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6-4      What is the difference between gross private domestic investment and net private domestic investment?
If you were to determine net domestic product (NDP) through the expenditures approach, which of these
two measures of investment spending would be appropriate? Explain.
Gross private domestic investment less depreciation is net private domestic investment. Depreciation is
the value of all the physical capital—machines, equipment, buildings—used up in producing the year’s
output.
Since net domestic product is gross domestic product less depreciation, in determining net domestic
product through the expenditures approach it would be appropriate to use the net investment measure
that excludes depreciation, that is, net private domestic investment.

6-11     (Key Question) Suppose that in 1984 the total output in a single-good economy was 7,000 buckets of
chicken. Also suppose that in 1984 each bucket of chicken was priced at \$10. Finally, assume that in 1996
the price per bucket of chicken was \$16 and that 22,000 buckets were purchased. Determine the GDP
price index for 1984, using 1996 as the base year. By what percentage did the price level, as measured by
this index, rise between 1984 and 1996? Use the two methods listed in Table 7-6 to determine real GDP
for 1984 and 1996.
X/100 = \$10/\$16 = .625 or 62.5 when put in percentage or index form (.625 x 100)
100  62.5                                            16  10 6
 .60 or 60%          (Easily calculated               .6  60% )
62.5                                                  10     10
Method 1:    1996 = (22,000 x \$16) ÷ 1.0 = \$352,000
1984 = (7,000 x \$10) ÷ .625 = \$112,000
Method 2:    1996 = 22,000 x \$16 = \$352,000
1984 = 7,000 x \$16 = \$112,000

6-12     (Key Question) The following table shows nominal GDP and an appropriate price index for a group of
selected years. Compute real GDP. Indicate in each calculation whether you are inflating or deflating the
nominal GDP data.

Nominal GDP,               Price index         Real GDP,
Year                Billions                (1996 = 100)          Billions

1960                    \$527.4                 22.19             \$ ______
1968                     911.5                 26.29             \$ ______
1978                    2295.9                 48.22             \$ ______
1988                    4742.5                 80.22             \$ ______
1998                    8790.2                103.22             \$ ______

Values for real GDP, top to bottom of the column: \$2,376.7 (inflating); \$3,467.1 (inflating); \$4,761.3
(inflating); \$5,911.9 (inflating); \$8,516 (deflating).
6-13     Which of the following are actually included in this year’s GDP? Explain your answer in each case.
a.   Interest on an AT&T bond.
b.   Social security payments received by a retired factory worker.
c.   The services of a family member in painting the family home.
d.   The income of a dentist.
e.   The money received by Smith when she sells her economics textbook to a book buyer.
f.   The monthly allowance a college student receives from home.
g.   Rent received on a two-bedroom apartment.
h.   The money received by Josh when he resells his current-year-model Honda automobile to Kim.
i.   Interest received on corporate bonds.
j.   A 2-hour decrease in the length of the workweek.
k.   The purchase of an AT&T corporate bond.
l.   A \$2 billion increase in business inventories.
m. The purchase of 100 shares of GM common stock.
n.   The purchase of an insurance policy.
(a) Included. Income received by the bondholder for the services derived by the corporation for the loan
of money.
(b) Excluded. A transfer payment from taxpayers for which no service is rendered (in this year).
(c) Excluded. Not a market transaction. If any payment is made, it will be within the family.
(d) Included. Payment for a final service. You cannot pass on a tooth extraction!
(e) Excluded. Secondhand sales are not counted; the textbook is counted only when sold for the first
time.
(f) Excluded. A private transfer payment; simply a transfer of income from one private individual to
another for which no transaction in the market occurs.
(g) Included. Payment for the final service of housing.
(h) Excluded. The production of the car had already been counted at the time of the initial sale.
(i) Included. The income received by the bondholders is paid by the corporations for the current use of
the “money capital” (the loan).
(j) Excluded. The effect of the decline will be counted, but the change in the workweek itself is not the
production of a final good or service or a payment for work done.
(k) Excluded. A noninvestment transaction; it is merely the transfer of ownership of financial assets. (If
AT&T uses the money from the sale of a new bond to carry out an investment in real physical assets
that will be counted.)
(l) Included. The increase in inventories could only occur as a result of increased production.
(m) Excluded. Merely the transfer of ownership of existing financial assets.
(n) Included. Insurance is a final service. If bought by a household, it will be shown as consumption; if
bought by a business, as investment—as a cost added to its real investment in physical capital.
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7-2      (Key Question) Suppose an economy’s real GDP is \$30,000 in year 1 and \$31,200 in year 2. What is the
growth rate of its real GDP? Assume that population was 100 in year 1 and 102 in year 2. What is the
growth rate of GDP per capita?
Growth rate of real GDP = 4 percent (= \$31,200 - \$30,000)/\$30,000). GDP per capita in year 1 = \$300 (=
\$30,000/100). GDP per capita in year 2 = \$305.88 (= \$31,200/102). Growth rate of GDP per capita is 1.96
percent = (\$305.88 - \$300)/300).

