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					HOLIDAY INN ENERGY AUDIT
Fiji Electricity Authority




Subhash Morris
Demand Side Management Engineer
    Overview

      Background
      Consumption Patterns
      Load Survey
      Recommendations
      Way Forward




2                    Holiday Inn Energy Audit
    Background

     An energy audit was carried out at the Holiday Inn hotel
     in Suva in 2008 by FEA
     The audit involved an analysis of energy usage by area,
     and also by equipment type
     Energy audit basically answers 4 questions about energy
     usage:
        How much is being used?
        What is the cost?
        What uses it?
        How can it be reduced?

3                       Holiday Inn Energy Audit
    Methodology

     Data Acquisition – Historical energy consumption, building
     history and information, etc
     Inspection and Survey - Inspection of equipment and
     installed loads, identification of Energy Management
     Opportunities (EMOs)

     Power and Energy Measurements – Utilising Power Analysers
     and Polyphase data loggers to obtain electrical load profiles
     and consumption data

     Analysis - data analysis, recommendation for short term and
     long energy savings based on EMOs and new technologies
     Presentation
4                     Holiday Inn Energy Audit
      Annual Consumption

    $350,000
                                                                                         1700000          Consumption History, 2005 till Date
                        Billing History 2005 till Date

                                                                                         1650000
    $340,000


                                                                                         1600000
    $330,000




                                                                                  kWh
    $320,000                                                                             1550000



    $310,000                                                                             1500000



    $300,000                                                                             1450000



    $290,000                                                                             1400000
               2005         2006                2007            2008 (Esimated)                    2005             2006             2007       2008 (Esimated)




                                       Energy           Max MD        Ave MD            Bill (VEP)
                                                                                                                     Estimated Annual
          12 month [Jun'08-Jul'07]    1622854             365            309            $336,122                     2008 –
                             2007     1580260             335            294            $325,593
                             2006     1527958             337            293            $316,943
                                                                                                                             Bill: $354,683
                             2005     1603200             351            308            $312,534                             Cons: 1.66GWh



5                                                      Holiday Inn Energy Audit
                           Tariff Evaluation

                                       Comaparison of Billing amounts for MD and Commercial rates

                           $40,000




                           $35,000
    Billing amount (VEP)




                           $30,000




                           $25,000

                                                                           Current Bill with MD rate

                           $20,000
                                                                           Bill with commercial rate

                           $15,000
                                     Jul-07   Aug-07   Sep-07   Oct-07   Nov-07 Dec-07   Jan-08   Feb-08   Mar-08   Apr-08   May-08   Jun-08


                              Holiday Inn would have been paying $3k to $4k extra per month with
                              the commercial tariff
6                                                               Holiday Inn Energy Audit
                               Monthly Pattern - Energy

                                                Holiday Inn monthly energy consumption Pattern

                               180000


                               160000


                               140000
    Energy Consumption (kWh)




                               120000


                               100000


                                80000
                                                2008       2007         2006
                                60000


                                40000


                                20000


                                   0
                                        Jan   Feb   Mar    Apr    May     Jun    Jul   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec



7                                                         Holiday Inn Energy Audit
8
                                           1000
                                                  2000
                                                                     3000
                                                                            4000
                                                                                   5000
                                                                                          6000




                                       0
                           1/01/2004
                           1/03/2004
                           1/05/2004
                           1/07/2004
                           1/09/2004
                           1/11/2004
                           1/01/2005
                           1/03/2005
                           1/05/2005
                           1/07/2005
                           1/09/2005
                           1/11/2005
                           1/01/2006
                           1/03/2006
                           1/05/2006
                           1/07/2006
                           1/09/2006
                           1/11/2006
                           1/01/2007
                           1/03/2007
                           1/05/2007
                           1/07/2007
                           1/09/2007
                           1/11/2007
                                                                                                 Ave Usage




Holiday Inn Energy Audit
                           1/01/2008
                           1/03/2008
                           1/05/2008
                           1/07/2008
                           1/09/2008
                           1/11/2008
                           1/01/2009
                           1/03/2009
                           1/05/2009
                           1/07/2009
                           1/09/2009
                           1/11/2009
                           1/01/2010
                           1/03/2010
                           1/05/2010
                           1/07/2010
                                                                                                             Monthly Pattern – Average Energy Use 04 - 2010




