Reduction of Impacts from Locomotive Idling by fdh56iuoui

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									 Reduction of Impacts
 from Locomotive Idling




Linda Gaines
Center for Transportation Research
Argonne National Laboratory
A U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory
Operated by The University of Chicago
What are the impacts of locomotive idling?
   •      Petroleum use
           - Fuel
              - UP spends $300,000/day to fuel idling locomotives
              - Over 230 million gal/y (6.3% rail freight energy) is wasted
           - Lubricating oil
              - CSX estimates up to 0.1 gallons per gallon of fuel
   •      Emissions
           - New EPA regulations set emission limits
   •      Noise
   •      Engine wear
           - Added usage reduces interval between rebuilds
   •      Added maintenance costs
           - UP estimates $1 per idling hour

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Emissions are a serious problem
  The time of maximum carbon accumulation is when they
  (locomotives) are idling or operating at minimum power output.
  The time of maximum carbon ejection is when power is applied
  after a period of idling. (Source: Railroad Fire Prevention Guide)




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Locomotives idle for several reasons
•   To keep engine warm to ensure it starts
     - antifreeze generally not used
•   For hotel load while waiting
     - on sidings and at terminals
•   To keep battery charged
•   To heat toilet water
     - frozen toilets cause service loss
•   To avoid Terminal Brake Test
•   Perceived futility of shutdown
•   Ingrained operating habits




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Why don’t locomotives use antifreeze?

                                    •   Idling protects against
                                          - Freezing water
                                          - Cold oil that’s too stiff for cranking
                                    •   Antifreeze can damage bearings in
                                        large diesel engines
                                    •   Antifreeze would reduce HP output
                                          - Water better heat transfer fluid
                                          - Allows 20% smaller radiators
                                    •   Environmental impacts of leaks
Typical 4400 HP locomotive diesel
engine … weighs 46,000 pounds




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Different considerations apply
for different types of trains
•   Passenger rail
     - Idle commuter trains cluster at fixed
        locations                                Rail Energy Use
     - Schedules are rigid                       (Total is 605 trillion BTU)
     - Loads relatively light
•   Freight rail
     - Road units (line-haul)                                              Line-haul
          - Heavy loads                                                    Switcher
          - May idle in remote locations                                   Amtrak
          - Dominate rail energy use
                                                                           Commuter rail
     - Yard units (switchers)
          - Locations fixed                                                Transit
          - Long idle times
          - Source of noise and pollution in
            populated areas
          - Presentation focus is on switchers
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Even road locomotives idle

                        100%
                         90%
                         80%                                                Idle
Percent of time




                         70%                                                Dynamic Brake
                         60%                                                Notch 1
                         50%                                                Notch 2
                         40%                                                Notch 3
                         30%
                                                                            Notch 4
                         20%
                         10%                                                Notch 5
                          0%                                                Notch 6
                                Switcher   Switcher   Line Haul Line Haul   Notch 7
                                 (AAR)      (EPA)       (AAR)     (EPA)     Notch 8
                                               Duty cycle

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Switcher uses most fuel in idle for EPA cycle
(GP38-2 data)


                             180
                             160
                                        Per hour in Notch
        Fuel use (gallons)


                             140        Daily use for cycle
                             120
                             100
                              80
                              60
                              40
                              20
                               0
                                   Idle N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8

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Several technologies could reduce idling
 •      Automatic engine stop-start controls (AESS)
 •      Auxiliary power unit (APU)
 •      Diesel-driven heating system (DDHS)           Can be retrofit
 •      Shore power plug-in unit
 •      Hybrid switching locomotive

 •      All devices can be used on locomotives from any manufacturer
 •      All reduce fuel use, emissions, and noise
         - Emission reductions beyond regulated levels could be sold
         - See “Trading Locomotive Emissions: A Potential
            Success Story,” AWMA 2002
 •      Each has advantages and drawbacks and provides different
        services

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Start/stop systems avoid impacts
when engine is off

•   Engine is shut down after set idle time
     - Operator intervention not required
     - Fuel use, emissions, noise avoided during shut-down
     - No cab comfort provided while engine off
     - Idling reduced up to 50% for road unit, 70% for switcher
•   Sensors monitor water temperature, brake pressure, battery charge
•   Engine restarts if any parameter out-of-range
     - ZTR “SmartStart” restarts engine if water drops to 100° F
     - Alarm sounds for safety
     - Starter motor may wear out faster
•   Engine stays on below 40° F
     - Savings greatest in warm climates


