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I Federation Internationale des Bourses de Valeurs

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 21

									                                            Doc. Eurostat/D2/SBS/IPS/DEC00/EN
                                                                     18-Dec-00




   STRUCTURAL INDICATORS

Definitions - Data sources - Data availability




                                                                  
This technical document drawn up by Eurostat aims to provide more information on the Structural Indicators. This information
comprises the exact names of the indicators, their definitions, data sources, data availability as well as details of recent publications
and contacts. It accompanies the " Commission Communication on Structural Indicators" as a self-standing technical document.

This document also includes information about indicators coming from sources others than Eurostat. The information on those
indicators was compiled on the basis of input from the various data providers concerned.


For further information please contact Eurostat Unit D-2


Head of Division: Bernard Langevin
                  Tel. xx352/4301-33203
                  Fax: xx352/4301-32600
                   Bernard.Langevin@ec.europa.eu

Head of Section: August Götzfried
                 Tel. xx352/4301- 34432
                   August.Goetzfried@ec.europa.eu

                   Aurora Ortega Sánchez
                   Tel. xx352/4301- 32032
                   Aurora.Ortega-Sanchez@ec.europa.eu




                                                                                                                                  
                                                                   2
General Economic Background Indicators

Indicator               Definition                                            Source                             Availability                                           Contact
a1. GDP per capita in   GDP per capita in Purchasing Power                    Eurostat;            National      NewCronos:                                             Eurostat Unit B2
PPS                     Standard (PPS)                                        Accounts                           theme2/na_aggr/annual/best_of/y_bo_/y_                 Roberto Barcellan
                                                                                                                 bo_h_t                                                 Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                        GDP levels expressed in PPS divided by total          Legal      Base:      Council
                        population. This indicator is expressed in relation   Regulation (EC) No 2223/96 of
                                                                                                                                                                        eu
                                                                                                                 Coverage: all MS and Japan. Comparable data not
                        to EU 15 = 100.                                       25 June 1996 on the
                                                                                                                 available for the US.
                        Purchasing Power Standards are indicators of the      European system of national
                                                                                                                 Time series: 1991-1999. The backward calculation
                                                                                                                                                                        PPS: Eurostat Unit B3
                        average price ratios between different countries.     and regional accounts in the                                                              Matti Sikstrom
                                                                                                                 of German data (Western part only) referring to the
                        Use of them makes it possible to compare the          Community (ESA 95) (OJ No L
                                                                                                                 years before 1990 will be ready in 2002. After this    Matti.Sikstrom@ec.europa.eu
                        volumes of, for example, GDP per capita, of           310, 30.11.96)
                                                                                                                 backward calculation, a complete set of data will be
                        different countries. Use of ordinary exchange rates
                                                                                                                 available from 1980. However, it will be a break in
                        does not allow a real comparison because they         For the time being there is no
                                                                                                                 time series in 1991 because of German reunification.
                        quite often reflect other elements than price level   legal    instrument     covering
                                                                                                                 Update: As soon as Member States send new data
                        differences alone.                                    directly production of PPPs.
                                                                                                                 Recent publications:
                                                                                                                     Statistics in focus theme 2
                                                                                                                     Main aggregates of National Accounts
                                                                                                                     Accounts of the Union/The economic portrait of
                                                                                                                 the Union
                                                                                                                     Purchasing Power Parities and related
                                                                                                                 economic indicators, Results for 1997 (published
                                                                                                                 annually).


a2. Real GDP growth     Growth rate of GDP at constant prices                 Eurostat;            National      NewCronos:                                             Eurostat Unit B2
rate                    (base year 1995)                                      Accounts                           theme2/na_aggr/annual/best_of/y_con_/y                 Roberto Barcellan
                                                                                                                 _bo_k_t                                                Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                        GDP at constant prices is used to measure the         Legal      Base:      Council
                                                                                                                                                                        eu
                        volume growth of GDP. Changes in the price level      Regulation (EC) No 2223/96 of
                                                                                                                 Coverage: all MS, US and Japan.
                        (inflation) are eliminated.                           25 June 1996 on the
                                                                                                                 Time series: 1991-2000. (See above, indicator a1)
                                                                              European system of national
                                                                                                                 Update: As soon as Member States send new data
                                                                              and regional accounts in the
                                                                              Community (ESA 95) (OJ No L
                                                                                                                 Recent publications:
                                                                              310, 30.11.96)
                                                                                                                     Statistics in focus theme 2
                                                                                                                     Main aggregates of National Accounts
                                                                                                                     Accounts of the Union/The economic portrait of
                                                                                                                 the Union




                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                       3
b. Energy intensity of   (Gross    inland            consumption            of    Eurostat;            Energy      NewCronos: Gross inland consumption of                Eurostat Unit F4
the economy              energy)/GDP                                              Statistics                       energy can be found in                                Nikolaos Roubanis
                                                                                                                   theme8/sirene/s-quant/sir10/sir100/                   Nikolaos.Roubanis@ec.europa
                         This indicator allows the evaluation of the energy       There is no legal base for the
                                                                                                                                                                         .eu
                         consumption of an economy and its overall energy         collection of this indicator.
                         efficiency.                                                                               Coverage: all MS, US. (US data can also be
                         It is measured normally in kgoe (kilogram of oil                                          obtained form International Energy Agency)
                                                                                                                   Time series: 1985-1998.                               GDP: Eurostat Unit B2
                         equivalent)/National currency, but it can be
                         converted into kgoe/EUR using the exchange rates                                          Update: Annually in May/June                          Roberto Barcellan
                         for EUR.                                                                                                                                        Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                                                                                                                   Recent publications:
                         The base year for GDP at constant prices is 1990.                                                                                               eu
                                                                                                                      Energy: Yearly Statistics 1998

c1.          Labour      GDP per person employed                                  Eurostat;          National      NewCronos;                                            Eurostat Unit B2
productivity    per                                                               Accounts                         theme2/na_aggr/annual/best_of/y_bo_em                 Roberto Barcellan
                         Gross domestic product expressed in PPS is used.
person employed          For more information about GDP, see indicators
                                                                                                                   p/y_95_e_n                                            Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                                                                                  Legal       base:     Council
                         a1 and a2.                                               Regulation (EC) No 2223/96 of
                                                                                                                                                                         eu
                                                                                                                   Coverage: all MS, US, Japan.
                                                                                  25 June 1996 on the              Time series: 1991-1999 EU aggregates for 1995-
                         Persons employed cover employees and self                European system of national
                         employed. Employees include persons engaged                                               1999. (See above, indicator a1).
                                                                                  and regional accounts in the     Update: As soon as Member States send new data
                         by an employer under a contract of employment,           Community (ESA 95) (OJ No L
                         civil servants, armed forces, owners of                  310, 30. 11. 96)
                         corporations and quasi-corporations if they work in                                       Recent publications:
                         these enterprises (see ESA 11.12). Persons                                                    Statistics in focus theme 2
                         temporarily not at work because of illness, injury,                                           Main aggregates of National Accounts
                         holiday or vacation, strike or training leave are also                                        Accounts of the Union/The economic portrait of
                         considered as employed. The definitions used are                                          the Union
                         consistent with ILO definitions.




