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					Converting Waste Plastics into Fuel

                     Report on
       Situation Analysis of Existing
    Solid Waste Management System
 for Bangkok Metropolitan Administration

                      Prepared for
           United Nations Environment Program
   International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC)
                             Table of Contents

List of Tables                                                    i
List of Figures                                                   ii
Executive Summary

Chapter 1   Regulatory Framework                                       1
1.1         Overview of Regulatory Framework                           1
1.2         Description of Regulatory Framework on Solid Waste        10
      1.2.1 National Level                                            10
      1.2.2 Provincial Level                                          22
      1.2.3 Local Level                                               22
1.3         Technical Guidelines                                      24
1.4         Gap Analysis for Regulatory Framework                     25
Chapter 2   Description of Institutions Involved in SWM               27
2.1         Overview of Institutional Framework                       27
2.2         Roles and Responsibilities of Relevant Authorities,       28
            Institutions and Organizations
      2.2.1 National Level                                            28
      2.2.2 Provincial and Local Levels                               34
      2.2.3 Private Sectors and Civil Society                         39
2.3         Gap Analysis                                              40
Chapter 3   Description of Financial Mechanism for SWM                41
3.1         Overview of Financial Mechanism                           41
3.2         Total Income Generation                                   42
3.3         Income Generation Through Environmental Services          45
3.4         Total Expenditure for Solid Waste Management              47
3.5         Summary of Financial Situation in Waste Management        49
            at BMA
3.6         Gap Analysis                                        50
Chapter 4   Technology Used for Solid Waste Management          51
4.1         Existing Solid Waste Management Mechanisms in BMA   51
      4.1.1 Household Waste                                     53
      4.1.2 Hazardous Waste                                     54
      4.1.3 Infectious Waste                                    56
4.2         Description of Technology Used for Solid Waste      57
      4.2.1 Primary Collection and Transport                    57
      4.2.2 Secondary Collection at Waste Transfer Sites        59
      4.2.3 Final Disposal                                      60
      4.2.4 Recycling and Resource Recovery                     62
4.3         Gap Analysis                                        63
Chapter 5   Conclusion                                          64
            Reference                                           65
                               List of Tables

Table 1    Summary of regulatory framework related to SWM in Bangkok

Table 2    The zoning of Bangkok

Table 3    BMA’s budget expenditure appropriation by activities, fiscal year

Table 4    Comparison of collected fees and waste collection and disposal

Table 5    Fee collection operation results of 50 district offices during fiscal
           year 2001 to 2004

Table 6    Breakdown of waste collection cost in BMA

Table 7    Comparison of expected generation and collected amount of
           hazardous waste

Table 8    Number of BMA’s waste collection trucks

Table 9    General information of transfer stations

Table 10   Standard structures of landfill sites
                            List of Figures

Figure 1   Integrated waste management scheme based on waste to
           energy concept

Figure 2   Central government organizations related to the SWM

Figure 3   Zoning map of Bangkok Districts

Figure 4   Organization chart for the Department of Environment

Figure 5   Financial situation of BMA from budget year 1998 to 2003

Figure 6   Distribution of revenue from taxes in 2002

Figure 7   Solid waste management of BMA

Figure 8   Sorting and Management of Solid waste in BMA

Figure 9   Hazardous Waste Management Scheme of BMA

BMA        = Bangkok Metropolitan Administration

DEQP       = Department of Environmental Quality Promotion

DIW        = Department of Industrial Works

EIA        = Environmental Impact Assessment

MNRE       = Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

MoP        = Ministry of Public Health

MoIND      = Ministry of Industry

MoINT      = Ministry of Interior

NEB        =National Environmental Board

NEQA       = National Environmental Quality Act

NGOs       = Non Governmental Organizations

OEPP       =Office of Environmental Policy and Planning

ONEP       = Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy

PAO        = Provincial Administrative Organizations

PCAs       = Pollution Control Areas

PCD        = Pollution Control Department

PHA        = Public Health Act

PPP        = Polluter Pay Principles

SWM        = Solid Waste Management

TAO        = Tambon (Sub-district) Administrative Organization

      Municipal solid waste has become major environmental problem in
countries all over the world.   Problem of municipal solid waste does not
concern only increasing quantity of waste generated but also additional
complexity of waste components as new materials are being developed.

      Although both developed and developing countries are facing with solid
waste management problem, nature of problem is different.        Developed
country may face with increasing waste total quantity of waste, that with
appropriate waste management system the problem can be solved partially.
Concerns may focus on treatment technology for complex man-made
materials such as plastics and other packaging materials.

      In contrary, nature of waste in developing countries is mainly organic
and recyclable materials.   Rapid increase in number of population together
with changing consumption behavior has contributed to solid waste problem.
Additionally, waste management system employed may not be effective or

      Effective solid waste management systems can help reduce quantity of
waste to be transported to final disposal sites, expanding the life time of
disposal sites, reduce quantity of natural resources to be extracted via
implementation of reuse and recycle scheme.          Integrated solid waste
management aims to convert waste materials to valuable resources seems to
be a promising solution for future effective waste management.

      In order to improve waste management systems in developing
countries, comprehensive data on present and future waste situation, policy
and legal framework, financial support, capacity of local government, and
development plans is of essential. Stages of waste management need to be
identified to have clear understanding and develop further management plan
that will bridge the gap between each stage.
                            Executive Summary

     Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand is a mega-city located in the center
of the country on the low flat plain of Chao Phraya River, which extended to
the Gulf of Thailand. Within the area of Bangkok, the city is divided into 50
districts and 154 sub-districts. Urbanized area has speeded to cover almost
half of the city area.

     With an area of 1,568.737 sq. km., it ranks 68th in size out of the
country’s 76 provinces but has the largest population and population density.
The total population in Bangkok as of 2003 was 5,844,607 person residing in
Bangkok, which was approximately 10% of the total population of Thailand.
The population density is 3,726 persons/sq. km.         However, the actual
population may not be known, as there are many people commute to work in
Bangkok or live in the city without registration.

     The increasing quantity of solid wastes in Bangkok has caused serious
environmental problems which in turn deteriorate quality of life of urban
populations.    Rapid increase of wastes due to the trends of increasing
population, mass production and mass consumption has make it difficult for
authorities to manage solid waste properly.

     Quantity of general solid waste had increased from 3,260 tons per day in
1985 to that of 6,633 tons per day in 1995 and 9,472 tons per day in 2002.
Solid waste mainly consists of food wastes, plastic and foams and papers.
The other type of waste is hazardous waste that consists of infectious waste
from hospitals, household hazardous waste, electronic waste and industrial
hazardous waste from manufacturing process.

     Existing waste management system includes three man steps;

         •   Primary collection and transportation from generation points to
             one of the three transfer stations

         •   Waste remains at transfer station, some material recovery
             activities can be found at this step. Healthcare hazardous wastes
             are being treated with incinerator. Part of organic waste is used as
             raw material for compost production.