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Start/stop has maximum benefit in South
                                   80
                                                                                                              Houston
                                                                                                              Havre
                                   70


                                   60
 Ave rage Low Te m pe rature (F)




                                   50


                                   40


                                   30


                                   20


                                   10


                                     0
                                            Jan   Feb   Mch   Apr   May   Jne   Jly   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov     Dec
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Start/stop systems are being installed on
new locomotives and as retrofits
 •     EMD SD70M locomotive
        - 4000 hp DC traction locomotive
        - 1100 unit order (2000-2002)
        - UP received first 20+ units in 2002
 •     EMD GP20D switcher
        - 2000 hp DC switcher (and 1500 hp model)
        - Cooling system has antifreeze
        - 40 acquired by Tyco International/CIT
 •     GE C44ACCTE locomotive and automatic stop/start (AESS)
        - 4400 hp AC traction locomotive
        - 94 delivered to UP in 2002
        - AESS to be retrofitted to older C44ACs
 •     SmartStart
        - UP ongoing program has equipped 375 units since 1998

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APU supplies heat, power, and cab comfort

•    Shuts off and restarts engine
      - No operator required
•    Heats water and oil
•    Enables 60 Hz power
      - Cost-effective, reliable appliances
          - optional air conditioning
          - lighting and communication
•    Heats cab and toilet
•    Maintains brake air pressure
•    Keeps batteries charged
•    Enables engine shut-down in winter
      - Down to –30º F in Alaska
•    Installs behind engine or on walkway




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APU has lower impacts than idling

                                 0.16
  Relative impact (Idling = 1)




                                 0.12


                                 0.08


                                 0.04


                                   0
                                        Fuel Use   NOx   HC   CO   PM   Noise


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APU saves fuel and
could enable NOx compliance


                25

                20

                15
                                                       % fuel saved
                10                                     NOX (g/bhp-h)
                                                          Basis: GP38-2,
                                                        AAR switcher cycle
                 5

                 0
                     0        6        12         18
                         idling hours displaced                              15
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Installation of APUs proceeding
•   Ecotrans K-9
     - CSX installing EcoTrans units on 3,200 locomotives
        - 1,100 installed as of 9/1/03, 1,400 by end of year
     - DOE funding 70 unit demo in Maryland
        - 30% of the units are equipped and testing is underway
     - Houston project demonstrated mobile-stationary emission trading
        - Project completed
        - Showed significant reduction in NOx
        - No further emission trading planned
        - Texas opted for incentive-based program
•   Thermo King/Illinois Auto Electric
        - Prototype installed at Belt Railway 3/03
        - Unit installed at Canadian National 10/03
        - Unit installed at Norfolk Southern 11/03
•   Microphor units patented in 1984
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DDHS heats water and oil with waste heat
•    Variable engine speed generates optimum waste heat
       - No 60 Hz power
•    Charges batteries and powers cab heaters
•    Year-round system
•    Start/stop system optional
       - Maintains brake pressure
       - Fuel savings reports
       - Remote monitoring
       - Failsafe redundancies




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DDHS installed in coldest climates


                                                •   Took data on coldest day
                                                •   Ambient = -38º F/-39º C
                                                •   January 7, 2003
                                                •   Fairbanks, Alaska
                                                •   16 hour shutdown
                                                •   Engine water > 100º F
                                                •   Battery charge maintained
                                                •   Locomotive started easily
Alaska RR #2005 GP38, equipped with DDHS 3/02



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DDHS installations proceeding

 • Kim Hotstart acquires patent 1996
 • First walkway installation at POVA Railroad 10/98
 • First behind-engine installation Idaho Northern 8/99
 • First DDHS/SmartStart installation on BNSF 8/02
 • EPA-Chicago project demonstrated reliable cold-weather
   shutdown
    - 3 installed on BNSF GP-38
    - 4 installed on WSOR SD 40-2
    - Significant reduction in emissions, noise, and fuel consumption
 • Transport Canada project just underway
    - 2 installed on Athabasca Northern GP-9
 • 11 different railroads, 14 different locomotive models