                                                         Ave Usage
9
                                                100
                                                      150
                                                            200
                                                                    250
                                                                          300
                                                                                350
                                                                                      400
                                                                                            450
                                                                                                  500




                                           50

                                       0
                           1/01/2004
                           1/04/2004
                           1/07/2004
                           1/10/2004
                           1/01/2005
                           1/04/2005
                           1/07/2005
                           1/10/2005
                           1/01/2006
                           1/04/2006
                           1/07/2006
                           1/10/2006
                           1/01/2007
                           1/04/2007
                           1/07/2007
                           1/10/2007
                                                                                                        MD KW




                           1/01/2008




Holiday Inn Energy Audit
                           1/04/2008
                           1/07/2008
                           1/10/2008
                           1/01/2009
                           1/04/2009
                           1/07/2009
                           1/10/2009
                           1/01/2010
                           1/04/2010
                           1/07/2010
                                                                                                                Monthly Pattern – Maximum Demand 04 - 2010




                                                            MD KW
                    Monthly Pattern – Averaged Per Day

                                   Holiday Inn Monthly Energy consumption averaged per day

                   6000


                   5000


                   4000
     kWh per day




                   3000

                                         2008     2007         2006
                   2000


                   1000


                     0
                           Jan     Feb    Mar   Apr      May   Jun    Jul   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec

                          More accurate depiction of trends – high during summer and low during winter
                          months
10                                              Holiday Inn Energy Audit
                                          Monthly Pattern – Energy and Occupancy

                                                          Comparison of Occupancy rates and average Energy Consumption per Month for 2007

                                                   5000                                                                                     100
     Monthly Energy Consumption averaged per day




                                                   4500                                                                                     90




                                                                                                                                                  Percentage Occupancy
                                                   4000                                                                                     80
                        kWh




                                                   3500                                                                                     70


                                                   3000                                                                                     60
                                                                                    Energy/Day            Occupancy
                                                   2500                                                                                     50


                                                   2000                                                                                     40
                                                           JAN   FEB    MAR   APR    MAY    JUN    JUL    AUG   SEP   OCT   NOV    DEC



                                                     Energy and Occupancy are displaying opposite trends

11                                                                             Holiday Inn Energy Audit
         Monthly Pattern – Energy and Temperature

     Comparison of Max/Min temperatures in Suva to Monthly energy consumption of Holiday Inn from
                                      June 2007 to June 2008




                Energy Consumption
                Trend




             The trends for temperature and energy are similar

12                                   Holiday Inn Energy Audit
                    Load Survey - Load Profile

                                                                                   Daily Load Profiles of Holiday Inn, 14 April to 18 April
                   350.000


                   300.000


                   250.000
     Demand (kW)




                   200.000


                   150.000
                                                                                                                                                                                  Monday, 14 April
                                                                                                                                                                                  Tuesday, 15 April
                   100.000
                                                                                                                                                                                  Wednesday, 16 April
                                                                                                                                                                                  Thursday, 17 April
                    50.000
                                                                                                                                                                                  Friday, 18 April

                     0.000
                                           1:30:00 AM

                                                        2:30:00 AM

                                                                     3:30:00 AM

                                                                                  4:30:00 AM

                                                                                               5:30:00 AM

                                                                                                            6:30:00 AM

                                                                                                                          7:30:00 AM

                                                                                                                                       8:30:00 AM

                                                                                                                                                    9:30:00 AM




                                                                                                                                                                                                           1:30:00 PM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2:30:00 PM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     3:30:00 PM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4:30:00 PM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               5:30:00 PM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6:30:00 PM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         7:30:00 PM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8:30:00 PM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   9:30:00 PM
                             12:30:00 AM




                                                                                                                                                                 10:30:00 AM

                                                                                                                                                                               11:30:00 AM

                                                                                                                                                                                             12:30:00 PM




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10:30:00 PM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11:30:00 PM
                             Load profile indicating a base load of approx 125kW

13                                                                                                                       Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Load Survey – Distribution by Area


     Load by Area           Demand (kW)                Power Distribution at Main DB by Area
     Central Building           22 kW
     North Wing                 12 kW
     Chiller Compressors        98 kW
     Kitchen                    9.8 kW
     South Wing               16.8 kW     North Wing
     Chiller Control Room     22.5 kW         7%
                                                                                          Chiller Compressors
     Other                      3.9 kW                                                             53%
     Total Measured            185 kW
                                                 Central Building
                                                      12%