7-4      (Key Question) What are the four phases of the business cycle? How long do business cycles last? How
do seasonal variations and secular trends complicate measurement of the business cycle? Why does the
business cycle affect output and employment in capital goods and consumer durable goods industries
more severely than in industries producing nondurables?
The four phases of a typical business cycle, starting at the bottom, are trough, recovery, peak, and
recession. As seen in Table 8-2, the length of a complete cycle varies from about 2 to 3 years to as long as
15 years.
There is a pre-Christmas spurt in production and sales and a January slackening. This normal seasonal
variation does not signal boom or recession. From decade to decade, the long-term trend (the secular
trend) of the U.S. economy has been upward. A period of no GDP growth thus does not mean all is
normal, but that the economy is operating below its trend growth of output.
Because capital goods and durable goods last, purchases can be postponed. This may happen when a
recession is forecast. Capital and durable goods industries therefore suffer large output declines during
recessions. In contrast, consumers cannot long postpone the buying of nondurables such as food;
therefore recessions only slightly reduce nondurable output. Also, capital and durable goods
expenditures tend to be “lumpy.” Usually, a large expenditure is needed to purchase them, and this
shrinks to zero after purchase is made.
7-6      (Key Question) Use the following data to calculate (a) the size of the labor force and (b) the official
unemployment rate: total population, 500; population under 16 years of age or institutionalized, 120; not
in labor force, 150; unemployed, 23; part-time workers looking for full-time jobs, 10.

Labor force  230  500 - 120  150  ; official unemployme nt rate  10% 23 / 230  100 