         •   Transfer of waste from transfer stations to final waste disposal
             sites, which are sanitary landfill sites approximately 100 km from

      Rate of material recovery is still low and it is done in both formal and
informal ways. Most of the materials recycled are metal and paper waste.
Informal material recovery can be done at waste generation source itself and
also by the informal sorting of materials by waste collector along waste
collection route.    Increasing material recovery can be used as means to
reduce waste to be transported and disposed as well as the reduction in
quantity of natural resources to be extracted.      Although material recovery
initiatives are being implemented in different social sectors, however, policy
and    economic     incentives   should   be   emphasized     to   promote   the
implementation of such program.

      In term of financial support, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA)
has budget surplus for most fiscal years.       However, the income of BMA
comes from taxes more than from collection of service fee for environmental
services. Hugh amount of budget has to be allocated to waste management
operation. When looking at expenses in waste management, cost of waste
collection is a lot higher than waste disposal cost, which indicates inefficiency
in collection system as well as possibility in improving the weak points.
                                 Chapter 1

                         Regulatory Framework

1.1 Overview of Regulatory Framework

The regulatory framework related to solid waste management (SWM) in
Thailand can be classified into three levels which are the National, Provincial
and Local levels. There are numbers of Laws/Acts, Regulations, Standards,
and Technical Guidelines to overlook the management of sold waste in the
country. Significant items have been summarized in Table 1.

Table 1 Summary of regulatory framework related to SWM in Bangkok area.

Focal Area        Policies                   Laws/ Acts                   Regulations/Standards/            Economic

                                                                          Guidelines                        Instruments

Overall           National Solid Waste       The Constitution of the      None                              None
                  Management Policy          Kingdom of Thailand
                                             B.E.2550 (2007)

                  Framework for Country’s    The Enhancement and            •     Ministerial Regulation:   None
                  Environmental Quality      Conservation of National     # 9 (1998) Issued in the Royal
                                             Environmental Quality Act    Gazette Dated 25 December
                                             (NEQA), 1992                 1998.

                                                                            •     Notification of the
                                                                          Ministry of Science,
                                                                          Technology and Environment,
                                                                          Issued under the NEQA, and
                                                                          published in the Royal
                                                                          Gazette Dated 7 August,

                                                    •     Notification of the
                                                  Ministry of Science,
                                                  Technology and Environment
                                                  #3, Issued under the NEQA,
                                                  and Published in the Royal
                                                  Gazette Dated 13 February,

                                                    •     Notification of the
                                                  Ministry of Science,
                                                  Technology and Environment,
                                                  Re: Specifying Conditions,
                                                  Procedures and Guidelines
                                                  for Preparing Reports on
                                                  Environmental Impact

Sanitation and   None   Public Health Act, 1992
disposal of
solid waste

Household    None   Public Cleanliness and       •   BMA          Ordinance:
waste               Orderliness Act (PCOA),   Disposal of Garbage, Refuse
management          1992                      and Unclean Thing 1978

                                                 •   BMA          Ordinance:
                                              Disposal of Garbage, Refuse
                                              and Unclean Thing 1978

                                                 •   BMA          Ordinance:
                                              Specifying Requirements for
                                              Construction of Building and
                                              Public Utilities 1996

                                                 •   BMA          Ordinance:
                                              Control of Waste Collection,
                                              Haulage,     or     Elimination
                                              Business which is made for
                                              Consideration as Service Fee

                                                                          • Notification of the
Industrial Waste      • National master     Factory Act, 1992
                                                                       Ministry of Industry
                   plan on the cleaner                                 Concerning Factory Wastes
                   production and cleaner
                   technology                                             •   Notification of Ministry
Hazardous                                   Hazardous Substance Act,
                                                                       of Industry Concerning
Waste                                       1992
Management                                                             Storage and Disposal of Toxic
                                            Hazardous Substance Act,
                                                                       Substances 1982
                                                                          •   Poisonous Substances
                                                                       Act 1967, amended in 1973
                                                                          •   Notification of Ministry
                                                                       of Industry Concerning
                                                                       Industrial Effluent Standards
                                                                          •   Notification of Ministry
                                                                       of Industry concerning
                                                                       manufacture and use of toxic
                                                                       substances 1982
                                                                          •   Notification of Ministry
                                                                       of Industry Re: Hazardous

                                                                           waste manifest system B.E.
                                                                           2547 (2004)

Source           Strategic Plan on         Industrial Estate Act, 1979
Reduction        Packaging and Packaging
                 Waste Management

                 None                      Construction Building Control
                                           Act, 1979

                 None                      City Planning Act 1975

                                           None                            None
Segregation of   None                                                                                        None

Transportation   None                      None                            BMA’s Technical Guideline
and Transfer                                                               for Solid Waste Operator

                                                                              •   Notification of Ministry
Landfills        None                      Factory Act, 1992
                                                                           of Industry Concerning
                                                                           Storage and Disposal of Toxic

                     Substances 1982

Incinerator   None   •     Notification of the
                     Ministry of Science,
                     Technology and Environment
                     B.E.2540 (1997) dated June
                     17, B.E.2540, published in the
                     Royal Government Gazette,
                     Vol. 114 Part 63, dated
                     August 7, B.E. 2540 (1997)

                     •     Notification of the
                     Ministry of Science,
                     Technology and Environment
                     B.E.2540 (1997) dated June
                     17, B.E.2540, published in the
                     Royal Government Gazette,
                     Vol. 114 Part 63, dated
                     August 7, B.E. 2540 (1997)

                     •     Notification of Ministry

of Natural Resource and
Environment : Emission
Standard for Infected Waste
Incinerator published in the
Royal Government Gazette,
Vol. 120 Special Part 147 D,
dated December 25, B.E.
2546 (2003)

•     Notification of Ministry
of Natural Resource and
Environment : Infected Waste
Incinerator is designated as
Pollution Point Source which
its emission must be
controlled published in the
Royal Government Gazette,
Vol. 114 Special Part 147 D,
dated December 25, B.E.
2546 (2003)

Recycling        None   None   None

Resource         None   None   None

Construction     None   None   C&D waste is considered as
and Demolition                 part of municipal solid waste

1.2 Description of Regulatory Framework on Solid Waste Management

1.2.1 National Level

(A) National Environmental Policies and Plans

(A.1) Thai Government’s Policies

      Regarding to the Natural Resources and Environmental Policy, the
Government will implement an environment-friendly waste disposal system
and enhance waste disposal capacity of local administrative authorities. The
Government will also promote the private sector’s role in research and
development for recycling of raw material and clean technology. In addition,
the Government will not allow Thailand to become an end receiver of waste,
which has to bear the costs of industrial waste and pollution.