                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                         4
c2.            Labour   GDP in PPPs per hour worked relative                   OECD Statistics:                 OECD ADB (GDP); NewCronos (PPP);                       OECD, Economics department
productivity per hour   to the United States (US=100)                                                           OECD ELFA (hours worked)                               webmaster@oecd.org
                                                                               Estimates       on      labour
worked                                                                                                          Coverage: all MS (except Luxembourg), US and
                        PPPs: the method used for its calculation is also      productivity are based on
                                                                               OECD National        Accounts    Japan.                                                 Eurostat Unit B1
                        the method officially accepted by Eurostat.                                             Time series: 1973, 1987, 1992 and 1998.
                        Hours worked: estimates come mainly from two           data, Labour Force Statistics                                                           Joachim Recktenwald
                                                                               estimates of hours worked and    Update: multi-yearly
                        national (LFS) or European (Eurostat LFS)                                                                                                      Joachim.Recktenwald@ec.europa
                        sources. Because of using national methodologies,      the 1993 Purchasing Power                                                               .eu
                                                                               Parities PPPs.                   Recent publications:
                        there may be problems of comparability.                                                     "EMU: One year On"
                        Harmonised Eurostat data on actual hours worked                                             “Economic growth in the OECD area: recent
                        will be available from 2003 onwards.                                                    trends at the aggregate and sectoral level "
d. Inflation rate       Annual   percentage   change     in                    Eurostat; Price statistics       NewCronos: theme 2/price/hicp/hmind                    Eurostat Unit B3
                        Harmonized Index of Consumer Price                                                                                                             Carsten Olsson
                                                                               Legal base: requirement in       Coverage: all MS, EU aggregates. US data are not
                        (HICP)                                                                                                                                         Carsten.Olsson@ec.europa.eu
                                                                               Article 1 of the Protocol on     strictly comparable.
                                                                               convergence criteria referred    Time series: monthly, from 1995 onwards
                        HICPs are designed for international comparisons
                                                                               to Article 109j of the Treaty    Update: monthly, 17th or 19th day of the month after
                        of consumer price inflation.
                                                                               establishing the European        the reported month (with the exception of
                        HICPs are used by, among others, the European
                                                                               Community; based on this         December and January).
                        Central Bank (ECB) for monitoring of inflation in
                                                                               requirement:        framework
                        the Economic and Monetary Union and the
                                                                               Council Regulation (EC) No       Recent publication:
                        assessment of inflation convergence.
                                                                               2494/95, and currently nine         Monthly Statistics In Focus (theme 2)
                                                                               implementing regulations

e. Real Unit labour     Real compensation of employees per                     Eurostat;          National      NewCronos:                                             Eurostat Unit B2
cost growth             employee divided by labour productivity                Accounts                         theme2/na_aggr/annual/best_of/y_bo_cur                 Roberto Barcellan
                        (growth)                                                                                /y_bo_c_t                                              Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                        (i.e. deflated compensation of employees per           Legal       base:     Council
                                                                                                                                                                       eu
                        employee divided by GDP at constant prices per         Regulation (EC) No 2223/96 of
                                                                               25 June 1996 on the              Coverage: all MS,
                        employed person)                                                                        Time series: 1995-1999
                                                                               European system of national
                                                                               and regional accounts in the     Update: As soon as Member States send new data
                        This indicator compares remuneration and
                        productivity to show how and to what degree the        Community (ESA 95) (OJ No L
                                                                               310, 30. 11. 96)                 Recent publications:
                        remuneration of employees is related to the                                                 Statistics in focus theme 2
                        productivity of their labour. It is the relationship
                                                                                                                    Main aggregates of National Accounts
                        between how much each worker is paid and the
                                                                                                                    Production and productivity in the EU
                        amount the worker produces.
                                                                                                                    Accounts of the Union/The economic portrait of
                                                                                                                the Union




                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                      5
f. Public balance    General government net balance as                   Eurostat;          Financial    NewCronos:                                    Eurostat Unit B4
                     percentage of GDP                                   Statistics                      theme2/mny/gen_govt/gengovt/gengov95          Hubertus Vreeswijk
                                                                                                                                                       Hubertus.Vreeswijk@ec.europa.e
                     Net borrowing / lending of central government,      The legal basis is the Treaty   Coverage: all MS                              u
                     local government, and social security sub-sectors   on European Union, Protocol     Time series: 1992-1999
                     as percentage of GDP, in conformity with ESA 95.    on the Excessive Deficit        Update: 1st March and 1st September
                                                                         Procedure, and Council                                                        GDP: Eurostat B2
                     Data are presented as a percentage of GDP. See
                     indicators a1 and a2.                               Regulations 3605/93 and         Recent publication:                           Roberto Barcellan
                                                                         475/2000.                          press release twice per year (March and   Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                                                                                                         September)                                    eu


g.         General   General government consolidated gross               Eurostat;          Financial    NewCronos:                                    Eurostat Unit B4
Government debt      debt                                                Statistics                      theme2/mny/gen_govt/gengovt/gengov95          Hubertus Vreeswijk
                                                                                                                                                       Hubertus.Vreeswijk@ec.europa.e
                     General government debt is defined as the stock     The legal basis is the Treaty   Coverage: all MS                              u
                     of gross debt at end-year nominal value, a          on European Union, Protocol     Time series: 1992-1999
                     breakdown of which is available by financial        on the Excessive Deficit        Update: 1st March and 1st September
                     instrument                                          Procedure, and Council                                                        GDP: Eurostat B2
                     Data are presented as a percentage of GDP. See      Regulations 3605/93 and         Recent publication:                           Roberto Barcellan
                     indicators a1 and a2.                               475/2000.                          press release twice per year (March and   Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                                                                                                         September)                                    eu




                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                 6
(I) Employment