7-9      Explain how an increase in your nominal income and a decrease in your real income might occur
simultaneously. Who loses from inflation? Who loses from unemployment? If you had to choose
between (a) full employment with a 6 percent annual rate of inflation or (b) price stability with an 8
percent unemployment rate, which would you choose? Why?
If a person’s nominal income increases by 10 percent while the cost of living increases by 15 percent, then
her real income has decreased from 100 to 95.65 (= 110/1.15). Alternatively expressed, her real income
has decreased by 4.35 percent (= 100 - 95.65). Generally, whenever the cost of living increases faster
than nominal income, real income decreases.
The losers from inflation are those on incomes fixed in nominal terms or, at least, those with incomes that
do not increase as fast as the rate of inflation. Creditors and savers also lose. In the worst recession since
the Great Depression (1981-82), those who lost the most from unemployment were, in descending order,
blacks (who also suffer the most in good times), teenagers, and blue-collar workers generally. In addition
to the specific groups who lose the most, the economy as a whole loses in terms of the living standards of
its members because of the lost production.
The choice between (a) and (b) illustrates why economists are unpopular. Option (a) spreads the pain by
not having a small percentage of the population bear the burden of employment. There is the risk,
however, that inflationary expectations will give rise to creeping inflation and ultimately hyperinflation; or
that the central bank will raise interest rates to reduce inflation, stalling economic growth. If one chooses
(b) the central bank will have no cause to raise interest rates and cut off the economic expansion needed
to get unemployment down from the unforgivable 8 percent. However, the weakness in spending
resulting from an 8% unemployment rate might push the economy into deflation, which would ultimately
exacerbate the weak economic conditions.
7-10    What is the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and how is it determined each month? How does the Bureau of
Labor Statistics (BLS) calculate the rate of inflation from one year to the next? What effect does inflation
have on the purchasing power of a dollar? How does it explain differences between nominal and real
interest rates? How does deflation differ from inflation?
The CPI is constructed from a “market basket” sampling of goods that consumers typically purchase.
Prices for goods in the market basket are collected each month, weighted by the importance of the good
the price level.
To calculate the rate of inflation for year 5, the BLS subtracts the CPI of year 4 from the CPI of year 5, and
then divides by the CPI of year 4 (percentage change in the price level).
Inflation reduces the purchasing power of the dollar. Facing higher prices with a given number of dollars
means that each dollar buys less than it did before.
The rate of inflation in the CPI approximates the difference between the nominal and real interest rates.
A nominal interest rate of 10% with a 6% inflation rate will mean that real interest rates are
approximately 4%.
Deflation means that the price level is falling, whereas with inflation overall prices are rising. Deflation is
undesirable because the falling prices mean that incomes are also falling, which reduces spending, output,
employment, and, in turn, the price level (a downward spiral). Inflation in modest amounts (<3%) is
tolerable, although there is not universal agreement on this point.
7-11    (Key Question) If the price index was 110 last year and is 121 this year, what is this year’s rate of
inflation? What is the “rule of 70”? How long would it take for the price level to double if inflation
persisted at (a) 2, (b) 5, and (c) 10 percent per year?
This year’s rate of inflation is 10% or [(121 – 110)/110] x 100.
Dividing 70 by the annual percentage rate of increase of any variable (for instance, the rate of inflation or
population growth) will give the approximate number of years for doubling of the variable.
(a) 35 years ( 70/2); (b) 14 years ( 70/5); (c) 7 years ( 70/10).
p163-164 (3-10)

8-3

Explain how each of the following will affect the consumption and saving schedules or the investment schedule:
a.   A large increase in the value of real estate, including private houses.
b.   A decline in the real interest rate.
c.   A sharp, sustained decline in stock prices.
d.   An increase in the rate of population growth.
e.   The development of a cheaper method of manufacturing computer chips.
f.   A sizable increase in the retirement age for collecting Social Security benefits.
g.   The expectation that mild inflation will persist in the next decade.
(a) If this simply means households have become more wealthy, then consumption will increase at each
income level. The consumption schedule should shift upward and the saving schedule shift
downward. The investment schedule may shift rightward if owners of existing homes sell them and
invest in construction of new homes more than previously.
(b) The decline in the real interest rate will increase interest-sensitive consumer spending; the
consumption schedule will shift up and the saving schedule down. Investors will increase investment
as they move down the investment-demand curve; the investment schedule will shift upward.
(c) A sharp decline in stock prices can be expected to decrease consumer spending because of the
decrease in wealth; the consumption schedule shifts down and the saving schedule upward. Because
of the depressed share prices and the number of speculators forced out of the market, it will be
harder to float new issues on the stock market. Therefore, the investment schedule will shift
downward.
(d) The increase in the rate of population growth will, over time, increase the rate of income growth. In
itself this will not shift any of the schedules but will lead to movement upward to the right along the
upward sloping investment schedule.
(e) This innovation will in itself shift the investment schedule upward. Also, as the innovation starts to
lower the costs of producing everything using these chips, prices will decrease leading to increased
quantities demanded. This, again, could shift the investment schedule upward.
(f) The postponement of benefits may cause households to save more if they planned to retire before
they qualify for benefits; the saving schedule will shift upward, the consumption schedule downward.
This impact is uncertain, however, if people continue to work and earn productive incomes.
(g) If this is a new expectation, the consumption schedule will shift upwards and the saving schedule
downwards until people have stocked up enough. After about a year, if the mild inflation is not
increasing, the household schedules will revert to where they were before.

