“Emerging from the Republic of Silence Media in the New Iraq”.ppt by lovemacromastia


									Political Debate in the New Iraq
      Dr. Ibrahim Al-Marashi
       Sabanci University
        February 2, 2006
         almarashi@sabanciuniv.edu
Examining Media in Iraq
   “bubble of identity”- coterminous with the
    boundaries of the state
   State seeks to regulate images within the bubble
   New Iraq – “bubbles within a bubble”
   Restrict what images come into the bubble from
    the outside
       (Iran, the US, insurgency)
       Media intervention vs. media assistance
            US did both in Iraq
Identity of the state
   What is the identity of the Iraqi state
   Does it exist at this point
   Critics argue it is Shia-Kurdish alliance of
   The leaders want to hide this fact
   What role does the state media play in
    forming this identity?
Media in Iraq as of Today
   Media Spheres in Iraq
   Iraqi political factions use Al-Iraqiyya to
    send their message
   At the same time they have their own
    partisan sat channel and newspaper
   Those who don‟t have access to al-Iraqiyya
    use al-Sharqiyya or al-Jazira
   Eventually formed their own channel
Iraqi Political Factions


                             Sunni                                    Shia                                   Miscellaneous*

      Front For Iraqi                                                                National Iraq
                                        United Iraqi Coalition
       Conciliation                                                                (Liberal Secular)

  Front for Iraqi Dialogue              Independent Karbala
                                                                                Peace and Brotherhood
         In Kirkuk                            Alliance

    Unified Iraqi Front               Nationalists Human Rights                   Justice and Future

    National Liberation                                                       National Mesopotamia List
                                     Hizb Dawa and Popular Base
          Front                                                                       Christian

    National Unity List                                                      Allegiance Grouping of Basra

                                                                                Alusi List for the People
       The Arab List
                                                                                         Of Iraq

    Kurdistan Alliance
                                                                                      Sun of Iraq