Indicator             Definition                                                Source                          Availability                                          Contact
1. Employment rate    Employed persons aged 15-64 as a                          Eurostat (Labour Force          New Cronos: Theme 3/lfs/empt/er_ms_a                  Eurostat Unit E1
                      share of the total population aged 15-64                  Survey)                                                                               Ana Franco
                                                                                                                Coverage: All MS, EU aggregates. Comparable data      Ana Franco@ec.europa.eu
                      The employed population consists of those                 Legal      base:    Council     not available for the US and Japan.
                      persons who during the reference week did any             Regulation (EEC) No. 577/98     Time series: 1983 – 1999
                      work for pay or profit for at least one hour, or were     of 9 March 1998.                Update : As soon as Member States send new data
                      not working but had jobs from which they were
                      temporarily absent. Family workers are also               More details: Labour Force      Recent publications:
                      included.                                                 Survey     –    Methods and        LFS - yearly results
                      The survey covers persons aged 15 years and               definitions, 1998.                 LFS - Principal results (Statistic in focus
                      over, living in private households. Persons living in                                     theme3)
                      collective households (halls of residence, medical
                      care      establishments,     religious   institutions,
                      collective workers’ accommodation, hostels, etc)
                      and persons carrying out obligatory military service
                      are not included.
2.       Employment   Annual change in the total employed                       Eurostat          (National     New Cronos: theme2/na_aggr/annual/                    Eurostat Unit E1
growth                population                                                Accounts)                       best_of/y_bo_soc/y_bo_s_t                             André Persenaire
                                                                                                                                                                      André.Persenaire@ec.europa.
                      See indicator 1.1. Employment rate                        Legal       base:     Council
                                                                                Regulation (EC) No 2223/96 of
                                                                                                                Coverage: All MS, EU aggregates, Japan.               eu
                                                                                                                Comparable data not available for the US.
                                                                                25 June 1996 on the
                                                                                                                Time series: 1983 – 1999
                                                                                European system of national
                                                                                                                Update : As soon as Member States send new data
                                                                                and regional accounts in the
                                                                                Community (ESA 95) (OJ No L
                                                                                                                Recent publications:
                                                                                310, 30. 11. 96)
                                                                                                                    Statistics in focus theme 2
                                                                                                                    Main aggregates of National Accounts
                                                                                                                    Accounts of the Union/The economic portrait of
                                                                                                                the Union
3.          Female    Employed females aged 15-64 as a                          Eurostat (Labour Force          New Cronos: Theme 3/lfs/empt/er_ms_a                  Eurostat Unit E1
employment rate       share of the total female population                      Survey)                                                                               Ana Franco
                                                                                                                Coverage: All MS, EU aggregates. Comparable data
                      aged 15-64                                                                                                                                      Ana Franco@ec.europa.eu
                                                                                Legal      base:    Council     not available for the US and Japan.
                                                                                Regulation (EEC) No. 577/98     Time series: 1983 – 1999
                      See indicator 1.1. Employment rate
                                                                                of 9 March 1998.                Update : As soon as Member States send new data

                                                                                More details: Labour Force      Recent publications:
                                                                                Survey     –    Methods and        LFS - yearly results
                                                                                definitions, 1998.                 LFS - Principal results (Statistic in focus
                                                                                                                theme3)




                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                      7
4. Employment rate    Employed older (aged 55-64) workers                  Eurostat (Labour Force              NewCronos: Theme 3/lfs/empt/er_ms_a                   Eurostat Unit E1
of older workers      as a share of total population aged 55-              Survey)                                                                                   Ana Franco
                      64                                                                                       Coverage: All MS, EU aggregates. Comparable data
                                                                                                                                                                     Ana Franco@ec.europa.eu
                                                                           Legal      base:    Council         not available for the US and Japan.
                                                                           Regulation (EEC) No. 577/98         Time series: 1983 – 1999
                      See indicator 1.1. Employment rate
                                                                           of 9 March 1998.                    Update : As soon as Member States send new data

                                                                           More details: Labour Force          Recent publications:
                                                                           Survey     –    Methods and            LFS - yearly results
                                                                           definitions, 1998.                     LFS - Principal results (Statistic in focus
                                                                                                               theme3)


5.     Unemployment   Total unemployed individuals as a share              Eurostat,                           NewCronos:                                            Eurostat Unit E1
rate                  of   the  -total   active   population-              (Unemployment                       Theme 3/unemploy/har_une/ura1f8t1                     Andre Persenaire
                      Harmonised series                                    Statistics)                                                                               Andre.Persenaire@ec.europa.
                                                                                                               Coverage: All MS, EU aggregates, US and Japan.        eu
                      Unemployed persons are those aged at least 15        Because of the lack of              Time series: 1983 – 1999
                      years not living in collective households who are    harmonised monthly data on          Update : five weeks after the reference period (for
                      without work within the next two weeks, available    unemployment, the Annual            monthly unemployment rates)
                      to start work within the next two weeks and are      Community Labour Force
                      seeking work (have actively sought employment at     Survey is used as a basis for
                      some time during the previous four weeks or are      monthly estimates. For some
                      not seeking a job because have already found a       countries a Quarterly National
                      job to start later).                                 Labour Force Survey or a
                      The total active population (labour force) is the    Monthly Labour Force Survey
                      total number of the employed and unemployed          is available. For most of the
                      population.                                          countries, monthly indicators
                      Monthly estimates of the number of unemployed        for unemployment come from
                      persons are derived by interpolating/extrapolating   public employment offices'
                      each year's Community LFS results with additional    administrative registers.
                      monthly indicators of unemployment. Breaks in        Administrative registers series
                      LFS series and in monthly indicators, due to         differ substantially from the
                      changes in the definitions or in the coverage, are   LFS series. While calculating
                      adjusted. All calculations are made by Eurostat.     the ILO harmonised monthly
                      Where possible, data from monthly LFS (FIN; SW       unemployment              series,
                      and UK) or quarterly LFS (ES, IT and PT) can be      adjusted with data from the
                      used.                                                Community LFS, the effect of
                                                                           differences in the national
                                                                           registration systems becomes
                                                                           less crucial.




