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Mycotoxins in Aquaculture feeds: facts & implications

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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi, commonly referred as molds. They are produced by these organisms when they grow on agricultural products before or after harvest or during transportation or storage...

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									Digital Re-print - January | February 2007
Feature: Feed additives Feature title: Mycotoxins in Aquaculture feeds: facts & implications
International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

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Feed additives
Mycotoxins in Aquaculture feeds:
A recent survey (Chin & Tan, 2006) conducted in all Asian region analyzed 970 samples of different feed ingredients and feed samples to determine contamination levels of the major mycotoxins of interest; namely, aflatoxins, zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin (Fum), T2 toxin and ochratoxin A (OTA). In brief, from the survey results, aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, accounted for 18 percent of the sample contamination; 35 percent were positive for zearalenone, 45 percent for deoxynivalenol and 46 percent for fumonisin B1 (Table 1). Though it is impossible to correlate the occurrence of a specific mycotoxin to a specific commodity from the data studied, there is apparent prevalence of some mycotoxins to some specific sample types. For instance, 100 percent of the peanut meal samples analyzed were found to be contaminated with aflatoxins with the highest level of 381 µg/kg and an average of 202 µg/kg (Table 2). For wheat samples, 88 percent were affected by DON with the

Feed additives
catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are reported to be less sensitive to aflatoxins (Manning, 2001). Although less sensitive, warm water species are still affected by aflatoxin contamination. Feeding a diet containing 10 ppm AFB1/kg diet to channel catfish caused reduced growth rate and moderate Aflatoxins internal lesions over a 10-week trial period Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus (Jantrarotai & Lovell, 1990a). In carp, it fungi, which can infect many potential was reported that aflatoxins are potential feedstuffs as corn, peanuts, rice, fish meal, immunosuppressors (Sahoo et al. 2001). A shrimp and meat meals (Ellis et al., 2000). recent study (Manning et al., 2005a) indicated Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most that feeding diets containing aflatoxins from potent, naturally occurring, cancer-causing moldy corn does not seem to affect channel agents in animals. Initial findings associated catfish weight gain, feed consumption, feed with aflatoxicosis in fish include pale gills, efficiency, and survival. Studies on the Nile impaired blood clotting, anemia, poor growth tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) showed rates or lack of weight gain. Prolonged reduced growth rates when tilapias were fed feeding of low concentrations of AFB1 diets containing 1880 ppb AFB1 (Chavezcauses liver tumors, which appear as pale Sanches et al., 1994). In addition, tissue yellow lesions and which can spread to the abnormality or lesions in the livers of these kidney (Manning 2001). These subtle effects tilapias showed the beginnings of cancer often go unnoticed and profits are lost due development. In another study, Nile tilapia fed diets with 100 ppb AFB1 for 10 table 2: Prevalence of mycotoxins in different commodities weeks had reduced growth, and fish Prevalence 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th fed diet with 200 Corn FUM (68%) DON (67%) ZON (40%) OTA (20%) AFLA (19%) NA ppb AFB1 had 17 Soybean/Meal ZON (14%) DON(7%) FUM(7%) OTA(5%) AFLA(3%) NA percent mortality Wheat/bran DON (85%) ZON (24%) FUM (5%) T2(<2%) NA NA (El-Banna et al., Corn Gluten Meal ZON (88%) FUM (85%) DON (27%) AFLA (8%) NA NA 1992). In a more Peanut Meal AFLA (100%) ZON (57%) FUM (14%) NA NA NA recent study, Tuan Rice ZON(17%) AFLA (13%) FUM (9%) DON (4%) NA NA et al. (2002) showed that acute and subhighest level found at 18,991 µg/kg and an to decreased efficiency in production, such chronic effects of AFB1 to Nile tilapia are average contamination level of 1,181 µg/kg, as slow growth, reduced weights of the unlikely if dietary concentrations are 250 while no aflatoxins were detected in any of finished product, an increase in the amount ppb or less. However, diets containing levels the wheat samples. It was seen that more of feed needed to reach market weight, and of AFB1 higher than 250 ppb had lower weight gain and haematocrit count compared than 80 percent of the corn gluten meal increased medical costs. The extent of disease, caused by to a control diet. Diets containing 100 ppm samples were ZON (87 percent) and Fum consumption of aflatoxins, depends upon AFB1 caused weight loss and severe hepatic (83 percent) positive (Chin & Tan, 2006). A contaminated ingredient or feed is likely the age and species of the fish. Fry are more necrosis in Nile tilapia (Tuan, et al., 2002). In marine shrimp, several studies showed to contain more than one type of mycotoxin. susceptible to aflatoxicosis than adults and Numerous researchers have reported that some species of fish are more sensitive to that AFB1 can cause abnormalities such mycotoxins act synergistically so that the aflatoxins than others (Tuan et al., 2002). as poor growth, low apparent digestibility, negative effects of two mycotoxins are Rainbow trout is reported to be one of the physiological disorders and histological worse than the effects of each individually most sensitive animals to aflatoxin poisoning. changes, principally in the hepatopancreatic (Manning, 2001). Mycotoxins also appear In this species, an intake of 1 µg AFB1/kg tissue (Wiseman et al., 1982; Ostrowskito be very heat stable and the pelleting and diet can cause liver tumors and the LD50 Meissner, et al., 1995 Bintvihok at al., extrusion process of fish and shrimp feeds (dose causing death in 50 percent of the 2003; Boonyaratpalin et al., 2001; Burgosdo not seem to reduce appreciable amounts subjects) for AFB1 in a 50g trout being 500– Hernadez et al., 2005, Supamattaya et al., 1000 ppb (0.5–1.0 mg/kg) (Lovell, 1989). The 2006). Nevertheless, reports on the effect of of mycotoxins (Manning, 2001). The contamination of feeds and raw carcinogenic or toxic effects of aflatoxins AFB1 on shrimp are inconsistent. Bintvihok materials by mycotoxins is a reality and in fish seem to be species specific. While et al. (2003) reported that after just 7 its increasing on a global basis making it Rainbow trout are extremely sensitive to or 10 days of consumption of diets with increasingly likely that any given feedstuff AFB1, warm water fish such as channel AFB1 levels below 20 ppb, mortality rate
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could contain one or, more likely, several mycotoxins. They are invisible, odorless and tasteless toxins with a major impact on animal health. The awareness on the effect of mycotoxins in terrestrial livestock is increasing but still overviewed in aquaculture species.

