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					                   Situation

• The management of a Tesco store in North
  Wales stands accused of religious intolerance
  because it forced a man wearing ceremonial
  garb to either remove part of it or leave the
  store.

  Which sounds terrible, especially in this day
  and age.

                                                  1
                      Criticism:

• Daniel Jones, 23, who created the International
  Church of Jediism, claims he was “victimized over his
  beliefs” by staff at the supermarket in North Wales.
• The religion, inspired by the sci-fi films, is practiced
  by 500,000 around the world and requires believers
  to cover their heads in public places.
• But Mr Jones, from Holyhead, said that staff ejected
  him from the store over security fears when he
  refused to remove his hood.
• "I walked past a Muslim lady in a veil. Surely the
  same rules should apply to everyone."                    2
                                  Store’s Response:

• A Tesco spokesman said: "Jedi are very
  welcome to shop in our stores although we
  would ask them to remove their hoods.
• "Obi-Wan Kenobi, Yoda and Luke Skywalker all
  went hoodless without going to the Dark Side.
• "If Jedi walk around our stores with their
  hoods on, they’ll miss lots of special offers."

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/6204199/Jedi-ejected-from-Tesco-for-wearing-hood.html


                                                                                                                3
      Question

  Is Jediism a religion?
Is Jediism a subculture?




                           4
CHAPTER
TWELVE
Subcultures and
  Consumer
   Behavior
             Learning Objectives

1. To Understand What Subculture Is, and Its
   Relationship to Culture.
2. To Understand Nationality as a Subcultural
   Influence on Consumer Behavior.
3. To Understand Religious Affiliation as a Subcultural
   Influence on Consumer Behavior.
4. To Understand Geographic and Regional Residences
   as Subcultural Influences on Consumer Behavior.


                                            Chapter Twelve Slide   6
    Learning Objectives (continued)

5. To Understand Racial Identity as a Subcultural
   Influence on Consumer Behavior.
6. To Understand Age as a Subcultural Influence on
   Consumer Behavior.
7. To Understand Gender as a Subcultural Influence on
   Consumer Behavior.
8. To Understand How Multiple Subcultural
   Memberships Jointly Influence Consumer Behavior.


                                          Chapter Twelve Slide   7
       Why Is State Farm Running Magazine
Ads in Spanish? At Whom Are These Ads Directed?




                                      Chapter Twelve Slide   8
To Build their Market by Reaching the
    Hispanic American Consumer




                               Chapter Twelve Slide   9
             A distinct cultural group
                 that exists as an
Subculture    identifiable segment
              within a larger, more
                complex society.




                                Chapter Twelve Slide 10
          Discussion Questions

• Would you categorize yourself as belonging to
  any subcultures?
• How does it affect your consumer purchases?




                                      Chapter Twelve Slide 11
Relationship Between Culture and
     Subculture - Figure 12.2




                          Chapter Twelve Slide 12
Examples of Major Subcultural Categories
              Table 12.1
CATEGORIES          EXAMPLES
Nationality         Greek, Italian, Russian
Religion            Catholic, Hindu, Mormon
Geographic region   Eastern, Southern, Southwestern

Race                African American, Asian, Caucasian

Age                 Teenagers, Xers, elderly
Gender              Female, male
Occupation          Bus driver, cook, scientist
Social class        Lower, middle, upper


                                              Chapter Twelve Slide 13
   Nationality Subculture - Hispanic

• Stronger preference for well-established
  brands
• Prefer to shop at smaller stores
• Some are shifting food shopping to non-
  ethnic American-style supermarkets
• Youths are more fashion conscious than
  non-Hispanic peers


                                       Chapter Twelve Slide 14
 Why Is Days Inn Running Ads in Spanish, and
Who Are the Consumers Targeted by Such Ads?




                                   Chapter Twelve Slide 15
Because Hispanic Americans who Speak Spanish as a First
 Language Tend to Prefer Spanish-Language Advertising




                                              Chapter Twelve Slide 16
     Nationality Subculture – Hispanic
U.S. Hispanic Population by Place of Origin
                Figure 12.3




                                      Chapter Twelve Slide 17
Segmenting the Hispanic Market
         Figure 12.5




                          Chapter Twelve Slide 18
             Religious Subcultures

• 200+ organized religious groups in the U.S.
• Primary organized faiths include:
  –   Protestant denominations
  –   Roman Catholicism
  –   Islam
  –   Judaism
• Consumer behavior symbolically and ritualistically
  associated with the celebration of religious
  holidays.