                                                                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                     8
6. Tax rate on low   Income tax plus employee and employer                OECD; Fiscal Affairs           OECD; Fiscal Affairs Statistics                   OECD, Fiscal Affairs Division
wage earners         contributions less cash benefits as a                Statistics (for the APW                                                          webmaster@oecd.org
                                                                                                         Coverage: All MS, US, Japan
                     percentage of labour costs for low-wage              work)
                                                                                                         Time series: 1995-98; estimates for 1999
                     earners (67 % of the average production                                             Update: yearly
                                                                          The data are prepared under
                     workers' earnings for a single individual
                                                                          the auspices of the Working
                     with no children, or 100% for a one-                                                Recent publications
                                                                          Party on Tax Policy Analysis
                     earner married couple with two children)             and Tax Statistics of the         Taxing Wages (2000 edition)
                                                                          OECD's Committee on Fiscal        Revenue Statistics of OECD Member Countries
                     Taxes are calculated on the assumption that the      Affairs.
                     taxpayer has no income source other than
                     employment and - depending on the family-size -
                     universal cash benefits.
                     Gross earnings include average amounts of
                     overtime and regular cash supplements as well as
                     vacation payments, typically paid to production
                     workers. Profit-sharing schemes which take the
                     form of dividend distributions are excluded.
                     An average production worker is defined as an
                     adult full-time production worker in the
                     manufacturing sector whose wage earnings are
                     equal to the average earnings of such workers.
                     A couple with two children is defined as a husband
                     and a wife with two dependent children between
                     five and twelve years of age.
                     Labour costs are defined as gross wage earnings
                     plus employers' social security contributions and
                     payroll taxes.




                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                9
7. Life-long learning     Percentage of population, aged 25-64,                    Eurostat (Labour Force        Data are not available in NewCronos                Eurostat Unit E1
(adult participation in   participating in education and training.                 Survey)                                                                          Ana Franco
                                                                                                                 Coverage: All MS, EU aggregates. F, NL, P use
education          and    (Adult participation in training over the 4                                                                                               Ana.Franco@ec.europa.eu
                                                                                   Legal      base:    Council   non-harmonised methodologies. Comparable data
training)                 weeks prior to the survey)                                                             not available for the US.
                                                                                   Regulation (EEC) No. 577/98
                                                                                   of 9 March 1998.              Time series: 1992-1999
                          A reference period of four weeks has been chosen                                       Update: As soon as Member States send new data
                          in order to avoid distortion of information due to
                                                                                   More details: Labour Force
                          recall problems. The reference period is the last                                      Recent publications:
                                                                                   Survey     –    Methods and
                          four weeks preceding the survey, except for                                               LFS - yearly results
                                                                                   definitions, 1998.
                          France, the Netherlands and Portugal for which                                            LFS - Principal results (Statistics in focus
                          information is collected only if education or training                                 theme3)
                          is under way on the date of the survey.
                          Education include initial education, further
                          education, continuing or further training, training
                          within the company, apprenticeship, on-the-job
                          training, seminars, distance learning, evening
                          classes, as well as coursed followed for general
                          interest: language, data-processing, management,
                          art/culture, health/medicine courses. Before 1998,
                          education was related only to education and
                          vocational training which is relevant for the current
                          or possible future job of the respondent.




                                                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                       10
(II) Innovation and research

 Indicator               Definition                                            Source                            Availability                                          Contact
 1. Public expenditure   Total public expenditure on education as              Joint UNESCO/OECD/                NewCronos:                                            Eurostat Unit E3
   on education          a percentage of GDP.                                  Eurostat questionnaire            A domain under theme3/education is                    Joaquim Silva Pereira
                                                                                                                 under preparation                                     Joaquim.Silvapereira@ec.europa.
                         Expenditure on education from public sources as a     The combined questionnaire                                                              eu
                         percentage of Gross Domestic Product. Private         on education statistics is        Coverage: all MS, EU aggregates, US and Japan
                         expenditure on education, including household         based on National sources,        Time series: 1995/96/97
                                                                               such as National Statistical                                                            GDP: Eurostat Unit B2
                         expenditure, is not taken into account.                                                 Update: 1998 data will be available beginning 2001.
                         1997 data collection uses the new international       Offices,     or     Education                                                           Roberto Barcellan
                         Standard Classification of Education.                 Ministries. Methodology is not    Recent publications:                                  Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                         The figures relating to GDP are compiled in           completely harmonised.               Statistics in Focus Theme 3 Nº8/2000, 15/1998     eu
                         accordance with the ESA 95            (see general                                         Education across the European Union, 1998
                         economic background indicators).                                                           Education across Europe, 1999
                         For GDP see indicators a1 and a2.

 2. R&D expenditure      Total R&D expenditure, broken down by                 Eurostat, R&D statistics;         NewCronos: theme9/zrd2/zrd2a_3                        Eurostat Unit A4
                         government, enterprises, and other                    OECD (main science                                                                      Ibrahim Laafia
                         (GERD/GDP and BERD/GDP)                               and          technology           Coverage: All MS (except Luxembourg),      EU         Ibrahim.Laafia@ec.europa.eu
                                                                                                                 aggregates, US and Japan.
                                                                               indicators)                       Time Series: 1990-1999 (1998 and 1999 for most
                         Research and experimental development (R&D)
                         covers basic research, applied research and                                             countries)                                            GDP: Eurostat Unit B2
                                                                               Legal base: Council Decision
                         experimental development activities undertaken in                                       Update: annually in June                              Roberto Barcellan
                                                                               (94/78/CE, EURATOM) of 24
                         order to increase the knowledge of man, culture       January 1994.                                                                           Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                         and society.                                                                            Recent publications:
                                                                               A new legal base is under
                                                                                                                     Research and development: annual statistics
                                                                                                                                                                       eu
                         The basic measure for R&D is the "intramural          discussion and should be
                         expenditures": all R&D expenditures performed                                           and CD-ROM
                                                                               approved in 2001.
                         within a statistical unit or sector of the economy,                                         Statistics in focus theme 9
                                                                               For definitions of R&D and
                         independent of the source of funds.                                                         OECD: Main Science and Technology
                                                                               "intramural    expenditure"   ,
                         Three major sectors can be distinguished:                                               indicators (MSTI 1/2000)
                                                                               please      consult    Frascati
                         Enterprises, Government and Higher education          Manual § 57 and 335.
                         sector.
                         BERD: Business enterprise expenditure on R&D
                         GOVERD: Government expenditure on R&D
                         HERD: Higher education expenditure on R&D
                         GERD = BERD + GOVERD + HERD + R&D
                         expenditure of the private non-profit sector (PNP)
                         Data is expressed as a percentage of GDP. See
                         indicators a1 and a2.