facts and implications
by Pedro Encarnação PhD Biomin Laboratory Singapore Pte. Ltd 3791 Jalan Bukit Merah #08-08 E-Center@Redhill Singapore 159471 Email: pedro.encarnacao@biomin.net

Effect of different levels of aflatoxin B1 on tilapia growth performance (Source, Dr Jowaman Khajarern)

ycotoxins are s e c o n d a r y metabolites produced by fungi, commonly referred as molds. They are produced by these organisms when they grow on agricultural products before or after harvest or during transportation or storage.
Most of the mycotoxins that have the potential to reduce growth and health status of fish and other farmed animals consuming contaminated feed are produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium sp. These toxic substances are known to be either carcinogenic (e.g. aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1), estrogenic

M

(zearalenone), neurotoxic (fumonisin B1), nephrotoxic (ochratoxin), dermatotoxic (trichothecenes) or immunosuppressive (aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin). Mould toxins vary in their toxicity toward different animals species and while the effect of mycotoxins is relatively well known in most terrestrial farm animals the effect of mycotoxins on aquaculture species has not been studied extensively. Nevertheless, several studies have reported pathological signs of mycotoxin poisoning in fish and shrimp species which can cause economic losses to the industry. These economic losses can be caused either by unfavorable effects on the animal themselves caused by exposure to high contamination levels, or by an increase potential for detrimental

health effects in animals consuming low or moderate contaminated products. Given the trend and the economical need to replace expensive animal-derived proteins, such as fish meal, with less expensive plant proteins sources, the relevance of mycotoxin contamination in aquaculture feeds have a tendency to increase since feed ingredients of plant origin, have higher susceptibility for mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxin contamination is often an additive process, beginning in the field and increasing during harvest, drying, and storage. In tropical and subtropical conditions the potential for mycotoxin contamination is further increased due to storage under humid and hot conditions, favorable for fungi contamination of stored feed and grain (CAST, 2003).

table 1: occurrence, average and highest levels of mycotoxins detected based on commodity type and country of origin