(A.2) National Integrated Waste Management Policy

      All important aspects in governing the country normally follow the set of
policies formulated.   Solid waste management, with no exception, has to
move toward national solid waste management policy.              The policy is
developed for integrated solid waste and waste water management. The
policy aimed to minimize waste generation by promoting 3Rs hierarchy
including promotion of source reduction and separation, waste stream
recovery for composting, material and energy uses. Biogas, heat and
electricity generated in the processes can be used in waste water treatment
plant. In terms of waste treatment facilities, more effort shall be put towards
an establishment of central solid waste management disposal facilities with
appropriate technology, privatization of services may be needed in order to
achieve high efficiency. The country shall implement the integrated waste
management system based on waste to energy concept (Figure 1).
Additionally, participation between public and private sectors is also

       In terms of policy implementation, the management of solid waste
employs Polluter Pay Principles (PPP) for all sectors in society. Privatization
or concession of services is also used as means to achieve effective solid
waste management.                Data base for waste management system shall be
updated and informed to all parties involved. Provincial government shall be
responsible for the preparation of land area to be used as long term waste
treatment facilities.

       As for the implementation of law and regulation measures, related
documents should be revised especially in terms of service fee, subsidy
schemes for waste reduction, and the promotion of local community
participation in waste management and monitoring of environmental quality
are emphasized.

                                                              Solid Waste


                Recyclable              Organic                             Combustible              Non-combustible

     Reuse                   Biogas               Compost          Incineration     Refuse Derived      Landfill
                                                                                     Fuel (RFD)

    Recycling                         Heat/Electricity                            Ash


Figure 1 Integrated waste management scheme based on waste to energy

        Other    kinds   of   implementation    measures    are    promotion   of
environmental education, research and development in environmentally sound
technologies, capacity building for government officers and related private
sectors, and environmental awareness raising for youths and local public.

(A.3) National Master Plan on the Cleaner Production and Cleaner

        For industrial waste management, the plan promoted the cleaner
production and cleaner technology in order to minimize pollutions from the
production line and other industrial activities as well as the pollutions or
hazardous substances in the product itself. In this regard, projects on waste
reduction in pulp and paper industry and in the plastic industry have been

(B) National Regulatory Framework

(B.1) The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand B.E.2550 (2007)

        According to The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand B.E.2550
(2007),      environmental    management   is   different   from   the   previous
constitutions. This law provides the public right to participate the prevention
and elimination of any actions that is to deteriorate natural resources and to
pollute the environment, some of the sections related to this statement are as

    •   Section 57 A person shall have the right to receive data, explanations
        and reasons from a Government agency, a State agency, a State
        enterprise or a local government organization prior to the approval or
        the operation of any project or activity which may affect the quality of
        the environment, health and sanitary conditions, the quality of life or
        any other material interest concerning such person or a local
        community and shall have the right to express his or her opinions to

    agencies concerned, for assisting further consideration of such matters.
    In planning social, economic, political and cultural development, or in
    undertaking expropriation, town and country planning, zoning and
    making by-laws likely to have impacts on essential interests of the
    public, the State shall cause to be held comprehensive public hearings
    prior thereto.

•   Section 66 Persons so assembling as to be a community, a local
    community or a traditional community shall have the right to conserve
    or restore their customs, local knowledge, good arts and culture of their
    community and of the nation and participate in the management,
    maintenance, preservation and exploitation of natural resources, the
    environment and the biological diversity in a balanced and sustainable

•   Section 67 The right of a person to give to the State and communities
    participation in the conservation, preservation and exploitation of
    natural resources and biological diversities and in the protection,
    promotion and preservation of the quality of the environment for regular
    and continued livelihood in the environment which is not hazardous to
    his or her health and sanitary condition, welfare or quality of life, shall
    be protected as appropriate.

•   Section 85 The State shall pursue directive principles of State policies
    in relation to land, natural resources and the environment, as follows:

       (1) to prescribe rules on land use which cover areas throughout the
           country, having regard to the consistency with natural
           surroundings, whether land areas, water surfaces, ways of life
           of local residents, and the efficient preservation of natural
           resources, and prescribe standards for sustainable land use,
           provided that residents in areas affected by such rules on land
           use shall also have due participation in the decision-making;

       (2) to distribute land holding in a fair manner, enable farmers to
            have ownership or rights in land for farming purposes
            thoroughly through land reform or otherwise, and provide water
            resources for sufficient use of water by farmers in a manner
            suitable for farming;

       (3) to provide town and country planning and carry out the
            development and action in the implementation of town and
            country plans in an efficient and effective manner in the interest
            of sustainable preservation of natural resources;

       (4) to provide a plan for managing water resources and other
            natural resources systematically and in a manner generating
            public interests, provided that the public shall have due
            participation in the preservation, maintenance and exploitation
            of natural resources and biological diversity in a balanced

       (5) promote, maintain and protect the quality of natural resources in
            accordance with the sustainable development principle, control
            and eradiate polluted conditions affecting health, sanitary
            conditions, welfare and the quality of life of the public, provided
            that members of the public, local residents and local
            government organizations shall have due participation in
            determining the direction of such work.

•   Section 290 A local government organization has powers and duties in
    connection with the promotion and maintenance of the quality of the
    environment as provided by law. The law under paragraph one shall at
    least    contain    the    following        matters     as    its     substance:
    (1) the management, preservation and exploitation of the natural
    resources     and    environment       in    the      area   of     the   locality;
    (2) the participation in the preservation of natural resources and
    environment outside the area of the locality only in the case where the

       livelihood   of    the     inhabitants    in   the    area   may   be     affected;
       (3) the participation in considering the initiation of any project or activity
       outside the area of the locality which may affect the quality of the
       environment, health or sanitary conditions of the inhabitant in the area;
       (4) the participation by local communities.

(B.2) The Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental
Quality Act (NEQA) 1992.

   At the national level, the NEQA of 1992 is the basic environmental
protection law for the country and establishes the role of Ministry of Natural
Resources and Environment (MNRE) in environmental planning, standard
setting, and monitoring.        Key points in the NEQA 1992 include the following

   •   the provision of the right of individuals to information, compensation
       and redress against violators, and the duty of individuals to assist and
       cooperate in enhancing and protecting the environment;

   •   a recognition of the role and standing of environmental NGOs;

   •   the provision for the Prime Minister or the delegated provincial
       governor to deal with emergencies or public danger arising from natural
       disasters or environmental pollution;

   •   the   creation      of     a     high-level    multi-representational     National
       Environmental Board (NEB) to oversee the coordinated response of
       ministries inter se and between central and provincial authorities;

   •   the reconstruction of environmental related agencies by setting up the
       Office of Environmental Policy and Planning (OEPP), Pollution Control
       Department        (PCD),       the   Department      of   Environmental    Quality
       Promotion (DEQP);

