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Pilgrims and Puritans Calvinism comes to 17th Century America.ppt

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 29

									                   Pilgrims and Puritans:
             Calvinism comes to 17th Century America



             “From the Reformation to the Constitution”
                               Bill Petro
                 your friendly neighborhood historian


                        www.billpetro.com/v7pc
05/02/2010                                                1
                              Objectives
              By the end of this session you should be able to


• Trace the growth of religion in America

• Examine differences between Pilgrims & Puritans

• Detail distinctives of American Puritanism

• Outline the decline of New England theology

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                      Reformation Traditions
             1517             Luther - Melanchthon

                                      Lutheran                Lutheranism
                                                               Episcopal
                      1532                Calvin - Beza

                                           French-Swiss


              1519                Zwingli - Bullinger

                                     German-Swiss
                                                          }   Reformed
                                                               Presbyterian
                                                               Scottish Presbyterian
                                                               Dutch Reformed

                    1525      Grebel – Manz - Simonsz         Anabaptist
                                                               Congregational
                                       Swiss Brethren
                                                               Mennonites
                                                               English Separatists
                                                               English Baptists

                       1536       Henry VIII - Cranmer
                                                              Anglican
                                              English          Episcopal
                                                               Church of England
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               American Church History
             Colonial           National               Modern

                         1787                 1865


             Calvinism      Arminianism           Liberalism
                            Biblistic Rationalism Subjectivism
                                                  Existentialism


        Theocentrism       Anthropocentrism          Liberalism

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                   Pilgrims
 • England → Holland →
   England → America
 • 1620: Plymouth to
   Plymouth Rock
 • 102 passengers
 • Mayflower Compact
 • Plymouth Colony:
   1st permanent New
   England settlement
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             Plymouth Rock




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                  First Thanksgiving
• 1621
• Gov Wm. Bradford
  proclaimed:

     “a day of thanksgiving and
     prayer”




• More: billpetro.com/holidayhistory

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                            Puritans

     • Non-separating Congregationalists
             – Each congregation independent

     • Church of England: true church
     • Repentant church membership
     • England might imitate their “New England.”

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              Puritan Grievances
• Marian Exiles returned under Elizabeth
• James I: a sympathetic Protestant?
• Charles I married Henrietta Maria, Catholic princess
• Catholic lords given important posts
• Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud’s
  “Roman practices”
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               John Winthrop
 • 1630-1649
 • Governor of
   Massachusetts Bay
   Company
 • Founder of Boston
 • Sermon: “Model of
   Christian Charity”
    – “City upon a Hill”
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Colonies:
 1650




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                  Pilgrims vs. Puritans
     Few                             Many

     Early (1620)                    Later (1629-30)

     Poor class                      Upper middle class

     Uneducated                      Educated

     Separatists from state church   Loyal

     Settled in Plymouth             Salem, Boston

     Wm. Bradford, Wm. Brewster      John Endicott, Miles Standish,
05/02/2010                           John Winthrop               17
             Puritan: Myths vs. Reality
“Haunting fear that someone, Books, music, beer, rum,
somewhere may be happy”      swam, skated, bowled

Wore black                   Blue, violet, green, yellow

Narrow minded                +100: Oxford & Cambridge

“Dumme Doggs”                Established Harvard after 6 years

Women sheltered              Literate, well read, managed household

Song-less                    A capella, in unison

Minority                     1776: 75% of Puritan roots
05/02/2010                                                       18
        The New
        England
         Primer
         (1683)




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        Education in Puritan New England
               Private Education
                 Reading, Writing
                Grammar School
           Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic
               Latin, Greek, Hebrew
                     College
    Arts: Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, Arithmetic,
               Geometry, Astronomy
 Philosophies: Metaphysics, Ethics, Natural Science
       Also: Greek, Hebrew, Ancient History
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             “Plain” Puritan Sermons
     • Text

     • Doctrine

     • Uses

     • Applications

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     New England Bible Commonwealths

     • Sought guidance of Scripture for all
         aspects of citizen’s lives


     • Scripture authority in criminal statutes



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      The English Bible in the 16th Century
  •    Wycliffe            1380
  •    Gutenberg           1450
  •    Tyndale             1525
  •    Coverdale           1535
  •    Matthew             1537
  •    Taverner            1539      Less than
  •    Great               1539      100 years:
                                     9 translations
  •    Geneva              1560
  •    Bishops’            1568
  •    Rheims-Douai (NT)   1582
  •    King James          1611
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                  Geneva Bible
 • 1560 in Geneva
 • Leader: William Whittingham,
   sister of John Calvin
 • Used by the Pilgrims & Puritans
   in New England
 • 1560 – 1630: 200 editions
 • Bible of Shakespeare, Bunyan,
   Cromwell’s Army


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                        KJV Bible
     • Committee of English
         scholars between 1607-1611
     • "Authorized Version”
     • 1st carried by John Winthrop
         to Massachusetts in 1630
     • Supplanted Geneva Bible


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             Puritan Ecclesiastical Theory
                                   Church Privileges:
                                   •Communion
                                   •Church Offices
        Grace         Church
        Covenant      Covenant
                                   Political Privileges:
                                   •Elections
       •Spiritual     •Physical    •Civic Offices
       •Invisible     •Visible



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        Decline of New England Theology
        • 1643: 11% church membership
             – Preaching of the “Jeremiad”
        • 1657: Half-Way Covenant
             – Secularized state
        • 1677: Stoddardeanism: Very open Communion
             – Secularized church
        • 1691: Massachusetts a Royal Colony
             – No religious bans
        • 1692: Salem Witch Trials
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             Salem Witch Trials




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                  1-Word Summary
     •   Catholic Church   Merit
     •   Luther            Justification
     •   Zwingli           Sovereignty
     •   Anabaptists       Believer’s Baptism
     •   Calvin            Omnipotence
     •   Arminius          Ability
     •   “Calvinism”       TULIP
     •   Knox              Thundering
     •   Henry VIII        Married
     •   Pilgrims          Separatists
     •   Puritans          Saints
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