           This chart represents                                Chiller CP

           the instantaneous load
                                                                  12%        South Wing
                                             Other
                                              2%                                9%

           distribution at the                                                                          Kitchen
                                                                                                          5%
           main DB




14                              Holiday Inn Energy Audit
                       Load Survey – Power Balance
                                          Typical Daily Power balance of Holiday Inn
                   250.0




                   200.0
     Demand (kW)




                   150.0
                                                                                        Misc
                                                                                        Kitchen
                                                                                        Floodlights
                   100.0
                                                                                        Lighting
                                                                                        Pumps/AHU
                                                                                        Compressors
                    50.0




                     0.0




                           Air conditioning and lighting loads dominate. They make up approx
                           85% of the hotel’s energy consumption
15                                            Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Load Survey – Distribution by equipment

          Using the power balance, the contribution of each equipment
          type to the total consumption was determined, as shown below
          As Air Con and Lighting use up approx 85% of total energy, the
          focus will be on these categories

     Load Type        Installed Capacity (kW)    kWhs/Day      Percentage   Annual kWh
      Compressors                        305        2,342.4       52.51%       854,976
      Pumps/AHUs                        21.4         436.7         9.79%       159,383
      Lighting                          73.3         869.7        19.50%       317,442
      Flooglights                       7.74         100.6         2.26%        36,726
      Kitchen                           15.1         213.9         4.80%        78,070
      Miscellaneous                     30.6         497.3        11.15%       181,522

      Total                           455.24        4,460.6         100%      1,628,120




16                                  Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Air Conditioning - Circuit

       Central chilling plant with air-                   REFRIGERANT LOOP - CHILLER
                                                                                                                    CONDENSOR                     Condensor Fans-
                                                                                                                                                 Axial with aluminium


       cooled condensor. Rooms contain
                                                                                                                                                   fins (Total of 12)




       Fan coil Units and open areas




                                                         COMPRESSORS (showing
                                                         only 1 cct. Both ccts have 8
                                                            compressors in total)
                                                                                                                                                          ELECTRONIC

       serviced by Air handlers with VAV                                                                     36kW
                                                                                                                                                          EXPANSION
                                                                                                                                                             VALVE



       ducts (manual dampers)                                                                                                      Refrigerant



       Cooling capacity of 779kW, or
                                                                                                                                          8ºC



                                                                                                            EVAPORATOR                     12ºC

       221tons of refrigeration                                                                         Flow: 38.5l/s, Pressure
                                                                                                             drop: 49kPa
                                                                                                                              Chilled
                                                                                                                                                                    CHILLED

       Total input capacity of 305kW
                                                                                                                              Water                   5kW           WATER
                                                                                                                                                                     PUMP

                                                                                                                                                  FAN
                                                                                                                                                  COIL
                                                                                                                                                  UNIT


                                                                                                                                                  FAN
      Equipment            Installed Capacity (kW)                                                                                                COIL
                                                                                                                                                  UNIT
      Compressors                                305
      Chilled Water pump                          4.5                                                                                              FAN
                                                                                                                                                   COIL
      Fan Coils                                   3.3                                                                                              UNIT

      AHUs                                        7.2
                                                                                                                                                    AIR
      Condensor Fans                              21                                                                                             HANDLING
                                                                                                                                                   UNIT
      Total                                    341.0
                                                                                        CHILLED WATER LOOP




17                            Holiday Inn Energy Audit
              Air Conditioning – Chiller Load Profile

                   Figure below shows a 2-day load profile of Compressor circuit 1
     Demand (kW)




18                                 Holiday Inn Energy Audit
       Lighting

             Lighting accounts for 20% of total load. Breakdown below
             shows various types and their installed capacities
             Lighting load is dominated by the Halogen Dichroics

                                              Distribution by lighting type
                      Floodlights - Mercury Vapour

       Fluorescents in foyer/kitchen/function rooms

            Halogen Dichroics in foyer, rest, lounge

     Circular Fluorescent for Room passages - 40W

         Circular Fluorescent tubes in rooms - 32W

       Halogen Dichroic in rooms (MR16 & GU10) -
                           50W

                                                       0.0   10.0        20.0         30.0      40.0   50.0
                                                                      Installed Capacity (kW)