•   the establishment of an Environmental Fund from which resources will
    be drawn to combat environmental incidents and to enhance
    environmental    protection     efforts    like   research   and   training,
    disbursements of loans and grants, education, NGO funding etc. The
    fund provides grants to governmental agencies and low-interest loans
    to the private sectors who are engaged in the activities related to the
    improvement of the environment;

•   the formulation of a National Environmental Management Plan and the
    subsequent duties of government agencies to implement the Plan and
    of provinces to draw up corresponding Provincial Action Plans, if

•   the provision for the NEB to declare Pollution Control Areas (PCAs) in
    localities where particularly serious pollution concerns have arisen -
    contingent upon the declaration of a PCA, special measures may be
    taken to redress the problem in the area concerned, and a duty is
    henceforth imposed upon the provincial governor to draw up a
    Provincial Action Plan to redress the situation;

•   the provision for the declaration of Conservation and Environmentally
    Protected Areas in environmentally-fragile areas where special
    measures can be taken to protect sensitive natural ecosystems and
    wherein a Provincial Action Plan would have to be formulated by the
    provincial governor to address the concerns;

•   the provision for the NEB to assume jurisdictional competence over
    provinces    where    the     provincial    authorities   demonstrate    an
    unwillingness or incapacity to deal with a particular incident or to come
    up with suitable provincial plans;

•   the prescription of a fairly-detailed environmental impact assessment
    (EIA) process which incorporates public participation and views of
    experts in decision-making;

   •   the establishment of a multi-agency Pollution Control Committee to
       oversee pollution control matters, including the enactment of discharge

   •   the regulation of air, noise, water and hazardous waste pollution, as
       well as other forms of pollution;

   •   the duty to use central waste treatment facilities, the expense for which
       is borne by the user (pursuant to the "polluter pays" principle);

   •   the prescription of various civil, criminal and administrative remedies for
       environmental violations.

   When focusing on solid waste management issue, it specifies the role of
the municipality in: managing solid waste management, contracting out solid
waste management services to the private sector where needed, and
charging fees in accordance with ministerial regulations. The environmental
fund can be used to finance solid waste investments proposed by local
governments. As for industrial and hazardous wastes, the management is
emphasizing on environmental planning and environmental quality standards
and monitoring as well as the establishment of EIA system, which applies to
industrial waste disposal sites. Examples of related section in NEQA 1992
are shown below.

   •   Section 78 The collection, transport, and other arrangements for the
       treatment and disposal of garbage and other solid wastes; the
       prevention and control of pollution from mining both on land and in the
       sea; the prevention and control of pollution from the exploration and
       drilling for oil, natural gas, and all kinds of hydrocarbon both on land in
       the sea; and the prevention and control of pollution resulting or
       originating from the discharge of oil and the dumping of wastes and
       other matters from sea-going vessels, tankers, and other types of
       vessel, shall be in accordance with the governing laws related thereto.

   •   Section 79 In case there is no specific law applicable thereto, the
       Minister shall, with the advice of the Pollution Control Committee, have
       the power to issue ministerial regulations specifying the types and
       categories of hazardous wastes generated from the production and
       usage of chemicals or hazardous substances in the production process
       of industry, agriculture, sanitation and other activities which shall be
       brought under control. For this purpose, rules, regulations, measures
       and methods must also be prescribed for the control of collection,
       storage, safety measures, transportation, import into the Kingdom,
       export out of the Kingdom, and for proper and technically sound
       management, treatment and disposal of such hazardous wastes.

   Numbers of ministerial regulations were issued or revised in accordance to
the revision of the NEQA, 1992.         Following are the selected ministerial
regulations related to the management of solid waste.

   •   Ministerial Regulation: # 9 (1998) Issued in the Royal Gazette Dated 25
       December 1998.

       This regulation controls the registration of a private organization, who
       wishes to engage in environmental activities in Thailand, with the direct
       objectives in protecting the environment and conserving natural

   •   Notification of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment,
       Issued under the NEQA, and published in the Royal Gazette Dated 7
       August, 1997.

       This Notification sets standards of effluent of waste incinerator. Under
       this notification: the waste incinerator shall be divided into two sizes:

          o With the capacity rate of waste incineration: from 1 ton per day,
              but not more than 50 tons per day.

          o With the capacity rate of waste incineration: more than 50 tons
              per day.

   •   Notification of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment #3,
       Issued under the NEQA, and Published in the Royal Gazette Dated 13
       February, 1996.

       This Notification sets industrial effluence standards controlled by the
       Pollution Control Committee (PCC).

   •   Notification of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment,
       Re: Specifying Conditions, Procedures and Guidelines for Preparing
       Reports on Environmental Impact Assessment

       This Notification governs the conditions, procedures, and guidelines for
       preparing reports on Environmental Impact Assessment. Any central
       waste treatment plant (as described in the Factory Act) is governed by
       this Notification.

       It specifies that, if the waste treatment project is not required to be
       approved by the Thai Cabinet, the EIA reports can be submitted during
       the application for the establishment or the expansion of the factory. On
       the other hand, if the waste treatment project is required to obtain prior
       approval from the Thai Cabinet, the EIA reports must be submitted
       prior to the filing of the request for the Thai Cabinet’s approval.

(C) Laws and Regulations Related in SWM

(C.1) Public Health Act (PHA), 1992.

       This is the most comprehensive laws dealing with solid waste
management.       The PHA specifies that local government must provide
disposal facilities for infectious and industrial non-hazardous waste and that
health-care facilities can treat and dispose of infectious waste with approval

from the local government. It emphasizes the roles of the municipality in solid
waste management described in NEQA. The PHA Act designates sewage
and solid waste management the responsibility of local authority. Therefore,
waste management in Bangkok area will be under the responsibility of
Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). As a consequent, BMA has the
authority in licensing private solid waste operators to work on its behalf. BMA
also has the authority to prescribe any rules, procedure, and conditions
governing the waste management in Bangkok area.

(C.2) Public Cleanliness and Orderliness Act (PCOA), 1992.

       The main content of this act is to forbid any activity that is likely to
cause dirtiness to streets and public places allover the country. It specifies
how households should store solid waste and place it for collection. The act is
one of several that prohibit dumping of solid waste and littering.

(C.3) Factory Act, 1992.

       The Act mainly controls and regulates the establishment        and   the
operation of factories in Thailand by paying attention to the impacts of
factory to the environment. Generally, factories are required to be kept clean
and free from garbage and refuse at all time. Authorizes the Department of
Industrial Works (DIW) to issue standards and specify methods for the control,
handling, and disposal of waste by a factory and to license, permit, and
inspect factory operations, including waste management. It also governs the
licensing, permitting, and inspection of waste treatment, disposal, and
recycling facilities. Also, according to Section 8 in the Act, PCD has authority
to establish standards and criteria to control the factory operations, specially
the standards and methods to control the disposal of waste, pollution or any
contaminants caused from factory operation that impact the environment.