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The Green Goat is a battery-diesel hybrid switcher
•   Replaces 2000 hp switcher
•   Uses 125 hp diesel and 60,000 lb of
    sealed Pb-acid batteries
•   Small diesel charges batteries
    - Runs when switcher in use
    - And a bit more
•   Batteries expected to last 10-15 years
    - Kept at 80% SOC
    - Lifetime unproven
•   Developed by RailPower Technologies
•   Hybrids are in demonstration stage
    -    First prototypes tested by UPRR in CA and IL
    -    Goat demonstrated by Pacific Harbor Line in L.A.
    -    Chevron is testing Green Kid at Ventura, CA refinery
    -    Southern Railway in B.C. to test Kid
    -    U.S. Marines will test Kid in Barstow
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Green Goat has pros and cons
                    •   Small engine is quieter and cleaner than
                        large diesel
                    •   Small diesel at full load more efficient
                        than large one at low load
                    •   Goat or smaller Kid (1000 hp) can be
                        remote-controlled
                    •   Does not need to idle
                    •   Designed for yard switching but could
                        haul short distances
                          - Top speed 40 mph
                          - Not suitable for long-haul use
                    •   Costs much more than add-on device
                          - Competitive with rebuild
                          - Costs $200 K on old locomotive bed
                          - Rebuild costs $100 K- $350 K
                         - Cheaper than new unit at $1.5 million
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Plug-in units are inexpensive

   •      Heat and circulate water and oil
   •      Minimal equipment required
   •      Ideal for commuter trains
   •      Can also be used for yard units
   •      Over 2,000 installed on commuter, short line, regional, and Class 1
          locomotives
   •      Locomotive must be at equipped location
           - Probably not appropriate for line-haul locomotives
   •      No local impacts
           - Yard is quiet and pollution-free
           - Impacts from electricity generation are relatively small




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Plug-in unit has optional battery charger


 Kim Hotstart
 Engine Heating System
                                     Kim Hotstart
                                     Battery Charger




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All of the options have good payback times
     System               Energy saving          Annual                       Cost              Payback
                          (gal/d)                savings ($1000s)             ($1000s)          (months)

     Start/stop           36                     15                           7.5-15            6-12

     APU or DDHS          60                     25                           25-35             12-17

     Plug-in              50                     19                           4-12              3-11

     Green Goat           291                    122                          200               20

     Basis: GP38-2 with EPA switcher cycle for all technologies, 330 d/y, 50% idle replacement by AESS
     (will be less in cold climate), 90% by APU, DDHS, or plug-in unit, .05 gal oil used/gal fuel, $0.10/kWh



  Caveats:
  Costs depend on vendor and options included.
  Energy savings depend on climate, duty cycle, locomotive type.
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Alternatives reduce energy use
                      1.2
  Relative fuel use



                        1                                                                Idling
                      0.8
                      0.6                                                                Working
                      0.4
                      0.2
                        0                                                                (GP38-2 on EPA
                                                                                          switcher cycle)

                      1.5
                        1

                      0.5
                        0
                            Idling    Idling,   Start/stop   APU or   Plug-in   Hybrid
                                     10% N3                  DDHS



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Alternatives also reduce emissions
                          1.2
     Relative to idling

                              1

                          0.8
                                                                                              Idling NOx
                          0.6

                          0.4                                                                 Working NOx
                          0.2

                              0

                          2
                   1.8
                   1.6
                   1.4
                   1.2
                          1
                   0.8
                   0.6
                   0.4
                   0.2
                          0
                                  Idling   Idling,   Start/stop   APU or   Plug-in   Hybrid
                                           10% N3                  DDHS
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Technology comparison summary
  System        Reduction in    Working   Non-working    Advantages/
                energy use      noise     noise          Disadvantages
                and emissions

  Idling        None            Noisy     Noisy          ---

  Start/stop    Minimum         Noisy     Alternates     No cab comfort,
                                          noisy/silent   minimal benefit in
                                                         winter

  APU or        Good            Noisy     Quiet          Anywhere, any time;
  DDHS                                                   APU supplies all
                                                         services

  Plug-in       Good            Noisy     Silent         Requires
                                                         equipped location

  Hybrid        Maximum         Quiet     Silent         Switcher only


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Thank you’s go to:

   •      2003 Railroad Environmental Conference
           - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
   •      Sid Diamond– DOE Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle
          Technologies
   •      Mike Iden– Union Pacific
   •      Ted Stewart– CSX
   •      Terry Judge– Kim Hotstart
   •      Stephen Farrell– for RailPower



   •      Disclaimer: no endorsements are implied!


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