Mycotoxin
AflatoxinsTotal Zearalenone Deoxynivalenol Fumonisin B1 T-2 toxin Ochratoxin A

Sample Size
965 963 963 960 748 128

Percent Positive
18% 35% 45% 46% 1% 18%

Average of Positive (µg/kg)
39 409 866 664 273 11.7

Highest level Detected (µg/kg)
381 6,468 18,991 10,577 494 143

Commodity found
Peanut Meal Corn Wheat Corn Finished Feed Corn

Country of origin
Australia China China China Thailand Malaysia

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was slightly higher in AFB1-treated groups than in the control group. Histopathological findings indicated hepatopancreatic damage by AFB1 with biochemical changes of the haemolymph. In another study, AFB1 at 50–100 ppb showed no effect on growth in juvenile shrimps (Boonyaratpalin et al., 2001). However, growth was reduced when AFB1 concentrations were elevated to 500–2500 ppb. Survival dropped to 26.32 percent when 2500 ppb AFB1 was given, whereas concentrations of 50–1000 ppb had no effect on survival (Boonyaratpalin et al., 2001). There were marked histological changes in the hepatopancreas of shrimp fed diet containing AFB1 at a concentration of 100–2500 ppb for 8 weeks, as noted by atrophic changes, followed by necrosis of the tubular epithelial cells. Severe degeneration of hepatopancreatic tubules was common in shrimp fed high concentrations of AFB1 (Boonyaratpalin et al., 2001). Abnormal hepatopancreas and antennal gland tissues were also reported by Ostrowski-Meissner, et al., 1995 in shrimp fed 50 ppb AF B1/kg after only 2 weeks. Feed conversion efficiency and growth were significantly affected at AFB1 400 ppb. Apparent digestibility coefficients decreased significantly at AF B1 900 ppb (Ostrowski-Meissner, et al., 1995). According to Burgos-Hernadez et al. (2005), the effect of AFB1 toxicity to shrimp results in the modification of digestive processes and abnormal development of the hepatopancreas due to exposure to mycotoxins. These effects might be due to alterations of trypsin and collagenase activities, among other factors, such as the possible adverse effect of these mycotoxins on other digestive enzymes (e.g. lipases and amylases) (Burgos-Hernadez et al., 2005). These results show that aflatoxin contamination in shrimp feed may cause economic losses by lowering the production of shrimp. to determine the effect of ochratoxins in fish species. In juvenile channel catfish, diets containing levels of 1 to 8 ppm of OA resulted in the development of toxic responses. Significant reduction in body weight gain were observed after only 2 weeks in fish fed diets containing 2 ppm of ochratoxin A or above (Manning et al., 2003a). After 8 weeks body weight gain was significantly reduced for fish fed diets containing 1 ppm OA or above. Additional toxic responses included poorer FCR for fish fed diets with 4 or 8 ppm OA, and lower survival and hematocrit count for fish fed the 8 ppm OA diet. Severe histopathological lesions of liver and posterior kidney were observed after 8 weeks for catfish fed diets containing levels of OA of 4 and 8 ppm (Manning, et al., 2003a). In growing rainbow trout the oral LD50 of ochratoxin A has been determined to be 4.67 ppm. Pathological signs of ochratoxicosis in trout include liver necrosis, pale, swollen kidneys and high mortality (Hendricks, 1994). contaminated with F. moniliforme culture material was related to certain changes in some hematological parameters and serum or plasma chemical concentration and activities in many animal models (Pepeljnjak et al., 2002). The importance of fumonisins as toxic agents in fish remains still poorly understood. In one study, channel catfish fed F. moniliforme culture material containing 313 ppm of fumonisin B1 (FB1) for 5 weeks revealed minimal adverse effects (Brown et al., 1994). Conversely, Lumlertdacha et al. (1995) reported that dietary levels of FB1 of 20 ppm or above are toxic to year-1 and year-2 channel catfish. After 10 and 14 weeks, respectively, year-1 and year2 catfish fed 20 ppm or more of FB1 in the diet had lower weight gain compared Hemorrhagic liver affected by aflatoxin B1 contamination (Source, Dr Jowaman Khajarern) to channel catfish, Nile tilapia appears to be more resistant to these two mycotoxins in the diet (Tuan et al., 2003). Although research studies revealed that FB1 is toxic to tilapia and channel catfish by suppressing growth and/or causing histopathological lesions, this fish survived mycotoxins levels up to 150 ppm. Reduction on the percentage of survival of channel catfish was observed for diets containing 240 ppm FB1 (Li et al., 1994). Studies on the effect of FB1 in carp indicated that long-term exposure to 0.5 and 5.0 mg per kg body weight is not lethal to young carp, but can produce adverse physiological effects. The primary target organs of FB1 in the carp are kidney and liver (Pepeljnjak et al., 2002). Other changes subsequent to fumonisin exposure that have been reported for carp include scattered lesions in the exocrine and endocrine pancreas, and inter-renal tissue, probably due to ischemia and/or increased endothelial permeability (Petrinec et al., 2004).