(C.4) Hazardous Substance Act, 1992

       The act governs a broad range of hazardous materials, including
hazardous and infectious waste. It also allows the handling, storage,
transport, and disposal of hazardous waste to be specified in a ministerial
decree. The act describes hazardous substance control criteria for import,
production, transportation, consumption, disposal and export not to influence
and danger to human, animals, plants, properties or environment. Ministry of
Industry (MOIND) categorizes the hazardous substances into 4 types for use
to control correctly and appropriately and formulates Hazardous Substances
Information Center to coordinate with other government agencies in part of
hazardous substances information and stipulation of the criteria and methods
to register hazardous substances.

(C.5) Industrial Estate Act, 1979

       The Act oversees the powers of the Industrial Estate Authority of
Thailand, including enforcement of regulations and taking action on
hazardous waste practices within industrial estates.

(C.6) Construction Building Control Act, 1979

       There is the Construction Building Control Act of 1979, which controls
the design, construction, renovation, remove and utilization of the building.
The construction of waste treatment plant shall be considered as the
construction of the building under this Act.

(D) Code of Penalty

There are some Sections in the Penal Code of Thailand, which relates
to the management of waste and refuse: those are as follows:

   •   Under Section 237 of the Penal Code of Thailand, it       states   that
       whoever introduces a poisonous substance or any other substance
       likely to cause injury to health into food or water in any well, pond

       or reservoir, and such food or water has existed or has been
       provided for public consumption, shall be punished with imprisonment
       of six months to ten years and fine of one thousand to twenty thousand

   •   Under Section 238, it states that if the offences committed according
       to Sections 226 to 237 causes death to the other person, the
       offender shall    be    punished with    imprisonment     for   life   or
       imprisonment for five to twenty years and fine of ten thousand to forty
       thousand Bath. If it causes grievous bodily harm to another
       person, the offender shall be punished with imprisonment of one to
       ten years and fine of two thousand to twenty thousand Baht.

   •   Under Section 239, its states that if the offences mentioned in Sections
       226 to 237 be committed by negligence results in imminent danger
       to the life of the other person, the offender shall be punished with
       imprisonment     not   exceeding   one year or fine not exceeding two
       thousand Baht, or both.

1.2.2 Provincial Level

       All national level Laws, Regulations, Ordinances and Guidelines
relevant to SWM are applicable at provincial level.

1.2.3 Local Level

All National level Laws, Regulations, Ordinances and Guidelines relevant to
SWM are applicable at provincial level.    However, as BMA has the authority
to grant license to private solid waste operators and in creating local by-laws
that govern SWM, BMA has issued numbers of Ordinances relevant to SWM.
Selected BMA Ordinances are as follows.

(A) BMA Ordinance: Disposal of Garbage, Refuse and Unclean Thing

Under this Ordinance: Garbage means waste from paper, cloth, food,
merchandise, ash, animal droppings or carcasses, including things swept from
streets,     market places, animal stalls, or other places. Refuse          means
excrement or urine and shall include anything which is unclean and has
foul odor. Articles of this Ordinance are as follows:

     •     Article 5: The person who is         in possession of       a premises,
           building, or dwelling place     is   required to     provide    garbage
           containers and use them to contain garbage within the premises,
           building or dwelling place possessed by him.

     •     Article 8: No person shall discharge, dump, discard or create refuse
           or unclean things     in public places   or   ways    such as    street,
           passage, lane, river, canal, ditch, pond, or well, except at the
           places the setting up of which is permitted by the Public Health
           Official or the Local Official, or is specially provided.

     •     Article 14 : No person other than the officials of BMA shall
           haul, scavenge, or dig garbage in garbage container, garbage
           hauling automobile or vessel, or at any garbage-dumping site of the

(B) BMA Ordinance: Control of Water Sewage System (1991)

This Ordinance controls the water sewage systems in general types of

(C) BMA Ordinance: Specifying Requirements for Construction of
Building and Public Utilities (1996)

This Ordinance controls the construction of building and public utilities
systems in Bangkok.

(D) BMA Ordinance: Control of Waste Collection, Haulage, or Elimination
Business which is made for Consideration as Service Fee (1998)

This Ordinance controls the waste collection, haulage, or elimination
business, which is engaged by a private sector that provides the said waste
collecting, hauling or eliminating service in consideration of service fees. It
requires that any person, who wishes to provide the said services, must firstly
obtain a license from BMA. The licensee shall enter into the agreements with
BMA in accordance with the standard agreements drafted by BMA. It also
states the obligations and responsibilities of the licensee.

1.3 Technical Guidelines

   In addition to the laws and regulations, there are also technical guidelines
prepared by relevant agencies covering several managerial aspects of various
types of waste. Some are described as follow;

   •   PCD’s Guideline for solid waste management

   •   BMA’s Technical Guideline for Solid Waste Operator

   •   BMA’s Guideline and Procedures for service fee collection.

   •   Guide to the Implementation of the Notification of Ministry of Industry
       on Hazardous Waste Manifest System Notification B.E. 2547 (2004)

   •   Guidelines for Waste Management in Hospital

1.4 Gap Analysis for Regulatory Framework

   Existing laws lack regulation to cover entire system of solid waste
management. The effectiveness of municipal solid waste management is also
overlooked. Although the nation policy has emphasized on integrate waste
management, clear measures to promote waste reduction and public
participation in such initiatives were not mentioned. Apart from special color of
waste bin assigned, measures to promote separation of household hazardous
waste from conventional household waste do not exist. Despite the guideline
for waste management for hospital, the infectious waste from hospitals is not
properly controlled.

   In order to overcome stated problems, the following measures can be

   •   Establishment of laws, regulations, orders, and standards that create
       mechanisms for returning used products and packaging for recycling,
       and reduction of solid waste from household.

   •   Amend laws and regulations to increase private sector’s role in solid
       and hazardous waste management in place of BMA.

   •   Amendment of existing laws, regulations related to service fee to
       promote polluter pay principle.

   •   Put emphasis on on law enforcement in order to make various steps of
       waste management more effective.

   •   Employ economic incentives program; incentives can be in forms of tax
       reduction for recycle and reuse of waste, reduction in service fee for
       household and private sectors. Appropriate incentive program can
       reduce quantity of waste at source effectively.       Possible incentive
       programs are such as the incentives to reduce packaging wastes both
       in the production process and in the business sectors.

•   Establish solid waste disposal site pollution control standard and other
    standard requires for effective solid waste management.

•   Issuing standard procedures and technical guidelines on garbage
    collection service, management of waste disposal sites and other
    related issues.

•   Clarify overlapping administrative jurisdiction within and between
    different levels government agencies. Lack of coordination amongst
    agencies can be seen as major obstacles in waste management.

•   Inadequacy in public participation and unclear measures to facilitate
    higher involvement of public bodies in solid waste management issues.

