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					Sociolinguistics

       &

     CMC
•That which does not kill
 us makes us stronger.
 Friedrich Nietzsche
• That which does not kill
  us, can still make the ends
  of our noses freeze and
  fall off.
• Randall Sadler, 2007
    What is Sociolinguistics?
• “An orientation to the study of language
  that stresses the inter-relationship
  between language and social life, rather
  than focusing narrowly on language
  structure.” (Swan et. Al)
• Focus on Communicative Competence
• Focus on variance
• Focus on Interaction
       Remember this guy?
• Vygotsky (1934) claimed that all human
  learning, including language learning, is
  attained through interaction with other
  people.
  • Zone of Proximal Development—learners will
    benefit most from social interaction when the
    tasks they are engaged in cannot be
    accomplished alone, but, instead, must be
    achieved collaboratively, preferably with the aid
    of more knowledgeable teammates
            Dell Hymes
• Language is a socially constructed
  phenomenon (Hymes, 1971)
• Communicative Competence
• “…there are rules of use without which
  the rules of grammar would be useless”
  (Hymes, 1971, p. 10).
         Ethnography of
   Speaking…Communication
• Hymes (1962)
• The ethnographic study of the ways of
  speaking evident in a speech
  community
• Language must be studied in context
• See Saville-Troike, “The Ethnography of
  Communication” EXCELLLLLLENT!
What is a speech community?

“…people who are in habitual contact
  with each other by means of
  language—either by a common
  language or by shared ways of
  interpreting linguistics behaviour where
  different languages are in use in an
  area.” (Swann et. al, 2004, p. 293)
But what is a speech community?

• New Yorkers? (see William Labov)
• Spanish speakers?
• Spanish speakers in Arizona (Tucson)
  and Arizona (Nogales)?
• A husband and wife?
• “Chinese” speakers?
               Or is it…..
•   WoW users?
•   Second Life Users?
•   Native Speakers of German in SL?
•   ESL student in SL?
•   Us….in SL?
             3 criteria—S-T
1. Any group within a society that has
   anything significant in common (religion,
   ethnicity, race, age, deafness, sexual
   orientation, etc.)
2. A physically bonded unit of people having a
   full range of role opportunities (a politically
   organized tribe or nation, but not a single-
   sex, single-age, or single-class unit…)
3. A collection of similarly situated entities that
   have something in common (such as the
   Western world, developing countries, etc)
  Communicative Competence—
      Have you got it?
• Hymes (1966) said that speakers who
  could produce any and all of the
  grammatical sentences of a language
  (per Chomsky’s 1965 definition of
  linguistic competence) would be
  institutionalized [thrown into a hospital
  for crazy people] if they tried to do so.
            So what is it?
• Communicative competence involves
  knowing not only the language code
  (the Chomskian stuff), but also what to
  say to whom and how to say it
  appropriately in any given situation. It
  deals with the social and cultural
  knowledge speakers are presumed to
  have to enable them to use and
  interpret linguistics forms.
            For example…
• Who may or may not speak in certain
  situations
• When to be silent and when to speak
• Whom one may speak to
• How one may talk to persons of different
  statuses and roles
• Appropriate nonverbal behaviors
• Routines for turn-taking
• How to ask for information and/or request
• How to give commands, etc.
           How to analyze with
             Sociolinguistics
3 Basic units of Analysis (Hymes 1972)
1. The communicative situation
2. The communicative event
3.   The communicative act
 The communicative situation
• The context within which communication
  occurs
  •   A   religious service
  •   A   court trial
  •   A   cocktail party
  •   A   class in school
  •   A   message board
  •   A   chat room
  •   A   Virtual World
   The communicative event
• The basic unit for descriptive purposes. A
  single event is defined by a unified set of
  components throughout, beginning with the
  same general purpose of communication, the
  same general topic, and involving the same
  participants, generally using the same
  language variety, maintaining the same tone
  or key and the same rules for interaction, in
  the same setting.
For example…an elementary school as a
   situation might have these events
•   Pledge to the flag
•   Roll call
•   Show and tell
•   Presentation of new information
•   Question and answer period
•   ….or a Scavenger Hunt in SL?
              Speech Act
• Roll call (event)
  • Calling of student names (a request)
  • Responses by the students (could be
    verbal or nonverbal)
  • Reading of instructions of the Scavenger
    Hunt
  • Asking the instructor a question about the
    hunt
  How the heck…

Does this connect with the
 Internet and/or CMC????
   Sociolinguistic studies on the
  Internet: Some possible topics
• Accommodation     • Code-switching
  (Giles)           • Coherence
• Acquisition       • Communicative
• Authenticity        Competence
• Avoidance         • CoP (Lave &
• Back channeling     Wenger, 1991)
  (mmh)             • Complaints
• Bilingualism      • Conflict
• Dialects          • Conversation
• Closing             Analysis
        More study ideas
• Diffusion     •   Floor
• Discourse     •   Foreigner Talk
  Community     •   Gender
• Divergence    •   Homosexuality
• Errors        •   Identity
• Ethnography   •   Interlanguage
• Evaluation    •   Interruptions
• Face          •   I give up!
• Feminism
•   http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/websoc/demography.html
    World Internet Usage- 2004
                                              Africa
                      Latin America            2%
                            6%

