The Argumentative Paper

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					The Argumentative Paper

   JUNIOR ENGLISH – HIRAKAWA
         RESEARCH UNIT
                     What is it?

 The primary objective is to show you have a valid
  argument
 You allow the reader to either adopt your position or
  “agree to disagree”
 Use evidence to substantiate your position and
  REFUTE opposing arguments
                                  Claim

 MUST be debatable
   Non-debatable
        Pollution is bad for the environment
    Debatable
        25% of the federal budget should be spent on limiting pollution.
 Needs to be narrow
                     Rebuttal

 Refutation of opposing view point
 You must say why the opposition is WRONG and you
 are RIGHT
                      Types of Claims

 Definition: What kind of thing is this?
   What some people refer to as global warming is nothing more
    than normal, long-term cycles of climate change.
 Cause and effect: What caused this thing?
   The popularity of SUV’s in America has caused pollution to
    increase.
 Value: Is this thing good or bad?
   Global warming is the most pressing challenge facing the
    world today.
 Solutions or policies: What should be done? How? By whom?
   Instead of drilling for oil in Alaska, we should be focusing on
    ways to reduce oil consumption, such as researching renewable
    energy sources.
               Classical Organization

 Introduction
   Provides context: question, quotation, anecdote,
    background, factual information, narration of events
   A statement of claim
   Major reasons for claim

 Body
   Two sections:
     One supporting the claim
     One answering objections

 Conclusion
   Summarize main points of argument
   Call for action
   MAY include an emotional appeal
                  Claim/Counter Claim

 Introduction
    Define the problem
    Explain the question state both claim and counter claim
 Body Part I
    Present counter claims and refute
    Use one paragraph for each counter point
    Use evidence to refute the point
 Body Part II
    Present your claim
    Use one paragraph to state each of your points
    Use evidence to support your points
 Conclusion
    Restatement of your claim and your main points
                        Cluster Format

 Statement / brief explanation of the question or problem
 Statement of the position you are advocating — the claim
 The evidence (reasons) for the position are presented next
    Evidence to support the validity of your point of view
   Organizes evidence to provide the greatest impact

 Objection to this evidence follow
   Presents opposing points of view and their evidence/reasoning

   Acknowledges the validity of other viewpoints; weaknesses in your own
     perspective
 Replies to these objections (rebuttals)
   Uses evidence and reasoning to explain why the opposition's perspective
     is invalid
   Acknowledge that the opposition's perspective is valid but is somehow
     unacceptable
 Conclusion: assess the original position in light of presented evidence and
  rebuttals.
                       Alternating Format

 Statement and brief explanation of the question/problem
 Statement of the position you are advocating — the claim.
 First evidence (reason) for the position
     Objection to this evidence
     Reply to this objection
 Second evidence for the position
     Objection to this second piece of evidence
     Reply to this objection
 Continuing evidence for the position, until all the
  evidence has been presented and tested,
     followed by objections and
     replies until all material is exhausted
 Conclusion: assess the original position in light of
  presented evidence and rebuttals.
                     Do’s and Don’ts

 Do’s                         Don’ts
    Use statistics               Use first person
    Use expert quotations          I think…
    Evidence                       I believe…
                                    In my opinion…
    Anticipate objections
    Be prepared to make          Substitute YOUR opinion
     concessions                   for fact

				
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posted:9/13/2011
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