                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                      11
3. ICT expenditure     ICT expenditure as a percentage of                   European    Information         EITO Task Force                                  EITO
                       GDP.                                                 Technology Observatory                                                           www.eito.com
                                                                                                            Coverage: All MS, EU aggregates, US and Japan.
                                                                            (EITO)
                       Information and communications technologies                                          Time Series: 1994-1999
                                                                                                            Update; latest data available as of the end of   GDP: Eurostat Unit B2
                       refer to information technology ( computer
                       hardware, office equipment, data communications      The EITO statistics are based   November 1999.                                   Roberto Barcellan
                       hardware, software products and services) plus       on a set of definitions and                                                      Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                       telecommunications       equipment       (end-user   methodologies          agreed   Recent publications:
                                                                                                                                                             eu
                       equipment     and    network    equipment)    and    between the EITO Task Force        EITO 2000
                       telecommunications services (telephone, internet     and the International Data         EITO Special Studies
                       and online services, mobile telephone, etc)          Corporation, IDC .
                       For GDP see indicators a1 and a2.

                       Eurostat will deliver harmonised data from 2001
                       (Total current expenditure for IT equipment and
                       services, IT hardware, services, training and web
                       creation and maintenance)
4. Level of internet   Internet on-line active accounts (both               European    Information         EITO Task Force                                  EITO
  access               residential and business users) per 100              Technology Observatory                                                           www.eito.com
                                                                                                            Coverage: All MS, EU aggregates, US and Japan.
                       inhabitants.                                         (EITO)
                                                                                                            Time Series: 1998
                       Internet and on-line services: spending on                                           Update; latest data available as of the end of
                                                                            The EITO statistics are based
                       telecommunications phone charges for home and                                        November 1999.
                                                                            upon a set of definitions and
                       business connections dial-up access to telephone     methodologies          agreed
                       lines to connect to internet.                                                        Recent publications:
                                                                            between the EITO Task Force
                                                                            and the International Data         EITO 2000
                       Eurostat will provide harmonised data from 2001                                         EITO Special Studies
                       (total number of internet users)                     Corporation, IDC .




                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                  12
5. Patents            Number of European and US patents                      European Patent Office             EPO and USPTO statistics                          EPO: ww.epo.org/mail.index.htm
                      per million inhabitants (EPO and                       (EPO) and US Patent                                                                  USPTO:InfoContacts@uspto.gov
                                                                                                                Coverage: All MS, US and Japan.
                      USPTO patents)                                         Office (USPTO)
                                                                                                                Time Series: 1991 to 1998
                                                                                                                Update: yearly
                      Number of patent applications per million              Both Patent offices jointly with
                      inhabitants by country of origin.                      the Japanese Patent Office
                                                                                                                Recent publications
                      Applications are defined as all demands for patent     (JPO) exchange information
                      rights as required. They are counted in the year of    regarding                patent       Trilateral Statistical Report 1999
                      filing.                                                administration.       Common          EPO, USPTO, JPO , a trilateral co-operation
                      As USPTO applications are classified according to      databases have been explicitly        Facts and Figures (EPO)
                      the US Patent Classification System, the               developed by these Offices
                      breakdown according to International Patent            and a Statistical Report is
                      Classification (IPC) has been determined by            published yearly
                      means of a general concordance between both
                      classifications. Therefore, the technical scope at
                      the USPTO with respect to IPC may differ from
                      the scope as presented by EPO.
6. Exports of high-   Share of exports of high-tech products in              Eurostat, (Comext);                Comext and Comtrade database (basic               Eurostat Unit C4
  technology          total exports.                                         UN (Comtrade).                     information)                                      Anne Berthomieu
  products                                                                                                                                                        Anne.Berthomieu-
                      EU methodology: Exports are recorded Free On           EU legal base: Council             Coverage: all MS, (BLEU for B and Lux), EU
                                                                                                                                                                  Cristallo@ec.europa.eu
                      Board (FOB)                                            Regulation (EEC) N 3330/91         aggregates, US and Japan.
                      Trade with non-members countries does not cover        of 7 November 1991 (OJ No L        Time series: 1990-1999
                      imports and exports whose value and net mass           316 of 16.11.91) and Council       Update: indicator calculated ad-hoc.
                      are lower than certain thresholds and those which      Regulation (EC) No 1172/95 of
                      are excluded pursuant to special provisions of         22 May 1995 (OJ No L 118 of
                      Community legislation (e.g. monetary gold).            25.05.95)
                      Trade within MS does not cover imports and             Definition of high-technology
                      exports made by private individuals and small          products:    OECD     working
                      enterprises exempt from VAT and those excluded         document GD(97) 216
                      pursuant to special provisions of Community
                      legislation. No declaration of intra EU trade is
                      required from enterprises whose trade with other
                      MS lies below a certain threshold, although some
                      MS adjust their data to allow for this.
                      Trade between EU (EU-15 and EUR-11) and the
                      rest of the world does not include intra-zone trade.
                      High-technology products are defined by OECD.
                      (High-technology = Aerospace + Computers +
                      Office Machinery + Electronics + Instruments +
                      Pharmaceuticals + Electrical Machinery +
                      Armement). Figures have been compiled by using
                      the standard International Trade Classification
                      (SITC rev. 3)




                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                     13
7. Venture Capital   Venture capital investments (ie private            European         Venture           European Private Equity Statistics                European Venture     Capital
                     equity minus buyouts), relative to GDP.            Capital Association (for                                                             Association
                                                                                                           Coverage: all MS, (no data for Lux), US but not
                     Breakdown by investment stages.                    EU), Price Waterhouse                                                                Evca@evca.com
                                                                                                           Japan.
                                                                        Coopers (for US)                   Time series: 1995-99
                     Venture capital defined as private equity minus
                                                                                                           Update: annually                                  GDP: Eurostat Unit B2
                     buyouts. Data are broken down into two             EVCA is composed of over
                     investment stages: Early stage (seed + start-up)   600 private equity and venture
                                                                                                                                                             Roberto Barcellan
                                                                                                           Recent publications:
                     and Expansion and replacement (expansion +         capital firms and groups with a                                                      Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                                                                                                              EVCA Yearbook 2000
                     replacement capital)                               professional interest in the                                                         eu
                                                                        industry.     The      European
                     For GDP see indicators a1 and a2.                  Private Equity Survey was
                                                                        conducted by Pricewater-
                                                                        houseCoopers       under     the
                                                                        direction     of   its    Global
                                                                        Technology Industry Group on
                                                                        behalf of EVCA.