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rate were observed after 8 weeks for fish fed diets containing levels of T2-toxin ranging from 0.625-5.0 ppm, compared to a control diet. Significantly poorer feed conversion ratio was found only for the highest level of T2-toxin (5 ppm). The survival of fish fed T2-toxin at 2.5 and 5 ppm was significantly lower than that of the control fish (Manning et al., 2003b). A recent study with channel catfish indicate that disease resistance of juvenile channel catfish was reduced when fed feedborne T-2 toxin, resulting in significantly greater mortality when challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri compared to a control group (Manning et al., 2005b). In carp, the injection of T-2 toxin did not significantly change the activity of enzymes in carp liver, although a tendency for reduction was noted (Kravchenko et al., 1989). In shrimp, Supamattaya et al. (2006) reported that in white shrimp growth was significantly reduced by T-2 toxin at 0.1 ppm while for black tiger shrimp reduced growth was observed at levels of 2.0 ppm. The presence of T-2 toxin at 1.0-2.0 ppm produced atrophic changes and severe degeneration of hepatopancreas tissue, inflamation and loose contact of hemopoietic tissue and lymphoid organ on black tiger and white shrimp after feeding for 10 weeks and 8 week respectively. The same pathology was found in shrimp received 1.0 ppm zearalenone (Supamattaya et al., 2006). It was concluded by the authors that white tiger shrimp are more sensitive to mycotoxins then black tiger shrimp. Deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as vomitoxin,and other type B trichothecenes are produced by Fusarium sp. and can be an important contaminant of wheat. Deoxynivalenol levels of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm in the diet significantly reduced body weight and growth rate in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (TrigoStockli et al., 2000). However, the effects of 0.2 and 0.5 ppm DON were manifested at later stages of growth, and 0.2 ppm DON affected only growth rate and not body weight. Feed conversion ratio and survival of shrimp fed diets containing 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm DON were not significantly different from those of shrimp fed the control diet (0.0 ppm DON) (Trigo-Stockli et al., 2000).
January-February 07 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 29

Reduced weight gain has also been noted in rainbow trout fed DON-contaminated feeds and feed refusal has been found to occur in fish fed with diets containing more than 20 ppm DON. For rainbow trout, a dietary level of 1–12.9 ppm resulted in reduced growth and feed efficiency (Hendricks, 1994). Woodward et al. (1983) showed that rainbow trout had sensitive taste acuity for DON and reduced their feed intake as the concentration of DON increased from 1 to 13 ppm of diet; the fish refused to consume the diet with a DON concentration of 20 ppm.

Combating mycotoxins
Although mycotoxin contamination of feed and feed ingredients represent an increase threat to aquaculture operations there are a number of options available to feed manufacturers and farmers to prevent or reduce the risk of mycotoxicosis associated with mycotoxin contamination. These range from careful selection of raw materials, maintaining good storage conditions for feeds and raw materials, and using a good mycotoxin deactivator to combat the widest possible range of different mycotoxins that may be present. Binders or adsorbents have been used to neutralize the effects of mycotoxins by preventing their absorption from the animal’s digestive tract. The most common binders are clays, bentonites, zeolites silicas and alumino silicates. Unfortunately, different mycotoxin groups are completely different in their chemical structure and therefore it is impossible to equally deactivate all mycotoxins by using only one single strategy. Adsorption works perfectly for aflatoxin but less- or non-adsorbable mycotoxins (like ochratoxins, zearalenone and the whole group of trichothecenes) have to be deactivated by using a different approach. Mycofix®Plus is a mycotoxin deactivator which combines adsorption and bioinactivation to break functional groups of mycotoxins such as trichothecenes, ochratoxin A and zearalenone, and also immunostimulation with addition of selected plant extracts. Biotransformation is defined as detoxification of mycotoxins using microorganisms or enzymes which specifically degrade the toxic structures to non-toxic metabolites. Mycofix®Plus combines different microorganisms, live bacteria and yeast strains, expressing specific mycotoxin-degrading enzymes to successfully counteract all agriculturally
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Trichothecenes
Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins produced by certain fungi of the genus Fusarium that infect the grains, wheat byproducts and oilseed meals used in the production of animal feeds. The type A-

Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)
Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is a mould toxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. Jantrarotai and Lovell (1990b) found that CPA, a neurotoxin frequently found in association with aflatoxins, was more toxic to channel catfish than aflatoxins and is more frequently found than aflatoxins in feedstuffs in the southern United States. A dietary level of 100 ppb CPA significantly reduced growth, and 10,000 ppb caused necrosis of gastric glands. The minimum dietary concentration that caused a reduction in growth rate was 100 ppb for CPA as compared with 10,000 ppb for AFB1 (Jantrarotai and Lovell, 1990b).

Ochratoxins
Ochratoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by fungal organisms belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. Ochratoxin A (OA) is the most abundant of this group and is more toxic than other ochratoxins. It contaminates corn, cereal grains and oilseeds. Ochratoxin A can adversely affect animal performance. It primarily attacks the kidneys of affected animals (CAST, 2003). Very few studies have been conducted

Fumonisins
The fumonisins represent a group of mycotoxins produced predominantly by Fusarium moniliforme species. Fumonisin B1 has been found to be the major toxic component both in corn culture and in naturally contaminated corn. Some early investigations associated this toxin with a variety of animal diseases. Fumonisins specifically disrupt sphingolipid metabolism (Wang et al., 1992). Administration of feed

to the control, and those fish fed diets with levels of 80 ppm and above showed significantly lower hematocrits and red and white blood cells than those fed lower doses (Lumlertdacha et al., 1995). Similarly, Yildirim et al. (2000) found that in channel catfish, diets containing 20 ppm of moniliformin (MON) or FB1 significantly reduced body weight gain after 2 weeks. According to Yildirim et al. (2000), FB1 is more toxic than MON to channel catfish. Adverse effects of fumonisin contaminated diets have also been reported in tilapia. Results presented by Tuan et al. (2003) demonstrated that feeding MON and FB1 at 70 and 40 ppm, respectively, adversely affected growth performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. FB1 is slightly more toxic than MON to tilapia fingerlings as toxic symptoms appear earlier in fish exposed to FB1. Nevertheless, neither MON nor FB1 caused mortality or histopathological lesions in Nile tilapia fingerlings. Compared

Mold contaminated corn

trichothecene T2-toxin produced by the fungus Fusarium tricintum proved lethal to rainbow trout at a dietary concentration near 6 mg/kg body weight (Marasas et al., 1967). Poston et al. (1983), however, fed rainbow trout T2-toxin at 15 ppm of diet and found that the main effects were reduced feed consumption, reduced growth, lower hematocrit, and lower blood hemoglobin. Results from Manning et al. (2003b) demonstrated that T2-toxin is toxic to juvenile channel catfish. Reductions in growth