8-4   Explain why an upward shift in the consumption schedule typically involves an equal downshift in the
saving schedule. What is the exception to this relationship?
If, by definition, all that you can do with your income is use it for consumption or saving, then if you
consume more out of any given income, you will necessarily save less. And if you consume less, you will
save more. This being so, when your consumption schedule shifts upward (meaning you are consuming
more out of any given income), your saving schedule shifts downward (meaning you are consuming less
out of the same given income).
The exception is a change in personal taxes. When these change, your disposable income changes, and,
therefore, your consumption and saving both change in the same direction and opposite to the change in
taxes. If your MPC, say, is 0.9, then your MPS is 0.1. Now, if your taxes increase by \$100, your
consumption will decrease by \$90 and your saving will decrease by \$10.
8-5          (Key Question) Complete the accompanying table.

Level of Output
and income
(GDP = DI)    Consumption                            Saving                    APC                      APS            MPC             MPS

\$240              \$ _____                          \$-4                    _____                     _____          _____           _____
260               \$ _____                               0                 _____                     _____          _____           _____
280               \$ _____                               4                 _____                     _____          _____           _____
300               \$ _____                               8                 _____                     _____          _____           _____
320               \$ _____                              12                 _____                     _____          _____           _____
340               \$ _____                              16                 _____                     _____          _____           _____
360               \$ _____                              20                 _____                     _____          _____           _____
380               \$ _____                              24                 _____                     _____          _____           _____
400               \$ _____                              28                 _____                     _____          _____           _____

Data for completing the table (top to bottom). Consumption: \$244; \$260; \$276; \$292; \$308; \$324; \$340; \$356;
\$372. APC: 1.02; 1.00; .99; .97; .96; .95; .94; .94; .93. APS: -.02; .00; .01; .03; .04; .05; .06; .06; .07. MPC:
.80 throughout. MPS: .20 throughout.
a.   Show the consumption and saving schedules graphically.
b.   Find the break-even level of income. How is it possible for households to dissave at very low-income
levels?
c.  If the proportion of total income consumed (APC) decreases and the proportion saved (APS)
increases as income rises, explain both verbally and graphically how the MPC and MPS can be
constant at various levels of income.

(a) See the graphs.

Question 9-5a

420
400
380                                                                                 C
360
Consumption

340                                  Question 9-5a
320
300
Break-Even Income
30                                                                              S
280
25
260
240
20
45
220
15 220       240        260    280     300       320     340      360   380   400       420
Savings

10                                            Real GDP

5

0
220   240        260    280     300       320      340      360   380   400       420
-5