                                   Chapter 2

     Description of Institutions Involved in Solid Waste Management

2.1 Overview of Institutional Framework

       Institutions involved in SWM distributed into three administrative levels;
national, provincial and local levels.    At the national levels there are four
ministries involved with agencies under each of the ministry to overlook the
issue of solid waste management.

       However, under the Section 18 of the Public Health Act of 1992, the
disposal of sewage and solid waste in the area of any local government shall
be the power and duty of such local government. With reasonable cause, the
local government may entrust any person with the solid waste management
tasks on its behalf under the control and supervision of the local government
or may permit any person to operate the disposal of sewage or solid waste.

       As for BMA, there are several institutions involved in solid waste
management.      However, as the BMA is one of the organizations under the
Ministry of Interior, BMA has it own management scheme that is quite
independent from the central government. The BMA decision making
processes are agreed upon within the BMA organization and mostly do not
have to be approved by the central government.

       The major office within the BMA that is responsible for the solid waste
management is the Department of Environment, formerly known as Public
Cleansing Department.        The department together with the 50 districts of
Bangkok are working together in overall aspects of solid waste management;
collection, transportation, storage, and final treatment.

2.2 Roles and Responsibilities of Relevant Authorities, Institutions and

2.2.1 National Level

      In respond to NEQA 1992, the National Environmental Board (NEB)
has been formed to oversee the management of the country’s natural
resources and environmental quality. Component and functions of NEB are
described in the next section.

      There are four ministries at the national level that are responsible for
SWM, namely, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE),
the Ministry of Public Health (MoP), Ministry of Industry (MoIND), and Ministry
of Interior (MoINT). Principally, the ministries set the national environmental
policy and the departments and agencies under the ministries are responsible
for implementing the provisions of the law through regulations and technical
guidelines.   The diagram showing central government organizations related
to the SWM is shown in Figure 2.

                                                              Prime Minister


           Ministry of Natural              Ministry of                    Ministry of                             Ministry of
            Resources and                  Public Health                    Industry                                Interior

     Office of         Pollution Control   Department of      Department of       Industrial Estate    Department of       Department of
 Environmental           Department           Health         Industrial Works       Authority of          Local            Public Works
Policy & Planning                                                                     Thailand         Administration

               Provincial                                                 Provincial
             Environmental                                              Administrative
                 Office                                                 Organizations

                                                    Municipality        The Sanitary         Sub-District
                                                                          District          Administrative

        Figure 2 Central government organizations related to the SWM.

(A) National Environmental Board

The NEB consists of the following members;

          •   Prime Minister as the Chairman,

          •   Deputy Prime Minister designated by the Prime Minister as the
              first Vice Chairman

          •   Minister of Science, Technology and Environment as the second
              Vice Chairman

          •   Minister of Defense

          •   Minister of Finance

          •   Minister of Agriculture and Cooperatives

          •   Minister of Transport and Communications

          •   Minister of Interior, Minister of Education

          •   Minister of Public Health

          •   Minister of Industry

          •   Secretary-General of        the   National    Economic   and   Social
              Development Board

          •   Secretary-General of the Board of Investment

          •   Director of the Bureau of the Budget

          •   Expert in environmental matters not more than eight persons of
              which no less than half shall be representatives from the private

          •   Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Science, Technology and
              Environment as member and secretary

  The appointment of qualified members shall be made by drawing from
persons who are knowledgeable and known for their expertise, contributions
and experiences in the matters concerning the enhancement and conservation
of environmental quality.

The National Environment Board shall have the power and duty as follows;

   •   To submit policy and plan for enhancement and conservation of national
       environmental quality to the cabinet for approval.

   •   To prescribe environmental quality standards pursuant to section 32.

   •   To consider and give approval to the Environmental Quality Management
       Plan proposed by the Minister according to section 35.

   •   To consider and give approval to the Provincial Action Plan for
       environmental quality management according to section 37.

   •   To make recommendations to the cabinet in respect of financial, fiscal,
       taxation and investment promotion measures for the implementation of
       the policy and plan for enhancement and conservation of national
       environmental quality.

   •   To propose for amendment or improvement of laws relating to the
       enhancement and conservation of environmental quality to the cabinet.

   •   To consider and give approval to the action plan for prevention and
       remedy of danger caused by contamination of pollutants or spread of
       pollution proposed by the Pollution Control Committee pursuant to
       section 53 (1).

   •   To consider and give approval to the setting of emission or effluent
       standards proposed by the Minister pursuant to section 55.

   •   To supervise, oversee and expedite the enactment of royal decrees and
       issuance of ministerial regulations, rules, local ordinances, notifications,
       bye-laws and orders which are necessary to ensure systematic operation
       of the laws relating to enhancement and conservation of environmental
       quality to the fullest extent possible.

   •   To submit opinion to the Prime Minister for his directions in case it
       appears that any government agency or state enterprise infringes or
       refrains from complying with the laws and regulations for environmental
       protection which may cause extensive damage to the environment.

   •   To specify measures for the strengthening and fostering of co-operation
       and co-ordination among government agencies, state enterprises and
       the private sector in matters concerning the promotion and conservation
       of environmental quality.

   •   To supervise the Fund management and administration.

   •   To submit reports on national environmental quality situation to the
       cabinet at least once year.

(B) Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

       The ministry has been set up in 2002, following the Restructuring of
Ministries, Bureaus and Departments Act of B.E. 2545 (2002). The responsible
agencies for SWM within the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
are the Pollution Control Department (PCD), Office of Natural Resources and
Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP), and the Department of
Environmental Quality Promotion (DEQP).

(C) Ministry of Public Health

       The Restructuring of Ministries, Bureaus and Departments Act of B.E.
2545 (2002) provides that the Ministry of Public Health has powers and
responsibilities related to the promotion of health, prevention/control and
treatment of diseases, and rehabilitation of people’s health, as well as other
official functions as provided by laws which indicate that such functions are
under the responsibility of the Ministry of Public Health.

       Its principal purpose is to make all Thai citizens healthy, physically and
mentally, with good quality of life, being able to live a happy life in society and
being valuable resources of the country. Regarding SWM, the Department of
Health (DOH) under the Ministry of Public Health is responsible for health care
waste and infectious waste management.

(D) Ministry of Industry

       Department of Industrial Works (DIW) and Industrial Estate Authority of
Thailand (IEAT) under the Ministry of Industry are responsible for all hazardous
wastes generated from industries.

       DIW being the organization of the state that has the capability to
supervise promote and support industrial business operation for its sustained
development and acceptability to the international community.            Its major
responsibilities include the supervision and coordination of industrial business
operation activities by following the guidelines of environmental preservation,
safety, hygiene and energy economization.

       Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand (IEAT) is a state enterprise under
the Ministry of Industry; the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand is responsible
for the development and establishment of industrial estates, where factories for
various industries are orderly and systematically clustered together. The
enterprise is to provide an environmental management system, along with
industrial accident prevention and relief system.

