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					ANABOLIC
STEROID USE IN
TEENAGE MALES




  Dr. Pete
  7/4/08
    ANABOLIC STEROID ISSUE – “STATISTICS
               AND TRENDS”
•     The NIDA-funded 2005 Monitoring the Future Study showed 1.0% of 8th-graders,1.3% of
      10th-graders, and 1.5% of 12th-graders had abused anabolic steroids at least once in the year
      prior to being surveyed.

•     3.4% of 12th graders have used anabolic steroids in their lifetime

•     Only 56.8% of twelfth graders
      surveyed reported that using
      steroids was a "great risk.“

•     18.1% of eighth graders, 29.7% of
      tenth graders, and 39.7% of twelfth
      graders reported that steroids were
      “fairly easy” or “very easy” to obtain.
•     Scientific evidence indicates that anabolic
      steroid abuse among athletes may range
      between one and six percent.
    9/12/2011                                                                                         2
     “ADDICTION PSYCHIATRY PERSPECTIVE”
•   Drugs can worsen the usual degree of psychological upset during adolescence (mood swings,
    depression, and self-doubt)

•   Dr. Kirk Bower is an associate professor of psychiatry in the substance abuse
    division at the University of Michigan (addiction psychiatry is his clinical
    interest and he is regarded as an addiction expert); he notes that suicide
    is the third-leading cause of death among people ages 15-24

•   “This is an age group that is already
    high risk,” says Brower. “When you
    add steroids, you are increasing the
    risk of suicide.”

•   According to Brower, even if young people
    hear about the harmful effects of using the
    drugs, they see images of famous athletes
    accused of steroid use – athletes who are
    wealthy and who appear healthy
     9/12/2011                                                                                  3
  ANABOLIC STEROID ISSUE –“TEENAGERS
    TEND TO DENY THEIR MORTALITY”
Here are some situations in which teen athletes might consider taking performance-enhancing
   drugs such as anabolic steroids:
• Frustration. Most athletes reach a plateau at some point in their training. Performance-
   enhancing substances may help them move beyond it.
• Curiosity. Even athletes making good progress with
   their training may become curious and take performance-enhancing drugs just to see what will
   happen. No tests can detect some drugs, so
   there's little chance of getting caught.
• Psychological effects. Some substances
   produce feelings of invincibility and
   euphoria, may be pleasurable enough
   that an athlete doesn't want to stop taking
   banned drugs.
• Peer pressure. The use of performance-
   enhancing substances is accepted by a
   significant number of athletes. If they think
   members of opposing teams use these substances,
   athletes may feel they need help to remain competitive.
 9/12/2011                                                                                        4
  ANABOLIC STEROID ISSUE –“TEENAGERS
    TEND TO DENY THEIR MORTALITY”
Here are some situations in which teen athletes might consider taking performance-enhancing
   drugs such as anabolic steroids (continued):
• Implicit approval. Parents and coaches may choose to ignore signs of performance-
   enhancing drug use in teens who appear to be elite-level athletes.
• Competition for athletic scholarship. There is considerable pressure
   to earn a scholarship. And besides the pressure from coaches,
   parents and peers, teenagers place a lot of pressure on themselves.
   Not surprisingly, the pressure may force
   them to consider using performance-
   enhancing drugs and supplements




 9/12/2011                                                                                    5
            ANABOLIC STEROID FACTS
• “Anabolic steroids” is the familiar name for synthetic substances related to the
male sex hormones (e.g., testosterone).
• Anabolic steroids promote the growth of skeletal muscle (anabolic effect) and
the development of male sexual characteristics (androgenic effects) in both
males and females.
• The term “anabolic steroids” will be used throughout this
report because of its familiarity, although
the proper term for these compounds is
“anabolic-androgenic steroids.”
• Anabolic steroids (AS) mimic the
effects of testosterone and are used by
athletes (teenage and adults) for effects
that are believed to enhance performance
and improve physical appearance.
• On the streets, AS may be called “Arnolds,”
“gym candy,” “pumpers,” “roids,” “stackers,”
or “juice.” Without a prescription from a
doctor, AS are illegal.


     9/12/2011                                                                       6
            ANABOLIC STEROID FACTS
• Some steroid users pop pills while other users use hypodermic needles to inject
steroids directly into muscles (typically by deep gluteal injections).

• Typically AS are taken in cycles of weeks or months (referred to as “cycling”)
rather than continuously. Cycling involves taking multiple doses of steroids
(abusers might take doses 10 to 100 times higher than the amount
prescribed for medical reasons by a doctor) over a specific period of
time (typically 6 to 12 weeks), stopping for a period, and starting
again. At the beginning of the cycle, the steroid
user starts with low doses and slowly increases
to higher doses. In the second half of the
cycle, they gradually decrease the amount
of steroids.
• Steroid users often combine several
different types of steroids at once hoping to
maximize their effectiveness while
minimizing negative effects (referred to as
“stacking” this is suppose to get users bigger
faster).

