Intelligence and Creativity What is intelligence? The ability to acquire knowledge (learn & understand), apply knowledge (solve problems), and engage in abstract reasoning. Elements: • Ability to set and work towards a goal • Ability to adapt and adjust to new situations • Ability to comprehend and understand challenges/problems • Ability to evaluate solutions How is intelligence measured? • Intelligence testing: mental age and Intelligence quotient (IQ) • Mental age: the age level at which the test-taker is able to complete problems • IQ: Mental age X 100 = IQ Physical age Measuring Intelligence A six year old completes an IQ test as well as most eight year olds. What is the mental age and the IQ of this child? A 15-year old does as well on the test as most 12-year olds. What is the mental age and IQ of this child? Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test • Alfred Binet: designed the first intelligence test to help identify students who need special instruction in school. • Binet‟s test was later modified at Stanford University • Still used today (100 years later) • Tests the four elements of intelligence in increasing difficulty • Primarily designed for school-aged kids Wechsler Scale • Stanford-Binet test is not accurate for adults because it is almost all verbal • Wechsler scale assesses verbal intelligence and non-verbal reasoning/performance. • More accurate for adults Test Examples: Which one of these does not conform to the others? Test Examples Which one of these does not conform to the others? Test Examples Which two shapes can fitted together to make the larger shape? Test Examples Which larger shape would be made if the two sections are fitted together? Choose Your Answer Test Examples Choose the image that mirrors the same shape: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Test Examples Sarah needs 11 bottles of water from the store. Sarah can only carry 3 at a time. What's the minimum number of trips Sarah needs to make to the store? Choose Your Answer 1) 5 2) 4 ½ 3) 1/2 4) 5 ½ 5) 4 Test Examples Which number is next in the sequence: 5 10 15 10 ? Choose Your Answer 1) 9 2) 10 3) 5 4) 15 Test Examples Question ELVIS is to LIVES as 72945 is to _______: Choose Your Answer 1) 24975 2) 54927 3) 24579 4) 24957 Test Examples Which one of the five is least like the other four? Choose Your Answer: 1) Giraffe 2) Cow 3) Dog 4) Bird 5) Llama Test Examples Pen is to paper as brush is to _______: Choose Your Answer: 1) Paint 2) Air 3) Oil 4) Canvas Test Examples If all Moops are Tazzies and all Tazzies are Fazzies, then all Moops are definitely Fazzies? Choose your answer: True False Test Examples Choose the word most similar to spy: Choose Your Answer: 1) Hostile 2) Rock 3) Hidden 4) Observation Test Examples Choose the word that does not belong with the others: Choose Your Answer 1) Laser 2) Sun 3) Moon 4) Space 5) Planet Test Examples If you rearrange the letters "NAKSE" you have the name of a: Choose Your Answer: 1) Animal 2) Country 3) State 4) City 5) Ocean IQ Scales/Scores Below 70: mentally retarded (~2%) 70-80: borderline MR (~7%) 80-90: low average (~16%) 90-110: average (50%) 110-120: high average (~16%) 120-130: superior (~7%) Above 130: Very superior (~2%) You mean those are real words? Real intelligence terms based on Wechsler: 1- Profound Idiot: (profound MR) - score 1-10 points in Wechsler IQ test scale. 2- Severe Idiot: (severe MR) - scores 11-25 points 3- Imbecile: (moderate MR) - score 26-40 points. Their mental age is no more than a child of five years old. 4- Moron: score 41-55 points. Their mental development equals that of a child of 8-12 years old. 5- Border Line: score 56-70 points on a Wechsler IQ test scale. What is genius? • Genius: 126-130 • Super-genius: greater than 130 Highest ever recorded? Marilyn vos Savant has an approximate IQ of 228. At that level, IQ is almost impossible to measure with accuracy. Causes for Intelligence • Strong genetic component – Identical twins have closer IQs than fraternal twins – Natural children‟s IQs are more similar to their parents/siblings than adopted children‟s IQs • Environmental component – Nutrition – Stimulating environment during development Causes for Retardation Physical: 20% (usually result in severe to profound retardation) • Injury/Disease • Extreme malnutrition • Lack of oxygen at birth • Toxic chemical exposure Environmental (usually linked to poverty) • Lack of stimulation • Alcohol/drug abuse by pregnant mom • Poor nutrition Savant Syndrome Person with below-normal mental capacity possesses particular talent or ability Causes unknown Rainman Creativity • Ability to consistently create original, workable ideas • Ability to deviate from the expected • Ability to „break set‟ • Not measurable by standard IQ tests • Not necessarily correlated with high IQ What is ‘breaking set?’ Set = tendency to use the same strategy or solution over and over again – even when it doesn‟t work Breaking set = new, unexpected solutions or ideas; using something in a way that is different from the normal way Creative solutions are unusual, but effective Measuring Creativity Write a story about this man on an airplane Measuring Creativity Use some or all of the objects below to mount a candle on the wall Measuring Creativity List as many uses as possible for a brick Creative Students • Not often identified as the „brightest‟ • Above average IQ, but only slightly • Often unpredictable & disruptive • May be silly and tend to contradict teachers • Not often „teacher‟s pets‟ • Accomplishments are not always achieved in the usual way Quiz 1. Define 3 components of intelligence 2. What is the name of the intelligence test given to school kids? 3. What is the name of the intelligence test given to adults? 4. A person is tested to have an IQ of 75. What will their intelligence level be listed as? 5. At what score is a person considered to be mentally retarded? 6. How will a person with an IQ of 148 will be listed? A six year old taking an IQ test is able to consistently answer questions that most nine year old students are able to answer. 7. What is this child‟s IQ? 8. What is this child‟s mental age? 9. What are two things that an intelligent person may be able to do better than a person with normal or below average intelligence? 10.What does the “E” in E = mc 2 mean, and who come up with the formula? Quiz #2 1. What IQ test is normally given to school kids? If a nine-year old student tests at a six- year old level: 2. What is their mental age? 3. What is their IQ? 4. What range of intelligence does this score put them into? 5. Name three things that may contribute to intelligence 6. Name three things that may contribute to retardation 7. What is a savant? Guilford test for creativity Plot Titles, where participants are given the plot of a story and asked to write original titles. Quick Responses is a word-association test scored for uncommonness. Figure Concepts, where participants were given simple drawings of objects and individuals and asked to find qualities or features that are common by two or more drawings; these were scored for uncommonness. Unusual Uses is finding unusual uses for common everyday objects such as bricks. Remote Associations, where participants are asked to find a word between two given words (e.g. Hand _____ Call) Remote Consequences, where participants are asked to generate a list of consequences of unexpected events (e.g. loss of gravity) Torrance Test of Creativity • Fluency. The total number of interpretable, meaningful, and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus. • Flexibility. The number of different categories of relevant responses. • Originality. The statistical rarity of the responses among the test subjects. • Elaboration. The amount of detail in the responses.