19                                              Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Other Loads

             Total installed capacity of 45.7kW
             Very little scope for energy savings therefore not the area of
             focus.
             Varying operation hours


     Equipment Type          Installed Capacity (kW)
     Television sets                            8.9
     Bar Fridges                               11.8
     Cool Room                                  5.0
     PCs                                        1.0
     Kitchen Equipment                         15.1
     Other                                        4
     Total                                     45.7




20                            Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Recommendations

      Breakdown:
         Theory/Rationale
         Savings in kWh and monetary value
         Cost of implementation
         Reduction of CO2-e emissions (greenhouse gases)
      Identified annual savings of $48,800 (14%) recommended




21                   Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     CFL Retrofit for Room Halogen Dichroics

       Currently the rooms contain 50W Halogen Dichroics in
       GU10 and MR16 fittings
       Direct replacement by Compact Fluorescent Dichroics
       from 50W to 11W per unit (savings of 39W pu or 29kW for
       the entire 750 units
       Each retrofit (GU10 and MR16) is being looked at
       separately




22                    Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     CFL Retrofit For Room Halogen Dichroics

       Cost benefit evaluation for replacing the GU10 range
         Annual Savings in kWh 5,552kWh
         Savings                    $2,390
         CO2-e reduction            3.64 tonnes
         Installation Cost          $3,900
         Simple Payback             1.6 years


       Cost benefit evaluation for replacing the MR16 range
         Annual    Savings     in 13,950kWh
         kWh
         Savings                   $5,161
         CO2-e reduction           9.15 tonnes
         Installation Cost         $9,800
         Simple Payback            1.9 years


23                           Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Electronic Key Card Switch for Fan Coil Valves

         This measure is proposed to reduce air conditioning load during
         unoccupied hours (in the day) by controlling the chilled water
         valve
         Installation of occupancy key card switch to detect presence of
         guest. When activated, it will allow air conditioning to cool the
         room. When deactivated, it will stop the cooling function
                                                                              Chilled        3-way chilled
                                                                              Water           water valve
                      Chilled Water
                                                       Fan Coil heat          Return                         Fan Coil heat
                         Return
                                                        Exchanger                                             Exchanger

      3-way chilled                                                    Chilled Water Flows
       water valve                                                       through bypass


                       Chilled Water                                          Chilled
                          Supply                                              Water
                                        (a) Chilled                           Supply           (b) Chilled
                                       water valve                                            water valve
                                        open, with                                            closed, with
                                      bypass closed.                                         bypass open.


24                                            Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Electronic Key Card Switch for Fan Coil Valves

       Cost benefit evaluation for installation of key card switch


       Annual Savings in kWh 49,161kWh
       Savings                 $9,267
       CO2-e reduction         32.25 tonnes
       Installation Cost       $52,000
       Simple Payback          5.6 years




25                         Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     PIR Sensors for Corridor Lighting

       At the moment, hallway lighting along room corridors is
       uncontrolled and is operational 24 hours a day
       This proposal looks at installation of motion sensors suspended
       along the corridor ceilings to control the lighting in batches
       The respond to changes in infra-red heat radiation in their
       monitoring plane
       4 sensors per corridor with a total of 20 sensors to be installed

       Annual Savings in kWh        6,307kWh

       Savings                      $1,189
       CO2-e reduction              4.14 tonnes
       Installation Cost            $4,800
       Simple Payback               4 years
26                         Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Compressor Duty Cycle Control for Cool Rooms

       New Innovation named ‘Chilled Unit Energy
       Saver’ or CUES, which utilises food mimicking
       temperature sensor to achieve reduction in
       compressor energy usage for refrigeration
       The temperature of the air around food
       fluctuates faster than actual food temperature
       This unit replaces the air temperature sensor
       and connects to thermostat of refrigeration
       unit

              ( 50% Duty Cycle                        (b) 40% Duty Cycle




27                               Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Compressor Duty Cycle Control for Cool Rooms

       Cost benefit evaluation for implementation


      Annual Savings in kWh          3,679kWh

      Savings                        $693.53
      CO2-e reduction                2.41 tonnes
      Installation Cost              $600
      Simple Payback                 0.9 years




28                            Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Temperature Limiting and night setback thermostats for Fan
     Coils

