to the store.I am thinking he is taking the sweater with him. He will needed to returen it. I hoped the store will given him money instead of an exchange. At this time, he will need a shirt. Appendix I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself in exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize an shameful condition. In a sense we've come to our nation's Capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check; a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds." But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check- a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children. It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges. But there is something that I must say to my people who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our chlidren are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating "for whites only." We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal." I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, that one day right down in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exhalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. This is our hope. This is the faith that I will go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning, "My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrims' pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring." And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. But not only that; let freedom ring from the Stone Mountain of Georgia. Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. And when this happens, and when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!" “Glory and Hope” Nelson Mandela Your Majesties, Your Highnesses, Distinguished Guests, Comrades and Friends: Today, all of us do, by our presence here, and by our celebrations in other parts of our country and the world, confer glory and hope to newborn liberty. Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud. Our daily deeds as ordinary South Africans must produce an actual South African reality that will reinforce humanity's belief in justice, strengthen its confidence in the nobility of the human soul and sustain all our hopes for a glorious life for all. All this we owe both to ourselves and to the peoples of the world who are so well represented here today. To my compatriots, I have no hesitation in saying that each one of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are the famous jacaranda trees of Pretoria and the mimosa trees of the bushveld. Each time one of us touches the soil of this land, we feel a sense of personal renewal. The national mood changes as the seasons change. We are moved by a sense of joy and exhilaration when the grass turns green and the flowers bloom. That spiritual and physical oneness we all share with this common homeland explains the depth of the pain we all carried in our hearts as we saw our country tear itself apart in a terrible conflict, and as we saw it spurned, outlawed and isolated by the peoples of the world, precisely because it has become the universal base of the pernicious ideology and practice of racism and racial oppression. We, the people of South Africa, feel fulfilled that humanity has taken us back into its bosom, that we, who were outlaws not so long ago, have today been given the rare privilege to be host to the nations of the world on our own soil. We thank all our distinguished international guests for having come to take possession with the people of our country of what is, after all, a common victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity. We trust that you will continue to stand by us as we tackle the challenges of building peace, prosperity, non-sexism, non-racialism and democracy. We deeply appreciate the role that the masses of our people and their political mass democratic, religious, women, youth, business, traditional and other leaders have played to bring about this conclusion. Not least among them is my Second Deputy President, the Honorable F.W. de Klerk. We would also like to pay tribute to our security forces, in all their ranks, for the distinguished role they have played in securing our first democratic elections and the transition to democracy, from blood-thirsty forces which still refuse to see the light. The time for the healing of the wounds has come. The moment to bridge the chasms that divide us has come. The time to build is upon us. We have, at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discrimination. We succeeded to take our last steps to freedom in conditions of relative peace. We commit ourselves to the construction of a complete, just and lasting peace. We have triumphed in the effort to implant hope in the breasts of the millions of our people. We enter into a covenant that we shall build the society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts, assured of their inalienable right to human dignity--a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world. As a token of its commitment to the renewal of our country, the new Interim Government of National Unity will, as a matter of urgency, address the issue of amnesty for various categories of our people who are currently serving terms of imprisonment. We dedicate this day to all the heroes and heroines in this country and the rest of the world who sacrificed in many ways and surrendered their lives so that we could be free. Their dreams have become reality. Freedom is their reward. We are both humbled and elevated by the honor and privilege that you, the people of South Africa, have bestowed on us, as the first President of a united, democratic, non- racial and non-sexist South Africa, to lead our country out of the valley of darkness. We understand it still that there is no easy road to freedom. We know it well that none of us acting alone can achieve success. We must therefore act together as a united people, for national reconciliation, for nation building, for the birth of a new world. Let there be justice for all. Let there be peace for all. Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all. Let each know that for each the body, the mind and the soul have been freed to fulfill themselves. Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world. Let freedom reign. The sun shall never set on so glorious a human achievement! God bless Africa! Thank you.
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