                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                14
III) Economic Reform

Indicator              Definition                                             Source                          Availability                                            Contact
1. Trade integration   (Intra-EU exports of goods + intra-EU                  Eurostat (Comext);              Comext and Comtrade databases (trade                    Eurostat Unit C4
                       imports of goods) / (2 * GDP)                          UN (Comtrade).                  values)                                                 Anne Berthomieu
                                                                                                                                                                      Anne.Berthomieu-
                                                                              EU Legal base: Council          Coverage: all MS, (BLEU for B and Lux), EU
                       (Total exports of goods + total imports of                                                                                                     Cristallo@ec.europa.eu
                                                                              Regulation (EEC) Nº 3330/91     aggregates, US and Japan.
                       goods) / (2 * GDP)                                     of 7 November 1991 (OJ Nº L     Time series: 1990- 99
                                                                              316 of 16.11.91) and Council    Update: indicator calculated ad-hoc                     GDP: Eurostat Unit B2
                       Trade values EU methodology:                           Regulation (EC) Nº 1172/95 of                                                           Roberto Barcellan
                       Imports are generally recorded CIF (Cost,              22 May 1995 (OJ Nº L 118 of
                       Insurance and Freight) and exports FOB (Free On                                                                                                Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                                                                              25.5.95
                       Board)                                                                                                                                         eu
                       See indicator 2.6. Exports of high-technology
                       products
                       For GDP see indicators a1 and a2.

2.          Business   Gross fixed capital formation by the                   Eurostat          (National     NewCronos: theme2/sectors                               Eurostat Unit B2
investments            private sector as a percentage of GDP                  Accounts)                       (new structure available in January 2001)               Claude Hublart
                                                                                                                                                                      Claude.Hubart@ec.europa.eu
                       Gross fixed capital formation consists of resident     Legal       base:     Council   Coverage: all MS (IRL in 2006)
                       producers' acquisitions, less disposals, of fixed      Regulation (EC) No 2223/96 of   Time series: 1990-1999 (D: 1991-95 in 12/2005; EL
                       assets during a given period plus certain additions    25 June 1996 on the             1988-95 in 07/2001; IRL only 1995-99 in 12/2005; L
                       to the value of non-produced assets realised by        European system of national     only 1995-99)
                       the productive activity of producer or institutional   and regional accounts in the    Update: yearly
                       units. It does not include changes in inventories      Community (ESA 95) (OJ No L
                       nor acquisitions less disposals of valuables.          310, 30. 11. 96)                First data broken down by sectors available mid-
                       Fixed assets are tangible or intangible assets                                         2001. Before Eurostat will provide an estimate
                       produced as outputs from processes of production                                       calculated the following way : private sector = total
                       that are themselves used repeatedly, or                                                economy minus government sector
                       continuously, in processes of production for more
                       than one year.
                       Private sector = non-financial corporations +
                       financial corporations + households
                       Data are provided at current prices.




                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                    15
3.   Relative   price   Relative price levels of private final                  Eurostat/OECD         (price    NewCronos:                                             Eurostat Unit B3
levels   and    price   consumption including indirect taxes                    statistics:            PPP      theme2/price/ppa                                       Matti Sikstrom
convergence.            (EU=100)                                                indicators)                                                                            Matti.Sikstrom@ec.europa.eu
                                                                                                                Coverage: all MS, US
                        Ratio between Purchasing Power Parity and the           Legal base: there is no legal   Time series: MS: 1980, 1985, 1991 - 98 , US: 1993,
                        market exchange rate, measures the relative price       instrument directly covering    1996                                                   OECD, Economics department
                        levels in each country.                                 the production of PPPs.         Update: MS annually (quarterly starting in 2001)       webmaster@oecd.org
                        This ratio is shown in relation to the EU average
                        (=100). If the index of a country is higher than 100,                                   Recent publications:
                        the country concerned is relatively expensive as                                             Detailed tables theme2: Purchasing Power
                        compared to the EU average and vice versa.                                              Parities and related economic indicators, published
                        To measure price convergence the coefficient of                                         annually (Eurostat)
                        variation of Price levels is used.                                                           PPPs and Real Expenditure 1996 (OECD)
                        PPPs: the method used by OECD is also the                                                    Purchasing Power Parities. 1998 (OECD)
                        method official accepted by Eurostat.
4. Prices in network    Price level and evolution in the                        Eurostat,         Energy        NewCronos (electricity and gas):                       Eurostat Unit F4
industries              telecommunications, electricity and gas                 statistics. DG INFSO for        theme8/sirene/s-price/                                 Luis de la Fuente Layos
                        markets                                                 telecommunications                                                                     luis-de-la-fuente-
                                                                                                                Coverage: all MS. (No gas price data for EL or P, no   layos@ec.europa.eu
                                                                                data                            household gas data for DK. No industry electricity
                        Price level indices (EU=100) can be used with
                        certain reservations for the evaluation of relative                                     price data for EL and P). Some US and Japan data
                                                                                Directive 96/92EC
                        changes of price levels in the Member States over                                       for telecommunications
                                                                                Directive    90/377/EEC    to
                        time. They are based on private final consumption                                       Time series: 1998- 2000 for electricity and gas
                                                                                improve the transparency of
                        prices.                                                                                 prices. 1997-1999 for telecommunications prices.
                                                                                electricity prices charged to
                        Telecommunications: price in euro of 10 minute          industrial    end-users   and
                        call at 11 am on a weekday (including VAT) for                                          Recent publications:
                                                                                domestic consumers
                        local call (3km), national call (200km) and                                                 Statistics in focus theme 8 Nº 5/2000 and
                        international call (to USA) relative to EU-15=100.                                      6/2000 (for electricity and gas prices).
                        Electricity: price in euro per 100kWh for (a)                                               Fifth report on the implementation of the
                        medium industry user: annual consumption of                                             Telecommunications Regulatory Package.
                        2 000 MWh. Maximum demand 500 kW; annual
                        utilisation: 400 hours and (b) medium household
                        user: annual consumption of 3 500 kWh;
                        subscribed demand: 4-9 kW; standard dwelling
                        70m2.
                        Gas: price in euro per gigajoule for (a) medium
                        industry user: annual consumption 41 600 GJ; load
                        factor: 200 days - 1 600 hours and (b) medium
                        household user: annual consumption 83,7 GJ;
                        equipment: cooking, water heating and central
                        heating.