28 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 07

Feed additives
relevant mycotoxins in a biological way. BBSH 797, a Eubacterium species, patented by Biomin®, produces enzymes, so-called deepoxidases, which degrade the toxic epoxide ring of trichothecenes, T. mycotoxinivorans (vorans lat. degrade, eat), a yeast strain, successfully counteracts ochratoxin A and zearalenone by enzymatic cleavage. Furthermore, all mycotoxins are known to influence detrimentally toward the liver and cause immunosuppression in animals. The addition of plant and algae extracts to the animals’ diet helps to overcome these negative influences. Special algae extracts, tested on their immune enhancing effect, support the immune system and thus overcome the immunesuppressive effect of all mycotoxins. The liver, the main target organ of mycotoxins, is protected by selected antiphlogistic plant extracts.
Hendricks, J.D., (1994). Carcinogenecity of aflotoxins in nonmammalian organisms. In: Eaton, D.L., Groopman, J.D. (Eds.), Toxicology of Aflotoxins: Human Health, veterinary, and Agricultural Significance. Academic Press, San Diego. Pp. 103-136. Janrarotai, W. and Lovell, R.T., (1990a). Subchronic toxicity of dietary aflatoxin B1 to Channel catfish. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 2(4), 248-254. Janrarotai, W. and Lovell, R.T., (1990b). Acute and subchronic toxicity of cyclopiazonic acid to Channel catfish. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 2(4), 255-260. Lee, B.C., Hendrix, J.D., Bailey, G.S., (1991). Toxicity of mycotoxins to fish. In J.E. Smith and R.S. Henderson (Eds). Mycotoxyns in animal foods. Boca Raton, Fl: CRC Press. Pp. 607-626. Li, M.H., Raverty, S.A., Robinson, E.H., (1994). Effects of dietary mycotoxins produced by the mold Fusarium moniliforme on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) J. World Aquacult. Soc. 25(4), 512-516. Lumlertdacha, S. and Lovell, R.T., (1995). Fumonisincontaminated dietary corn reduced survival and antibody production by channel catfish challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri. J. Aquat. Anim. Health. 7(1), 1-8. Lumlertdacha, S., Lovell, R.T Shelby, R.A., Lenz, S.D., Kemppainen, B.W., (1995). Growth, hematology, and histopathology of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), fed toxins from Fusarium moniliforme. Aquaculture. 130, 201-218. Manning, B.B., (2001). Mycotoxins in fish feeds. In Nutrition and Fish Health. Lim, C. & Webster, C.D. Eds). Food Products Press. New York. 365 p. Manning, B.B., Ulloa, R.M., Li, M.H., Robinson, E.H., Rottinghaus, G.E., (2003a). Ochratoxin A fed to channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) causes reduced growth and lesions of hepatopancreatic tissue. Aquaculture. 219, 739-750. Manning, B.B., Li, M.H., Robinson, E.H., Gaunt, P.S., Camus, A.C., Rottinghaus, G.E., (2003). Response of catfish to diets containing T-2 toxin. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 15(3), 229-238. Manning, B.B., Li, M.H., Robinson, E.H., (2005a), Aflotoxins from moldy corn cause no reductions in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) performance. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 36(1), 59-67. Manning, B.B., Terhune, J.S., Li, M.H., Robinson, E.H., Wise, D.J, Rottinghaus, G.E., (2005b). Exposure to feedborne mycotoxins T-2 toxin or ochratoxin A causes increased mortality of channel catfish challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 17(2), 147-152. Ostrowski-Meissner, H., LeaMaster, B., Duerr, E., Walsh, W., (1995). Sensitivity of the Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, to aflatoxin B1. Aquaculture 131, 155-164. Pepeljnjak, S., Petrinec, Z., Kovacic, S., Segvic, M., (2002). Screening toxicity study in young carp (Cyprinus carpio) on feed amended with fumonisin B1. Mycopathologia. 156, 139-145. Petrinec, Z., Pepeljnjak, S., Kovacic, S., Krznaric, A., (2004). Fumonisin B1 causes multiple lesions in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift. 111(9), 358-363. Kravchenko, L., V., Galash, V.T., Avreneva, L.T., Kranauskas, A.E., (1989). On the sensitivity of carp, Cyprinus carpio, to mycotoxin T-2. Journal of Ichthyology. 29(70), 156-160. Sahoo, P and Mukherjee, S.C., (2001). .K. Immunosuppressive effects of aflotoxin B1 in Indian major carp (Labeo rohita). Comparative Immunology, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 24, 143-149. Supamattaya, K., Bundit, O., Boonyarapatlin, M., Schatzmayr, G., (2006). Effects of Mycotoxins T-2 and Zearalenone on growth performance immuno-ohysiological parameters and histological changes in Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). XII International Symposium of Fish Nutrition & Feeding. May 28 – June 1. Biarritz, France. Abstract. Tuan, N.A., Grizzle, J.M., Lovell, R.T., Manning, B.B., Rottinghaus, G.E., (2002). Growth and hepatic lesions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing aflotoxin B1. aquaculture.212, 311319. Tuan, N.A., Manning, B.B., Lovell, R.T., Rottinghaus, G.E., (2003). Responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different concentrations of moniliformin of fumonisin B1) Aquaculture. 217, 515-528. Trigo-Stockli,D. M. Obaldo, L. G., Gominy, W. G., Behnke, K. C., (2000). Utilization of deoxynivalenolcontaminated hard red winter wheat for shrimp feeds. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 31, 247-254. Wang, E., Ross, P.F., Wilson, T.M., Riley, R.T., Merril, A.H., Jr., (1992). Increase in serum sphingosine and sphinganine and decreases in complex shpingolipids in ponies given feed containing fumonisins, mycotoxins produced by Fusarium miniliforme. J. Nut., 122, 1706-1716. Winfree, R.A. and Allred, A., (1992). Bentonite reduces measurable aflotoxin B1 in fish feed. Progressive Fish Culturist. 54(3), 157-162. Wiseman, M.O., Price, R.L., Lightner, D.V., Williams, R.R., (1982). Toxicity of aflotoxin B1 to Penaeid shrimp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 44(6), 1479-1481. Woodword, B., Young, L.G., Lun, A.K., (1983). Vomitoxin in diets of rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri). Aquaculture Yldirim, M., Manning, B.B., Lovell, R.T., Grizzle, J.M., Rottinghaus, G.E., (2000). Toxicity on moniliformin and fumonisin B1 fed singly and in combination in diets for young channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). J. World Aquacult. Soc. 31(4), 599-608.