       Existing thermostats have a large range of temperature settings (from
       5°C and above)
       High probability of energy wastage through unnecessary cooling due
       to very low setpoints
       Acceptable temperature range for optimal thermal comfort of humans
       is 20°C to 26°C

                                                    Installation of digital
                                                    temperature limiting
                                                    thermostats have
                                                    advantages
                                                    Other benefits such as night
                                                    setback


29                       Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Temperature Limiting and night setback thermostats for Fan
     Coils

        Approximate energy reduction through increase in daytime
        average temperature setting of 0.5°C and increase by 1°C
        during night time.
        Cost benefit evaluation for implementation

     Annual Savings in kWh       50,546 kWh
     Savings                     $9,528
     CO2-e reduction             33.16tonnes
     Installation Cost           $66,950
     Simple Payback              7 years




30                           Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Intelligent Motor Controller for Chilled Water Pump

       The Chilled Water pump is operational 24 hours consuming one
       average 5kW constantly. The controller (powerboss) will
       enable the consumption to drop during low loads

              Variable Pump Load due to closing of Valves

                      This is the pump
                      characteristic curve
                                                       System Curve changes due
                                                       to change in Friction Head




                                                       New
                                                       Operating
                                                       Point




31                        Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Intelligent Motor Controller for Chilled Water Pump

        Cost benefit evaluation for installation of the intelligent
        motor controller


     Annual Savings in kWh       3,942kWh
     Savings                     $743
     CO2-e reduction             2.59 tonnes
     Installation Cost           $4,975
     Simple Payback              6.7 years




32                           Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Building Management System
       Benefits include:
          Centralised control over the air conditioning and/or lighting
          Real time status monitoring for the chiller, indoor units for air
          conditioning (temperature, consumption, on/off, faults, valve positions,
          etc)
          Maintenance becomes easier (faults are prompted on display)
          Tracking energy and power usage

       Components will include
          Operator Interface comprising of workstation
          Communications network (BACnet is recommended)
          Controllers with inputs and outputs, including global controllers or DDCs
          and field controllers
          Gateways for interfacing special equipment, such as generator and chiller
          Sensors, such as temperature sensors for rooms, transducers at
          distribution board for measuring electrical consumption
33                         Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Building Management System

       Proposed System Architecture




34                   Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Building Management System

        Cost benefit evaluation of the Building Management
        System
     Annual Savings in kWh     101,436kWh
     Savings                   $19,121
     CO2-e reduction           66.54 tonnes
     Installation Cost         $150,000
     Simple Payback            7.8 years




35                           Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Other Recommendations Include

       Implementing Monitor power management for desktop
       PCs and turning television sets off instead of placing
       them on standby. Both measures result in annual savings
       of approximately $700 annually with no implementation
       cost




36                    Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Summary
          Recommendation                                           Energy Savings   Savings           Cost ($)   Payback
                                                                   (kWh)            Value ($)                    (years)


     1    CFL Retrofit in Room Vanity (GU10)                       5,552                 $2,390        $3,900    1.6

     2    CFL Retrofit for Room Halogen Dichroics (MR16)           13,950                $5,161        $9,800    1.9


     3    Temperature limiting and night setback thermostats for   50,546                $9,528       $66,950    7
          Fan Coils


     4    Electronic Key Card switch for Fan Coil Valves           49,161                $9,267       $52,000    5.6


     5    Passive Infra-red sensors for Corridor Lighting          6,307                 $1,189        $4,800    4

     6    Compressor Duty Cycle control for Cool Rooms             3,679                      $694       $600    0.9


     7    Intelligent Motor Controller for Chilled Water Pump      3,942                       743     $4,975    6.7


     8    Building Management System                               101,436              $19,121      $150,000    7.8

     9    Monitor Power Management for PCs                         378                   $71.25            nil   Instant

     10   TV Standby Policy                                        3,416                      $644         nil   Instant

          Total                                                    238,367              $48,808      $293,025    6




37                                           Holiday Inn Energy Audit
     Way Forward for Holiday Inn

       Further detailed study of energy audit report

       Selection of recommendations to be implemented

       Implement the no cost measures with in-house staff

       Selection of recommendations which will be contracted out
       (FEA can assist in the implementation as a consultant)

       Develop an energy policy with targets for energy reduction




38                     Holiday Inn Energy Audit
Thank You

				
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