                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                      16
5.            Public   (Value of public procurement which is                DG MARKT/Eurostat                  DG MARKT Statistics                              DG MARKT unit B4
procurement            openly advertised)/(total value of public                                                                                                Robert Wakeling
                                                                            DG MARKT carries out all           Coverage: All MS. No US or Japan data.
                       procurement)                                                                                                                             robert.wakeling@ec.europa.eu
                                                                            calculations on the basis of the   Time series: 1993-1998 (P, S no data for 1993)
                       The value of public procurement which is openly      information published in the       Update : annually
                       advertised is estimated annually from the contract   Official   Journal    of     the
                       award notices submitted for publication in the       European          Communities,     Recent publications:
                       Official Journal. The figures for total public       Supplement S and on the               Single Market News No 20, March 2000
                       procurement are derived from detailed Member         basis of National Accounts
                       State data for National Accounts provided on a       data provided by Eurostat
                       voluntary basis and will be in accordance with the
                       ESA 95 as from 1999.                                 Legal      base:      Council
                                                                            Regulation (EC) No 2223/96 of
                                                                            25 June 1996 on the
                                                                            European system of national
                                                                            and regional accounts in the
                                                                            Community (OJ No L 310, 30.
                                                                            11. 96)

                                                                            Council Directives 92/50/EEC
                                                                            of 18 June 1992 (OJ No L 209,
                                                                            24. 7. 92), 93/36/EEC of 14
                                                                            June 1993 (OJ No L 199, 9. 8.
                                                                            93), 93/37/EEC of 14 June
                                                                            1993 (OJ No L 199, 9. 8. 93)
                                                                            and 93/38/EEC of 14 June
                                                                            1993 (OJ No L 199, 9. 8. 93).

6. Sectoral and ad     State aid (sectoral and ad hoc) as a                 DG COMP Statistics                 DG COMP Statistics                               DG COMP Unit G4
hoc State aid          percentage of GDP                                                                                                                        Richard Keith Joels
                                                                            All State aid expenditure data     Coverage: All MS. No US or Japan data
                                                                                                                                                                Richard.Joels@ec.europa.eu
                       State aid given by way of schemes/programmes         provided by MS are recorded        Time series: 1990 -1999
                       that promote horizontal, sectoral or regional        in an internal DG COMP excel       Update: Yearly
                       objectives. State aid can also be granted ad-hoc,    file.    These     data     are                                                     GDP: Eurostat Unit B2
                       i.e. outside of any such before-mentioned scheme.    confidential and are presented     Recent publications                              Roberto Barcellan
                       Such aid is granted to a single enterprise.          only in an aggregated form.           Annual Survey on State aid in the EU.        Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                                                                                                                                                                eu
                       For GDP see indicators a1 and a2.




                                                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                    17
7. Capital raised on   Capital raised on stock markets as a               Fédération                        FIBV Statistics                                    FIBV Economic- Statistics
stock markets          percentage of GDP                                  Internationale           des                                                         secretariat@fibv.com
                                                                                                            Coverage: All MS, US, Japan
                                                                          Bourses de           Valeurs
                       Gross amount of new capital raised by domestic                                       Time series: 1998 and 1999
                                                                          (FIBV).                           Update: A general report is published every year   GDP: Eurostat Unit B2
                       companies already listed and newly admitted,
                       excluding investment funds and unit trusts, as a                                                                                        Roberto Barcellan
                                                                          The International Federation of   Recent publications:
                       percentage of GDP.
                                                                          Stock Exchanges is a Trade
                                                                                                                                                               Roberto.Barcellan@ec.europa.
                       Capital raised is calculated by multiplying the                                         Annual Report                                  eu
                                                                          association    for   regulated       Focus (monthly News Letter and Statistics)
                       number of new shares that were sold times the
                                                                          securities    and    derivative      Statistical Year Book
                       issue price.                                       markets world-wide. Statistics
                       For GDP see indicators a1 and a2                   come from FIBV Member
                                                                          Exchanges.




                                                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                 18
(IV) Social Cohesion

 Indicator                  Definition                                               Source                           Availability                                           Contact
 1. Distribution       of   The ratio of the share of the total                      Eurostat,    European            NewCronos                                              Eurostat Unit E2
 income          (Income    equivalised income received by the                       Community Household              theme3/ilc/ilc_inc/ilc_ip/incdistr/ip07                Christine Wirtz
 quintile ratio)            highest earning 20 % of the country's                    Panel (ECHP)                                                                            Christine.Wirtz@ec.europa.eu
                                                                                                                      Coverage: all MS except Sweden and Finland, EU
                            population and the lowest earning 20 %
                                                                                     'The European Community          aggregates. No data on US and Japan.
                            (S80/S20 ratio).                                                                          Time series: 1993, 1994, 1995
                                                                                     Household Panel (ECHP):
                                                                                     Volume      1    -     Survey    Update: annually (1996 including Sweden by the end
                            This ratio compares the total net income available                                        of 2000)
                                                                                     methodology                and
                            to the richest 20% of the population with that
                                                                                     Implementation'    and   'The
                            available to the poorest 20 %.                                                            Recent publications:
                                                                                     European           Community
                            Equivalised income is defined as the total net                                               Living conditions in Europe,         Statistical
                                                                                     Household Panel (ECHP):
                            monetary annual income of a household in the                                              pocketbook, 2000 edition
                                                                                     Volume      1    -     Survey
                            year prior to the survey (Income from work,                                                  Statistics in Focus theme 3 9/2000
                                                                                     questionnaires: Waves 1-3'
                            Property income, Capital income, Private transfers
                            and Social transfers) divided by the number of
                            adult equivalents in the household.
                            Equivalised size of a household: the number of
                            "adults equivalents" is computed using the OECD
                            modified scale, which assigns a weight of 1 to the
                            first adult (i.e. person aged 14 or over), 0.5 to each
                            other adult and 0.3 to each member aged under 14
                            Persons (children and adults) have been grouped
                            into five equally sized groups, according to their
                            equivalised income. The lowest quintile contains
                            the fifth of persons with the lowest equivalised
                            income and the highest quintile the fifth of persons
                            with the highest equivalised income.