(E) Ministry of Interior

       The Ministry is given wide ranging responsibilities over many aspects.
For example the Ministry has responsibility over: the Royal Thai Police, local
administrations, internal security, citizenship, disaster management, land
management, issuing national identity cards and public works. The Ministry is
also responsible for appointing 74 Governors of the Provinces of Thailand.

2.2.2 Provincial and Local Levels

      At the provincial and local levels, the provincial administrative
organizations (PAO), municipalities and Tambon (Sub-district) Administrative
Organization (TAO) are primarily responsible for waste collection, transport,
treatment, and disposal.   These local governments can contract the private
sector to undertake some of the services.       During the last few years, the
government has implemented the Decentralization Action Plan in order to
transfer functions, budget, and personnel from the central government to nearly
8,000 local governments.

      BMA is divided into 50 districts in 12 zones (Figure 3). However, as
stated earlier, BMA has managed its own solid waste long before the plan are
being implemented and thus the decentralization plan has less impact, if any, to
the solid waste management of the BMA. Local organizations for solid waste
management for BMA area are shown in Figure 4.

      In October 2004, the BMA has revised the zoning of Bangkok Metropolis
into 12 zones to effectively manage the city according to specific nature of each
area. Major characteristics of each zone are described in Table 2.

Table 2 Zoning of Bangkok.

Zone    Characteristics

  1     Rattanokosin Ancient City Conservation Area, administration center,
        specific commercial business area and historical arts and cultural
  2     Commercial, business and service center, and tourist attractions.
        There are national business office buildings, tourists’ residences and
        hotels in this zone.
  3     The new economic sites, employment sources, shopping center and
        high-density residential areas.
  4     The new business along Chao Phra Ya River to support expansion
        of industrial ring areas. The Port in this area shall be developed to
        be commercial offices and riverside hotels.
  5     Thonburi Ancient Conservation Area is the area for original
        community way of life, historical art and cultural attractions.
  6     The new economic and employment zone and dense residential
        area. The zone is also served as Bangkok’s government center for
        the west side.
  7     The residential area supporting the expansion of the northeastern
        area of the city. The zone is currently the low density residential
        area with suburban community center, consisting of shopping and
        service centers.
  8     This is the transition zone in the southeast of Bangkok. At present it
        is a low-density residential area supporting the expansion of the city.
  9     Agricultural and residential area with good environmental conditions.
        The area will be developed into good environment residential area
  10    The suburban community center zone developed to support the
        Suvarnabhumi Airport. The area has potential to be developed into
        suburban transport terminal and logistic center.
  11    Integrated agricultural and residential environment zone

  12    Agricultural, industrial, residential and ecotourism zone.

Figure 3 Zoning map of Bangkok Districts
Source: Bangkok State of Environment 2005.

                                                                                       Department of
                                                                                       (527 Person)

Office of Secretary                  Policy & Planning                Air Quality & Noise              Solid & Hazardous               Solid Waste Disposal                 Public Park
    (57 person)                           Division                   Management Division               Wastes & Nightsoil                     Division                        Office
                                        (36 person)                       (36 person)                  Management (126)                     (87 Person)                    (182 person)

                  Administration                         Administration                Administration                     General                        Administration                      General
                    Section                                section                       Section                        Administration                     Section                         Administration
                                                                                                                          Section                                                            Section

                       Personnel                          Planning &                     Evaluation                          Research                   Engineering Sub-                    Park & Tree
                      Sub-Division                        Evaluation                    Sub-Division                        Sub-Division                    Division                         Technical
                                                         Sub-Division                                                                                                                       Sub-Division

                        Finance                    Public Participation             Vehicular Emission                Hazardous Waste                       On Nut                          Park Design
                      Sub-Division                     Promoting                    Control Sub-Division                Management                        Solid Waste                       Sub-Division
                                                      Subdivision                                                       Sub-Division                    Disposal Center

                  Public Relation                      Information                     Other-Source                  Waste Management                    Nong Khaem                          Planting &
                     Section                         Communication                    Emission Control                 Sub-Division                       Solid Waste                       Maintenance
                                                      & Technology                     Sub-Division                                                     Disposal Center                     Sub-Division

                        Juristic                                                       Air Quality &                   Cleaning Service                     Sai Mai                       Plant Propagation
                      Sub-Division                                                    Noise Monitoring                   Sub-Division                     Solid Waste                       Sub-Division
                                                                                       Sub-Division                                                     Disposal Center

                                                                                       Environmental                  Nightsoil Collection                                                  Public Park 1
                                                                                          Impact                           Section                                                          Sub-Division
                                                                                      Study Analytical

  Figure 4 Organization Chart for the Department of Environment
                                                                                                                       On Nut Nightsoil                                                     Public Park 2
            Source: Bangkok State of Environment 2005                                                                  Treatment Plant                                                      Sub-Division

                                                                                                                         Nong Khaem
                                                                                                                      Nightsoil Treatment
                                                                                                                             Plant                                                                37
   As for the agency within the BMA that oversee environmental issues, at
present the Department of Environment is the Department responsible for all
issues related to environment. Previously, the Public Cleansing Department
had taken care of the cleansing of the city.              Its duty includes planning,
implementing, sanitary control and management of solid waste and nightsoil.

   The Public Cleansing Department was changed to the Department of
Environment in October 2004 in order to facilitate better management of
environmental issues in Bangkok and reduce the overlapping responsibilities
between divisions.       Its structure and scope of responsibilities has changed as
follows:     Department of Environment is responsible for the environmental
management, including studying, analysis and research in order to revise,
revive, promote and preserve environment quality, yet monitor and evaluate the
environment quality.      Furthermore, the Department accounts for creating an
environmental report, focusing on growing the green area in Bangkok and other
related jobs. Its internal governing and responsibilities are as follows:

   •   Office of Secretary is divided into sub-division working on Administration,
       Finance, Personnel, Public Relation and Juristic.

   •   Policy    and     Planning   Division,    is   divided   into   sub-divisions    of
       Administration, Planning and Evaluation Public Participation Promotion,
       and Information Communication & Technology.

   •   Solid Waste Hazardous Waste and Nightsoil Management Division is
       divided    into    sub-divisions    of   General    Administration,    Research,
       Hazardous Waste, Solid Waste Management, Public Cleansing, Nightsoil
       Collection, On Nuch Nightsoil Treatment Plant and Nong Khaem
       Nightsoil Treatment Plant.

   •   Air    Quality    and   Noise      Management      Division     is   divided    into
       Administration, Evaluation, Air Quality and Noise Monitoring, Vehicular
       Emission Control, Other-Source Emission Control and EIA Sub-Division.

   •   Solid Waste Disposal Plant Division is divided into sub-divisions of
       Administration, Engineering, On Nuch Solid Waste Disposal Center,
       Nong Khaem Solid Waste Disposal Center and Saimai Solid Waste
       Disposal Center.