                                                       Asia
     North America                                     32%
          28%




            Middle East                                Oceania
               2%                                        2%

                                              Europe
                                               28%




http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
              Top Languages on the
                   Internet
                       12.70%
                                                             English
                  1.70%                                      Chinese
                2.90%                                        Japanese

              3.60%                                 35.90%   German
                                                             Spanish
             3.80%
                                                             French
             4.40%
                                                             Korean
                  6.70%                                      Italian
                                                             Portuguese
                       6.80%
                                               13.20%        Dutch
                                8.30%
                                                             Others




http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats2.htm
  Percentage of U.S. population
             online
• Murray (2000) mentions:
• 33%

• Internet World Stats (2004)
• 69%
     Internet Users by % of
population making use of it. 1999
          versus 2004
1.   United States (43%)   1.    Sweden (74%)
2.   UK (27%)              2.    US (69%)
3.   Canada (25%)          3.    Netherlands (66.5%)
4.   Australia (25%)       4.    Australia (65.9%)
5.   Korea (22.4%)         5.    Canada (64.2%
6.   Italy (15%)           6.    S Korea (62.4%)
7.   Hong Kong (14%)       7.    UK (58.5%)
8.   Malaysia (7%)         8.    Germany (57.1)
9.   China (4%)            9.    Japan (52.1%)
Murray (2000)              http://www.internetworldstats.com/top20.htm
2004 % versus “real” numbers
1. Sweden (74%)        1.   US 202 million
2. US (69%)            2.   China 87
3. Netherlands         3.   Japan 67
   (66.5%)             4.   Germany 47
4. Australia (65.9%)   5.   UK 35
5. Canada (64.2%       6.   S Korea 31
6. S Korea (62.4%)     7.   Italy 27
7. UK (58.5%)          8.   France 23
8. Germany (57.1)      9.   Canada 20
9. Japan (52.1%)
    The Internet and Gender :
             U.S.
1998                                 • 2004
• Men: 64%                           • Men: 73.1%
• Women 35%                          • Women 69%




http://www.nua.ie/surveys/analysis   http://ccp.ucla.edu/downloads/UCLA_W
     /graphs_charts/1998graphs/ge         orld_Internet_Project.doc
     nder.html
                                               Males and Females using the
                                                        Internet
                                   (World Internet Project:                                                            Male     Female
                                                                                                       http://ccp.ucla.edu/downloads/UCLA_World_Internet_Project.doc
                         80%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 73.1%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         69.0%
                                                                                                               67.8%                                                             67.7%
                               63.6%                                                                                                                                                     64.4%


                         60%
                                       55.0%                                                   54.7%                    53.8%
Percent of Respondents




                                               50.4%
                                                                                                                                                 47.2%           46.4%
                                                                                                       46.2%
                                                       41.7%                   41.7%
                                                                                                                                37.8%
                         40%
                                                                                                                                                         34.0%

                                                                                                                                         28.8%
                                                                                                                                                                         27.2%
                                                                                                                                                                                                 25.1%
                                                                                                                                                                                                         23.5%
                                                                                       21.5%
                                                               20.3%
                         20%                                           15.1%




                         0%
                                Britain        Germany         Hungary            Italy          Japan           Korea           Macao           Singapore         Spain         Sweden           Taiwan           USA
                                         Internet Use and Age                                                                                                   (WIP)
                                                                                                       16-24          35-44      55-64




                         100%                                                                                                                95.1%
                                                                                                                                                                                         90.8%

                                80.1%                                                                                   80.6%
                         80%                                                                                                                                                                     74.5%
                                        72.8%
Percent of Respondents




                                                                                                                                                                     70.2%
                                                                                               66.4%                                                                                                   67.3%
                                                                                                                                 63.0%
                                                        59.6%
                         60%                                    55.6%
                                                                                                                                                     49.5%
                                                                            45.1%
                                                38.7%                                                  37.4%
                         40%
                                                                    31.6%                                                                                                    31.7%

                                                                                                                                     22.2%
                         20%
                                                                                    13.7%                                                                    11.5%               11.7%
                                                                                                               9.0%
                                                                                        4.3%

                          0%
                                    Britain                Germany             Hungary                 Italy                    Japan                Korea                   Spain               USA
                                        Internet Usage and Education
                                                    (WIP)
                                                                                High School or Vocational School Degree                   University Degree or Higher

                         100%
                                                                                                                                                        92.2%
                                        88.1%                                                                                                                                                                           87.1%
                                                                                                                                                                                        83.8%
                                                                                                                                                                        80.5%
                                                                                        77.3%                           77.7%           76.7%                                   76.4%
                         80%
                                                                                                        70.1%
Percent of Respondents




                                                66.0%                                                                                           66.3%
                                64.4%
                                                        62.6%                                                                                                                                                   61.0%
                         60%                                                                                                                                                                            54.9%
                                                                                53.5%
                                                                                                                                49.5%
                                                                                                                                                                47.6%
                                                                        45.5%                   45.7%           44.9%


                         40%




                                                                                                                                                                                                18.2%
                         20%                                    14.6%




                          0%
                                 Britain        Germany         Hungary            Italy          Japan           Korea          Macao          Singapore         Spain         Sweden           Taiwan           USA
What else could
you study?????

				
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