                                                                             The Iraqi National Conference

                                                                                   The Nationalists
1) Shia Political Parties/UIA
    dominated by two Islamist parties
1.   the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in
     Iraq (SCIRI), led by „Abd al-„Aziz al-Hakim
2.   the Da‟wa Party led by Ibrahim al-Ja‟fari.
    Ja‟fari served as Iraq‟s interim Prime Minister
     after the January 2005 vote.
    The two parties have sought a role for Islam in
     the state, and aim to ensure Iraq‟s Islamic identity
     and character.
    The young cleric Muqtada Sadr joined the
     Alliance prior to the December 2005 elections.
2) Kurdish Political Parties/KCL
   KDP (Kurdish Democratic Party) led by Masud
    Barazani and the PUK (Patriotic Unions of
    Kurdistan) led by Jalal Talabani are the two most
    dominant factions within the Kurdish Coalition List
   Talabani became Iraq‟s President, while the
    KDP‟s Zebari served as Iraq‟s Foreign Minister.
   Expands the de-facto autonomy they have
    enjoyed since 1991, and aim to formally enshrine
    this autonomy within a new Iraqi state
3) Sunni Political Parties/ Tawafuq
   A number of parties, competing to serve as the united
    voice of the Sunnis.
   Iraqi Islamic Party (IIP, led by Muhsin „Abd al-Hamid)
   the Association of Muslim Scholars (AMS, led by
    Muthanna and Harith al-Dari)
   the National Dialogue Council (NDC, led by Salih al-
   General Dialogue Conference (GDC, by „Adnan al-
    Dulaymi). prevent the disintegration of Iraq
   fear a federal entity in the north and south could lead to
    the dismembering of the nation, leaving the Sunnis in a
    landlocked rump state, with no access to the oil
4) Non-Aligned Factions
   Non sectarian, non ethnic
   Secular groups, such as the Iraqi National
    Accord led by Iyad „Allawi
   the Iraqi Communist Party,
Why Study Satellite Channels?
    Opposed to terrestrial channels can reach
     a wider audience
1.   Iraqis
2.   Iraqi diaspora (UK, US, Jordan, Iran)
3.   Arab world
4.   “Kurdish world”
Al-Iraqiyya – “Iraqiness,” “of Iraq”
   Al-Iraqiyya television, formerly known as Iraqi
    Media Network [IMN] television began
    transmission on 13 May 2003
   Official discourse of the state
   tries to display the bright side of Iraq rather than
    the destruction, blood shed, or killings
   highlights issues of "national unity"
   Both Arabic and Kurdish programs
   Friday sermons feature both Shiite and Sunni
    preacher disregard sectarian differences.
Al-Iraqiyya – Security Operations
   crackdowns, arrests, and "heroics" of Iraqi security
    forces in their showdown with the "terrorists" in Iraq.
   Neglects the losses of the Iraqi security services,
   average Iraqis commend the traits and operations of
    Iraqi security forces against terrorists and suppresses
    footage of Iraqi civilian and military casualties.
   extensive reporting on "Operation Lightning" on 1
    through 7 June, the station's correspondents are
    observed to air interviews with Iraqi citizens, updates on
    toll of captured "terrorists"
   Terrorism in the Hand of Justice: A daily program,
    1705, "confession" to their "crimes and acts of
   To prove the insurgency is not some kind of
    "noble struggle for freedom", rather the work of
    criminals working for personal gain.
   questioning the voracity of the confessions it airs.
   similar program "The Real Terrorism", which airs
    on the Kurdistan Democratic Party-run channel
    Kurdistan TV.
Al-Iraqiyya - Religion
   Shari'ah: Questions and Answers: A live
    phone-in program at 1215 on Fridays.
    Imam Abdallah Abu-al-Harith, discuss
    "tolerance of Islam" in Iraq.
   The station carries the "Shiite" call to
Al-Iraqiyya - PSAs
   Special ads to denounce killing of doctors
   Promos to encourage voting and joining the
    police forces
Al-Furat – “The Euphrates”
   4 Nov 2004 started broadcasting
   SCIRI channel
   Supplements the paper al-Adalah
Furat – SCIRI influences
 songs celebrate the trial of the "tyrant
  ruler and his regime"
 footage of mass graves
 national songs celebrate the constitution
Furat – Security Issues
   Channel Defends Government Actions
   “achievements of the Iraqi Government”
   implementation of development projects and the
    improvement of the state of security.
   video reports highlights operations conducted
    by Iraqi/multinational forces.
   restore security and "wipe out" Al-Qa'ida in Iraq
   Iraqi Interior Ministry's underground prison was
    not a lead news item
Furat - Terrorism
   song condemns the "silence" of some Arab
    states regarding the crimes committed by
    "terrorists" in Iraq.
   Amman bombings in Nov 2005, Al-Furat: "Why
    is terrorism in Iraq not duly condemned?"
   "Terrorism is promoted by most preachers in
    Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt, and what
    happened in Amman is one of the results of
    such irresponsible support for terrorism."
Furat – SCIRI Agenda
 highlights the statements of SCIRI head
  Abdul Aziz al-Hakim
 songs promote unity among the various
  Iraqi sects
 Glorify the late M. Baqir al-Hakim and al-
 ads promote UIC in the December
  elections, not other coalitions
Furat - Shows
 "With the National Assembly“
 "Al-Furat and the People," phone-in
 "Fiqh Imam Al-Mustafa“
 Friday Sermons – Shi‟a Imams
 Islamic cartoon show, "The Most Virtuous
  People on Earth."
   began in August 2005
   Arab Sunni Islamist
   “The truth. . .In detail.”
   Supplements the papers Al-Itisam and Basair
   Affiliated with the Iraqi al -Tawafuq Front
       carries live Al-Tawafuq press conferences
Baghdad - Islamist Leanings
   music videos are religious in nature some
    secular nationalist songs, but no
    entertainment songs like Al-Sharqiyya
   begins ands end with Quranic recitations
   news anchorwomen wear the hijab
Baghdad – linked to Sunni Arab
   phone-in programs callers are virtually all
    Sunni Arabs who voice their opinions on
    political, religious, or social issues
   Sunni call for prayer
   Friday sermons from Sunni mosques
Baghdad – links to AMS
   Praised by the AMS‟ Basa‟ir news: "the launching of
    the Baghdad Satellite Channel is an important step
    in the right direction, particularly in view of the
    influential role that media can play, and which we
    have missed over the past two years, in uncovering
    the facts that have been obliterated and wiped out
    by the US-politicized forces“