                                          Chapter Twelve Slide 19
       Group Question/Discussion
• How might the subcultures related to religion have
  an impact on:
  (1) social media in general?
  (2) your group project topic?




                                                       20
           Regional Subcultures

• Many regional differences exist in
  consumption behavior
  – Westerners have a mug of black coffee
  – Easterners have a cup of coffee with milk and
    sugar
  – White bread is preferred in the South and
    Midwest
  – Rye and whole wheat are preferred on the East
    and West coasts


                                          Chapter Twelve Slide 21
          Major Racial Subcultures
             African American
• The African American Consumer
  – 13 percent of the U.S. population
  – Purchasing power estimated at $845 billion




                                          Chapter Twelve Slide 22
          Major Racial Subcultures
             African American
• Prefer leading brands over private-label
  brands
• Brand loyal
• Higher than average trips to grocery store
  and higher spending
• Spend more then other segments on
  telephone services


                                       Chapter Twelve Slide 23
          Major Racial Subcultures
              Asian American
• Fastest growing racial segment
• Diverse group including 6 major ethnicities:
  – Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Vietnamese, Korean,
    and Japanese
• 95% live in metropolitan areas and business
  ownership is high



                                           Chapter Twelve Slide   24
Region of Residence for Selected
Subcultural Groups – Figure 12.7




                           Chapter Twelve Slide   25
           Major Racial Subcultures
               Asian American
                             Figure 12.8
• Increasing buying
  power
• Diverse so few trends
• Many prefer ads in
  English as language is
  self reported as well
  spoken



                                      Chapter Twelve Slide 26
       Group Question/Discussion
• How might the subcultures related to region or racial
  ancestry have an impact on:
  (1) social media in general?
  (2) your group project topic?




                                                      27
         Major Age Subcultures




Generation   Generation    Baby
                                    Seniors
    Y            X        Boomers




                                    Chapter Twelve Slide 28
                Generation Y

• According to sources, born 1977-1994 OR
  1982-2000
• Three groups
  – Gen Y Adults – 19-28
  – Gen Y Teens – 13-18
  – Gen Y Tweens 8-12
• Twixters – 21-29 and live with parents


                                       Chapter Twelve Slide 29
           Discussion Questions

• Is it ethical for marketers of high-priced goods,
  an iPod for example, to target tweens?
• How might they market responsibly?




                                         Chapter Twelve Slide 30
                Generation X

• Born between 1965 and 1979
• Also referred to as Xers, busters, or slackers
• Do not like labels, are cynical, and do not want
  to be marketed to




                                        Chapter Twelve Slide 31
                  Baby Boomers

•   Born between 1946 – 1964
•   More than 40 percent of the adult population
•   Motivated consumers
•   Not anxious to retire and handle it as:
    – Opportunity for a new start
    – A continuation of preretirement life
    – Unwelcome disruption
    – Transition to old age


                                             Chapter Twelve Slide 32
             Older Consumers

• Roughly 65 years and older
• Growing segment due to better medical care,
  declining birthrate and the aging of the large
  baby boomer segment
• Three segments by age
  – The Young-Old (65-74)
  – The Old (75-84)
  – The Old-Old (85 and older)

                                       Chapter Twelve Slide 33
             Older Consumers

• Segmentation can also be done on
  motivations and quality-of-life orientation
• Cyberseniors




                                        Chapter Twelve Slide 34
How Seniors Use the Internet
        Figure 12.9




                          Chapter Twelve Slide 35
          Discussion Questions

• How might the three senior segments differ in
  their consumption of food products?
• How might a marketer of a food product
  market differently to the three subgroups?




                                      Chapter Twelve Slide 36
   Issues in Understanding Gender as a
                Subculture
• Sex Roles and Consumer Behavior
  – Masculine vs. Feminine Traits
• Consumer Products and Sex Roles
• Women as depicted in Media




                                    Chapter Twelve Slide 37
             Working Women

• Segments of ALL women
  – Stay-at-home
  – Plan-to-work
  – Just-a-job working
  – Career-oriented working




                              Chapter Twelve Slide 38
Consumer Electronics Products Women Are
 Most Interested in Buying - Figure 12.10




                                  Chapter Twelve Slide 39
       Group Question/Discussion
• How might the subcultures related to age have an
  impact on:
  (1) social media in general?
  (2) your group project topic?




                                                     40
              Marketers should strive
                to understand how
Subcultural    multiple subcultural
Interaction    memberships jointly
               influence consumers
                     behavior



                                Chapter Twelve Slide 41
              Ending Question
• What other subcultures might have an impact on
  your group project hypotheses?




                                                   42

				
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