     9/12/2011                                                                      7
 CLAIMS AND SUPPOSED BENEFITS OF
                             ANABOLIC STEROIDS

      The supposed benefits and claims of anabolic steroids are very basic:

• Bodybuilders use illegal anabolic steroids to increase muscle size and strength,
increase energy levels during workouts, speed recovery time between
workouts, and increase the oxidation rise of fat (discouraging fat
buildup and fat-free weight gain)

• Athletes use the drugs because they are seeking
to improve how well they play sports; the
claim is that AS will help increase weight
and muscle size thus enhancing performance

• Others use the drugs because they are
seeking to improve how they look. These
non-athletes are taking AS to increase
their muscle size and/or reduce their body fat.



     9/12/2011                                                                       8
     ACTUAL EFFECTS AND PROVEN
     FACTS CONCERNING ANABOLIC
              STEROIDS
• One effect of anabolic steroids is that they can add body weight while the person is
using them. Research, though, has not answered how much of the weight increase
is represented by an actual increase in lean body mass and how much is related
to water retention.
• There is evidence that another effect of AS is that they help to induce
some muscle hypertrophy (an increase in the cross-sectional area of
muscle fibers); anabolic steroids seem to increase the
body’s ability to use protein to make muscle.
• There is some evidence that anabolic steroids
may enhance strength and endurance in athletes.
Anabolic steroids increase the level of anabolic
hormones, including testosterone and growth
hormone, in your blood thus improving recovery
time so that an athlete can train harder. Basically,
anabolic steroids provide the muscles with the
extra fuel they need to blast through plateaus and
move on to the next level of strength (and growth
from a bodybuilder’s perspective).


   9/12/2011                                                                             9
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC
          STEROID USE
• The known and suspected health risks of anabolic steroid use are not as
extreme as some writers would lead athletes and coaches to believe.
• Most data on the long-term effects of AS in humans come from case
reports rather than from formal epidemiological studies.
• The information that is known from medical
experience with AS indicates that as many
as one to three percent of patients using oral
AS for an average time of five years may
develop liver tumors. These tumors can
rupture and produce life-threatening
internal bleeding. Also, liver cancer is a
possibility with long-time AS abusers.




   9/12/2011                                                                10
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC
          STEROID USE
• Anabolic steroid use has been shown to consistently decrease HDL-
cholesterol (“good cholesterol) while increasing LDL-cholesterol (“bad”
cholesterol). This change in serum cholesterol fractions has been
identified as a significant risk factor for heart disease (high blood
pressure, blood clots, heart attacks, stroke).
• People who inject anabolic steroids run the
added risk of contracting or transmitting
HIV/AIDS or hepatitis (which also causes
serious damage to the liver), developing
local abscesses when injections are
administered by non-medically trained
individuals, developing illness from
contaminants (infections and fever) when
unreliable supplies are used.




   9/12/2011                                                              11
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC
          STEROID USE

 Anabolic steroids are derivatives of testosterone and,
 therefore, some of the side effects, although not life-
 threatening, include the reproductive system and lead
 to gender mix-ups.
 Shrinking of the testicles, reduced sperm count thus
 reduced fertility ability during use, and the
 development of breasts (known as
 Gynocomastia) are all clearly caused
 by AS in some men.




 9/12/2011                                                 12
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC
          STEROID USE

 Increased problems with acne, altered patterns of hair
 growth with increased body hair but decreased scalp
 hair in men predisposed to balding, and possible
 enlargement of the prostrate are other male gender-
 specific side effects.




 9/12/2011                                                13
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC
          STEROID USE

The primary known risk of women using anabolic
steroids, besides the risks that are known for men, is
masculinization (and, again a gender mix-up because
of the hormone imbalance).
Increased body hair (especially growth of
facial hair), deepening of the voice,
breast atrophy (a decrease in breast size),
and changes in or cessation of the
menstrual cycle are all female
gender-specific side effects of
anabolic steroid use.




 9/12/2011                                               14
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC
          STEROID USE

Teens who abuse steroids before the typical adolescent
growth spurt risk staying short and never reaching their
full adult height.

Increased aggressiveness is often claimed to occur with
anabolic steroid use. “Roid Rage” (as it
is commonly referred to) may be the
result of increased testosterone
levels in the blood and can cause extreme
fluctuations in emotions from euphoria
to rage.

These extreme mood swings include
manic-like symptoms leading to violence.



 9/12/2011                                                 15
       STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME
       ANABOLIC STEROID ABUSE

According to the NIDA, fewer than 9 percent of
secondary schools conduct some sort of drug testing
program, presumably focused on athletes, and less than 4
percent of the Nation’s high schools test their athletes for
anabolic steroids.

There are studies currently under way to
determine whether such testing reduces
drug abuse.




9/12/2011                                                      16
     STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME
     ANABOLIC STEROID ABUSE
Question 1: Should we test for anabolic steroids in our high school
athletes?
The Athletic Handbook states, “The use of illegal drugs will lead to
dismissal from your athletic team.”
Question 2: How will you know if your athletes are
“clean” without random testing?
NOTE: Researchers seem to agree that a
more balanced approach (presenting both
the risks and possible benefits of anabolic
steroid use) is more credible with
students and might be more effective in
convincing adolescents about steroids’
negative effects.
NOTE: “I believe that with young people
you have to have rules and boundaries and
if they knew they were going to be tested for
illicit drugs, including AS, I think this would
deter at least half of the reported teenage steroid
abusers in the Monitoring the Future Study.
9/12/2011                                                              17

				
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