Baghdad – Security Issues
   refers to "the occupation forces" (quwwat
   highlights US troop losses and the attacks
    that caused them
   refers to insurgents as "armed men“
    (musalihin) but avoids the term "terrorists“
Baghdad – Socio-Political Programs
   "Your Place is Empty" -- on Iraqi prisoners,
    features interviews with families about who
    arrested them, how they were treated.
   "Baghdad Daily" -- A Daily program at 1815
    BST, asking the common man on the street
    about issues of political concern.
Baghdad - Religious Programs
   "Explaining the Holy Koran“
   "In the Shadows of the Shari'ah“
   "Fatwas on Air"
   "Friday Pulpit"
Kurdish Media
   Kurdistan Satellite Channel operated by the
    Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP)
   Supplements Taakhi
   KurdSat, operated by the Patriotic Union of
    Kurdistan (PUK).
   Supplements Ittihad and Kurdistan Nuwe
Kurdistan Satellite TV
   began in 1999
   Karawan Aqrawi-Station manager :
    “acquainting the world with a true picture of
    the civil society we are trying to implant in
    Kurdistan, which can become the model for
    an independent Iraq, and to assert our
    desire to coexist with other Iraqi tribal
    groupings and ethnicities."
Kurdistan Satellite TV - headlines
   KDP, leader Barzani meets Iran's Supreme Security
    Council Secretary Hasan Rohani; stability in Iraq,
    bilateral ties discussed
   The head of the KDP-led Kurdistan regional government
    Nechirvan Barzani meets Yezidi delegation residing in
   KDP Political Bureau Secretary Fadhil Mirani briefs
    party officials in Branch-2 in Arbil
   US forces reportedly bombards few sites in Al-Fallujah
    where Abu-Mus'ab al-Zarqawi supporters said hiding
   People in Zakho held a peaceful demonstration to
    condemn recent beheading of three men from the town
    and killing of 12 Kurdish police officers in Khanaqin
   Launched in 2000
   Arabic broadcasts 5 to 6 hours
   Awat Najm El Din, director, "we enjoy complete
    independence regarding the message we adopt in
    our live open-mike talk shows. Our listeners say
    everything and often cross the boundaries to
    express views opposing the policies of the
    Patriotic Union. This affirms the breadth of
    freedom granted to our political programs."
KurdSat – headlines news items
   PUK-led forces held a military parade in Saray
    Subhanagha area in the presence of leader
    Jalal Talabani and other party officials.
   The head of PUK-led Kurdistan regional
    government Umar Fattah meets group of
    Egyptian journalists; Fattah said Kurds
    appreciate being part of federal and democratic
   One killed and several others injured as a rocket
    hit Karradah District in Baghdad.
   South Korean forces delegation visits Kurdistan
    parliament, bilateral relations discussed.
   addressing the Arab
   introducing the
    Kurdish cause to the
   reach the Kurdish
Turkomeneli Television
   “The duration of the Kurdish programs prevails
    over the Turkomani programs.”
   “The employees in the organization are not
    independent and do not work to the procedure
    and objectives sought by the coalition forces in
    the city, but follow the approach of the Kurdish
   broadcasts terrestrially in Arabic and Turkoman
    from Kirkuk
   Recently started broadcasting via satellite
Shariqiyya – Of The East
   Al-Sharqiyya: new TV station of Sa'd al-Bazzaz
   Began in March 2004
   addresses "the plight of Iraq's majority,"
    “women's issues” and "differences of opinion."
   "Al-Sharqiyya - the truth television," and "Al-
    Sharqiyya - We are not afraid of telling the truth
    though we might be blamed."
   No religious programs
   All shows are in Iraqi dialect
   Depends of advertising revenues
Election Coverage Dec 15 2005, 300 -
500 PM
   Iraqiyya
   300 BST a 15-min newscast reviewing the course of the
    electoral process since the early morning hours and
    broadcasting excerpts of Iraqi high-ranking officials
    including Iraqi Prime Minister Ibrahim al-Ja'fari, SCIRI
    leader Al-Hakim, Former Iraqi Prime Minister Iyad Allawi
    and others.
   At 415 BST, Al-Ta'i interviews Interior Minister Baqir al-
    Zubaydi who says the security measures taken in these
    elections are better than those taken in the referendum
    because the performance of the security forces has
    significantly improved as well as their large-scale
    deployment all over Iraq.
Election Coverage Dec 15 2005
   Furat
   355 BST screen caption: "His eminence Al-Hakim visits
    the IECI offices to follow up on the complications that
    have prevented Iraqis from casting their votes in many
    polling stations.“
   420 BST interview National Security Advisor, Dr
    Muwaffaq al-Rubay'i, who describes grand Ayatollah Ali
    al-Sistani as a "godsend" to the Iraqi people in a very
    critical time in their history. Al-Rubay'i praises Al-Sistani
    and his efforts, which, according to him, prevent a break
    out of a "civil war" in Iraq.
Election Coverage Dec 15 2005
   Baghdad
   At 300 BST, elections summary then songs that
    glorify Arab unity and the Islamic spirit of Arabs.
   At 315 BST, clip on the "US occupation of Iraq."
    The announcer-read report over video provides a
    briefing on the main political events that Iraq has
    seen since April 2003. The report criticizes the US
    practices in Iraq while it hails "resistance.“
   At 322 BST, songs urge the Iraqis to participate in
    the elections. The songs are aired over clips of
    Iraqis heading for ballot centers.
Election Coverage Dec 15 2005
   KurdSat TV Iraqi President Talabani's media address
    after casting his vote in Sulaymaniyah. He called for a
    parliament representing all Iraqis and urged the Iraq
    people to vote. Recently-turned 18 year olds youths
    could not vote for some technical failures in the city of
    Sulaymaniyah. The station appealed to the relevant
    authorities to resolve the problem during the day.
   Kurdistan Satellite TV President of Iraqi Kurdistan
    Region Mas'ud Barzani's media address after casting
    his vote in Irbil. Nechirvan Barzani's address after
    casting his vote. The two leaders were optimistic about
    the turnout and described the day as historic.
Concluding Remarks
   The media in Iraq serve as a reflection of
    the development of the state
   Is there an Iraqi state?
   States within a weak state
Credits and further information
   Open Source Center
   “Iraq”
   www.fbis.gov

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