References
Abdelhamid, A.M., Khalil, F.F., Ragab, M.A., (1998). Problem of mycotoxins in fish production. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds. 1 (1), 63-71. Bintvihok, A., Ponpornpisit, A., Tangtrongpiros, J., Panichkriangkrai, W., Rattanapanee, R., Doi, K., Kumagai, S., (2003). Aflotoxin contamination in Shrimp feed and effects of aflotoxin addition to feed on shrimp production. J. Food Prot. 66, 882-885. Boonyaratpalin, M., Supamattaya, K., Verakunpiriya, V., Suprasert, D., (2001). Effects of aflotoxin B1 on growth performance, blood components, immune function and histopatological changes in black tiger shrimp (Paneus monodon Fabricius). Aquac. Res. 32 (suppl. 1), 388-398. Brown, D.W., McCoy, C.P., Rottinghaus, G.E., (1994). Experimental feeding of Fusarium moniliforme culture material containing fumonisin B1 to channel catfish, (Ictalurus punctatus). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investiation. 6(1), 123-124. Burgos-Hernandez, A., Farias, S.I., Torres-Arreola, W., Ezquerra-Brauer, J.M., (2005). In Vitro studies of the effects of aflotoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 on trypsin-like and collagenase-like activity from the hepatopancreas of white shrimp (Litopanaeus vannamei). Aquaculture. 250, 399-410. Chavez-Sanches, Ma.C, Martinez, C.A., Moreno, I.O., (1994). Pathological effects of feeding youg Oreochromis niloticus diets supplemented with different levels of aflotoxin B1. Aquaculture 127:49-60. El-Banna, R., Teleb, H.M., Fakhry, F.M., (1992). Performance and tissue residues of tilapias fed dietary aflotoxin. Vet. Med. J. 40, 17-23. Ellis, R.W., Clements, M., Tibbetts, A., Winfree, R., (2000). Reduction of the bioavailability of 20 µg/kg aflotoxin in trout feed containing clay. Aquaculture. 183, 179-188.

Fish- & Shrimp Essence: The essentials of aquaculture nutrition tailored into a practical solution for the feedmill Aquasterol: Improved essential lipid nutrition for shrimp Aquafin: Tailoring the end-product to consumer’s satisfaction Aquaflavour: Nature’s most attractive compounds for shrimp IDL: The IDEAL range of specialty feed formulations NutriBoost Fish & Shrimp: Cost-effective boost of growth-enhancing nutrients Nutribind Aqua Dry : Low inclusion binder for water stable aquafeed (released by INVE Nutri-Ad) Sanoguard Aquastim: A nutritional supplement for improved resistance to stress and disease in fish and
shrimp (released by INVE Aquaculture Health)
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