 2. Poverty rate before     Share of population below the poverty                    Eurostat,    European            NewCronos:                                             Eurostat Unit E2
 and     after    social    line. Poverty line defined as (50 % or)                  Community Household              Theme3/ilc/ilc-sep/distrib/ilcsep14                    Lene Mejer
 transfers                  60%     of     the   median-equivalised                  Panel (ECHP)                                                                            Lene.Mejer@ec.europa.eu
                            disposable income.                                                                        Coverage: all MS except Sweden and Finland, EU
                                                                                     'The European Community          aggregates. No data on US and Japan
                            Total equivalised income and equivalised size: see       Household Panel (ECHP):          Time series: 1993, 1994, 1995
                            definition above, indicator IV-1 Distribution of         Volume      1    -     Survey    Update: annually (1996 including Sweden by the end
                            income.                                                  methodology               and    of 2000)
                                                                                     Implementation'    and   'The
                                                                                     European           Community     Recent publications:
                                                                                     Household Panel (ECHP):             Living conditions in Europe,         Statistical
                                                                                     Volume      1    -     Survey    pocketbook, 2000 edition
                                                                                     questionnaires: Waves 1-3'          Statistics in Focus theme 3 9/2000




                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                           19
3. Persistence    of   Share of population consistently below                  Eurostat,    European            Data are not yet available in NewCronos             Eurostat Unit E2
poverty                the poverty line for a three year period.               Community Household                                                                  Lene Mejer
                                                                                                                Coverage: all MS (except Austria, Finland and
                       Poverty line defined as (50 % or) 60% of                Panel (ECHP)                                                                         Lene.Mejer@ec.europa.eu
                                                                                                                Sweden), EU aggregates. No data on US and
                       the   median-equivalised      disposable                                                 Japan.
                                                                               'The European Community
                       income.                                                                                  Time series: 1993, 1994, 1995; (1996 available by
                                                                               Household Panel (ECHP):
                                                                                                                end 2000 including Sweden)
                                                                               Volume      1    -     Survey
                       Population considered is (weighted) sample                                               Update: annually, by the end of the year
                                                                               methodology                and
                       population in the 1996-wave of the ECHP that was
                                                                               Implementation'    and   'The
                       income poor in three consecutive years. The low-                                         Recent publications:
                                                                               European           Community
                       income threshold (the income poverty line) is set to
                                                                               Household Panel (ECHP):             Statistics in focus theme 3 13/2000
                       be (50 % or) 60% of              median-equivalised
                                                                               Volume      1    -     Survey
                       disposable income. Total equivalised income and
                                                                               questionnaires: Waves 1-3'
                       equivalised size: see definition above, indicator IV-
                       1 Distribution of income.


4.           Jobless   Share of households in which no                         Eurostat (Labour Force           Data are not yet available in NewCronos             Eurostat Unit E1
households             member is in employment among all                       Survey)                                                                              Ana Franco
                                                                                                                Coverage: All MS except Denmark, Finland and
                       households in which at least one person                                                                                                      Ana Franco@ec.europa.eu
                                                                               Legal      base:    Council      Sweden, EU aggregates. Comparable data not
                       is active                                                                                available for the US
                                                                               Regulation (EEC) No. 577/98
                                                                               of 9 March 1998                  Time series: 1985-1999. Data available from 2001
                       Jobless households are those households that                                             onwards.
                       have no person in employment.                                                            Update : As soon as Member States send new data
                                                                               More details: Labour Force
                                                                               Survey      -   Methods and
                                                                               definitions, 1998
5. Regional cohesion   Variation in unemployment rate across                   Eurostat,          Regional      Data are not yet available in NewCronos             Eurostat Unit E4
                       regions.                                                Statistics.                                                                          Axel Behrens
                                                                                                                Coverage: All MS. Only NUTS 2 level for Portugal
                                                                                                                and Greece. No data for French DOM.
                                                                                                                                                                    Axel.Behrens@ec.europa.eu
                       Standard deviation is used.                             Legal base for regional GDP:
                       Figures are compiled by using the level 3 of NUTS       ESA95 Council Regulation         Time series: 1990-1999
                       (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics)      96/2223 of 25.06.96, O.J.        Update: around June each year
                       See also indicator II.5: unemployment rate              L310 of 30.11.96 ("European
                                                                               system     of national   and     Recent publications:
                                                                               regional accounts")                 Statistics in focus theme 1 3/2000




                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                     20
6.   Early     school-   Share of the population aged 18-24 with                  Eurostat (Labour Force        New Cronos:                                          Eurostat Unit E1
leavers not in further   only lower secondary education and not                   Survey)                       Theme 3/lfs/edul/ed_nie_l                            Ana Franco
education or training    in education or training                                                                                                                    Ana Franco@ec.europa.eu
                                                                                  Legal      base:    Council   Coverage: all MS, EU aggregates. Comparable data
                         This indicator covers individuals that did not follow    Regulation (EEC) No. 577/98   not available for the US
                         any kind of education during the four weeks              of 9 March 1998.              Time series: 1992 – 1999
                         preceding the interview. The reference period is                                       Update : As soon as a country sends a new data set
                         the last four weeks preceding the survey, except         More details: Labour Force
                         for France, the Netherlands and Portugal for which       Survey     –    Methods and
                         information is collected only if education or training   definitions, 1998.
                         is under way on the date of the survey.
                         Education includes initial education, further            New ISCED, International
                         education, continuing or further training, training      Standard Classification of
                         within the company, apprenticeship, on-the-job           Education, UNESCO, 1997
                         training, seminars, distance learning, evening
                         classes, self-learning, etc as well as other courses
                         followed    as     language,      data   processing,
                         management, art/culture, health/medicine courses,
                         etc. Before 1998, education was related only to
                         education and vocational training which is relevant
                         for the current or possible future job of the
                         respondent.
                         Low educational level corresponds to codes 0-2 of
                         ISCED 97 classification, primary and lower
                         secondary.

7.       Long-term       Total long-term unemployed (over 12                      Eurostat   (based    on       New Cronos:                                          Eurostat Unit E1
unemployment rate        months) as a share of total active                       Labour Force Survey)          Theme 3/unemploy/har_une/ltu_ap_a                    Andre Persenaire
                         population - Harmonised series                                                                                                              Andre.Persenaire@ec.europa.
                                                                                  Legal      base:    Council   Coverage: All MS, EU aggregates. Comparable data     eu
                         Unemployed       persons:     see    indicator   2.4     Regulation (EEC) No. 577/98   not available for the US.
                         Unemployment rate                                        of 9 March 1998.              Time series: 1983 – 1999
                         The duration of unemployment is defined as: the                                        Update : As soon as Member States send new data
                         duration of search for a job or the length of the        More details: Labour Force
                         period since the last job was held (if this period is    Survey     –    Methods and   Recent publications:
                         shorter than the duration of search for a job).          definitions, 1998.               LFS - yearly results
                         The total active population (labour force) is the                                         LFS - Principal results (Statistic in focus
                         total number of the employed and unemployed                                            theme3)
                         population.




                                                                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                      21

								
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