-10
Real GDP
(b) Break-even income = \$260. Households dissave borrowing or using past savings.
(c) Technically, the APC diminishes and the APS increases because the consumption and saving schedules
have positive and negative vertical intercepts, respectively. (Appendix to Chapter 1). MPC and MPS
measure changes in consumption and saving as income changes; they are the slopes of the
consumption and saving schedules. For straight-line consumption and saving schedules, these slopes
do not change as the level of income changes; the slopes and thus the MPC and MPS remain
constant.
8-6   What are the basic determinants of investment? Explain the relationship between the real interest rate
and the level of investment. Why is investment spending unstable? How is it possible for investment
spending to increase even in a period in which the real interest rate rises?
The basic determinants of investment are the expected rate of return (net profit) that businesses hope to
realize from investment spending, and the real rate of interest.
When the real interest rate rises, investment decreases; and when the real interest rate drops,
investment increases—other things equal in both cases. The reason for this relationship is that it makes
sense to borrow money at, say, 10 percent, if the expected rate of net profit is higher than 10 percent, for
then one makes a profit on the borrowed money. But if the expected rate of net profit is less than 10
percent, borrowing the money would be expected to result in a negative rate of return on the borrowed
money. Even if the firm has money of its own to invest, the principle still holds: The firm would not be
maximizing profit if it used its own money to carry out an investment returning, say, 9 percent when it
could lend the money at an interest rate of 10 percent.
Investment is unstable because, unlike most consumption, it can be put off. In good times, with demand
strong and rising, businesses will bring in more machines and replace old ones. In times of economic
downturn, no new machines will be ordered. A firm can continue for years with, say, a tenth of the
investment it was carrying out in the boom. Very few families could cut their consumption so drastically.
New business ideas and the innovations that spring from them do not come at a constant rate. This is
another reason for the irregularity of investment. Profits and the expectations of profits also vary. Since
profits, in the absence of easy access to borrowed money, are essential for investment and since,
moreover, the object of investment is to make a profit, investment, too, must vary.
As long as expected rates of return rise faster than real interest rates, investment spending may increase.
This is most likely to occur during periods of economic expansion.
8-7   (Key Question) Suppose a handbill publisher can buy a new duplicating machine for \$500 and that the
duplicator has a 1-year life. The machine is expected to contribute \$550 to the year’s net revenue. What
is the expected rate of return? If the real interest rate at which funds can be borrowed to purchase the
machine is 8 percent, will the publisher choose to invest in the machine? Explain.
The expected rate of return is 10% (\$50 expected profit/\$500 cost of machine). The \$50 expected profit
comes from the net revenue of \$550 less the \$500 cost of the machine.
If the real interest rate is 8%, the publisher will invest in the machine as the expected profit (marginal
benefit) from the investment exceeds the cost of borrowing the funds (marginal cost).
8-8   (Key Question) Assume there are no investment projects in the economy that yield an expected rate of
return of 25 percent or more. But suppose there are \$10 billion of investment projects yielding an
expected rate of return of between 20 and 25 percent; another \$10 billion yielding between 15 and 20
percent; another \$10 billion between 10 and 15 percent; and so forth. Cumulate these data and present
them graphically, putting the expected rate of net return on the vertical axis and the amount of
investment on the horizontal axis. What will be the equilibrium level of aggregate investment if the real
interest rate is (a) 15 percent, (b) 10 percent, and (c) 5 percent? Explain why this curve is the
investment-demand curve.
See the graph below. Aggregate investment: (a) \$20 billion; (b) \$30 billion; (c) \$40 billion. This is the
investment-demand curve because we have applied the rule of undertaking all investment up to the point
where the expected rate of return, r, equals the interest rate, i.

8-9    (Key Question) What is the multiplier effect? What relationship does the MPC bear to the size of the
multiplier? The MPS? What will the multiplier be when the MPS is 0, .4, .6, and 1? What will it be when
the MPC is 1, .9, .67, .5, and 0? How much of a change in GDP will result if firms increase their level of
investment by \$8 billion and the MPC is .80? If the MPC is .67?
The multiplier effect describes how an initial change in spending ripples through the economy to generate
a larger change in real GDP. It occurs because of the interconnectedness of the economy, where a change
in Haslett’s spending will generate more income for Davidic, who will in turn spend more, generating
The MPC is directly (positively) related to the size of the multiplier. The MPS is inversely (negatively)
related to the size of the multiplier.
The multiplier values for the MPS values: undefined, 2.5, 1.67, and 0.
The multiplier values for the MPC values: undefined, 10, 3 (approx. actually 3.03), 2, 0.
If MPC is .80, change in GDP is \$40 billion (5 x \$8 = \$40)
If MPC is .67, change in GDP is \$24 billion (approximately) (3 x \$8 = \$24)
8-10   Why is the actual multiplier for the U.S. economy less than the multiplier in this chapter’s simple
examples?
The actual multiplier (estimated to be about 2) is smaller because it includes other leakages from the
spending and income cycle besides just saving. Imports and taxes reduce the flow of money back into
spending on domestically produced output, reducing the multiplier effect.

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