   •   Public Park Office, is divided into General Administration, Park and Tree
       Technical, Park Design, Plant Propagation, Plant and Maintenance,
       Public Park 1 and Public Park 2 Sub-division.

   In terms of personnel, the Department of Environment has 527 person
including Director General and 2 Deputies working, in which 213 of the
personnel are working in the two divisions related to solid and hazardous
wastes management and disposal.

2.2.3 Private Sectors and Civil Society

       Private sectors are playing important roles in construction, operation, and
maintenance of equipments and facilities related to solid waste management
programs under contract by local governments. At the same time civil society
conducts awareness raising programs and promotion of recycling efforts. Civil
society will be of great help to increase public participation.         Both the
Decentralization Action Plan of the government and the 1997 Constitution
mandate    greater   public   participation   in   environmental   planning   and
implementation of environ-mental services. Effective waste management will
rely upon active involvement of the public in activities such as reporting open
dumping of industrial waste, disposal site planning as well as reduction of waste
generated via reuse, recycle and composting initiatives.             Civil society
organizations will continue to play a key role in bringing about this involvement
through awareness building and encouraging grass root initiatives.

2.3 Gap Analysis

      Although the organization of BMA has been revised in 2004 to reduce
the overlapping responsibilities between agencies, there are still some technical
difficulties of local government offices in implementation of waste management
initiatives due to limited number of personnel. Capacity building in solid waste
management for personnel at all levels should be emphasized.

      Successfulness of integrated solid waste management policy cannot be
achieved without major waste generators cooperation.            Household and
business sectors play important role in waste reduction via 3Rs strategy.
Therefore, education of citizens on waste awareness and creation of
appropriate responsible behavior regarding waste and environment must be
emphasized.    Enhancement of environmental awareness among population
may be achieved through both formal and informal education and mass media

                                   Chapter 3

               Description of Financial Mechanism for SWM

3.1 Overview of Financial Mechanism

According to the BMA development plan, the many activities of the
administration are divided into 7 main budget categories, which are:

      1) Environmental improvement,

      2) Human Resources and Society

      3) Traffic Control, Transportation and Public Works

      4) Administrative Areas

      5) Financial Aspects

      6) City Planning and Land Use

      7) Information technology

      Statistics from the 2002-2003 budget year (Table 3) show that by far the
largest portion of the budget was allocated to the first three groups. It can be
said, theoretically, that so much needs to be spent on physical development
because of the inadequate transportation system and infrastructure for the rapid
expanding of Bangkok metropolis.

Table 3 BMA'S Budget Expenditure Appropriation by Activities Fiscal Year

                                                         2002                      2003
                                             Budget              %       Budget            %

Environment                                  7,974.39           34.67    8,794.00         32.57

Human Resources and Society                  6,528.01           28.38    7,305.37         27.05

Traffic Control, Transportation and Public
                                             4,122.77           17.93    5,582.75         20.68

Administrative Areas                         3,030.52           13.18    3,713.52         13.75

Financial Aspects                             955.48             4.15    1,281.76          4.75

City Planning and Land Use                    93.67              0.41     101.37           0.38

Information technology                        295.16             1.28     221.23           0.82

                    TOTAL                    23,000.00          100.00   27,000.00        100.00

Source: Statistical Profile of BMA 2003

3.2 Total Income Generation for BMA

    The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) is the largest local
administrative body of the capital city of Thailand. It is also the center of the
government and private institutions. For these reasons, people from all parts of
the country migrate to Bangkok to pursue better opportunity in life.
Consequently, the city has become very crowed and difficult to administer as
the influx of people from various provinces creates critical environmental
problems. To administer the city effectively, the BMA needs a huge annual
budget to cope with the ever increasing problems in the city. The BMA earns
their income from three sources of revenue, namely, taxes, non-tax revenues,
and grant-in-aid and provident fund. The revenues received by the BMA show
some fluctuation due to socio-economic factors, however, BMA has
experienced an increasing budget surplus every year (Figure 5).

Figure 5 Financial situation of BMA from budget year 1998 to 2003.

    The revenue received form taxes of local household and land forms the
highest percentage (Figure 6). The tax and the value added tax are the largest
revenue sources. For non-tax revenues, the revenues earned from rent of
properties form the highest share.

Figure 6 Distribution of revenue from taxes in 2002.

3.3 Income Generation Through Environmental Services Offered

    It is clearly shown that the income from environmental services is not
counted towards revenue of BMA.        Income generated from environmental
services offered normally comes from waste collection fee.      During 1995 –
2004, the average collection fee could be collected at Bt100 million,
representing 3.9 percent of the collection and disposal costs (Table 4).
Although the collected fee appears to increase most of the year, the differences
between collected fee, as income and collection and disposal costs as expense
are large.   Due to the imbalance budget, the BMA had to compensate the
differences by using other income to cover up cost in solid waste management.
The average compensation can be as high as 2,074 million Baht per year on an

    It can be seen that from fiscal year 2001 in which the BMA had
implemented a fee collection efficiency improvement project, the income
collected from household as service fee has improved dramatically. The fee
collection operation result from fiscal year 2001 – 2004 is shown in Table 5. In
2004 the percentage of fee collected had decreased again due to the increasing
fee charged.      As a result, on January 26, 2005 BMA has issued a BMA
Ordinance on solid waste and nightsoil collection fee according to the Public
Health Act (Second Issue) B.E. 2005 by amending the general waste collection
fees for building place having waste of not exceeding 20 liters from 40 to 20
Baht per month.

Table 4 Comparison of collected fees and waste collection and disposal costs

 Fiscal        Waste            Waste         Collected        Difference
 Year        Collection        Disposal      Fee (Baht)    between cost and
            Costs (Baht)     Costs (Baht)                    income (Baht)

 1995       1,057,331,868     484,104,434     65,156,323        1,476,279,979

 1996       1,154,404,828     486,137,830     56,633,017        1,583,909,641

 1997       1,276,433,233     443,236,427     62,162,593        1,657,507,067

 1998       1,290,026,455     509,308,644     50,772,161        1,748,562,938

 1999       1,797,153,361     429,482,309     57,335,158        2,269,300,512

 2000       1,535,005,733     574,877,529     72,163,269        2,037,719,993

 2001       1,719,180,122      96,950,028 106,806,811           2,581,873,339

 2002       1,448,226,145 1,029,184,526 125,871,034             2,351,539,637

 2003       1,386,889,003 1,124,191,263 138,330,212             2,372,750,054

 2004       1,797,910,678 1,142,318,792 273,182,516             2,667,046,954

Average     1,446,256,142     729,234,178 100,841,309           2,074,649,011

    Source: Bangkok State of the Environment 2005.

Table 5 Fee collection operation results of 50 district offices during fiscal year
2001 – 2004.

Fiscal Year          Total         Number of       Percentage            Fee
                 Households       Households            of           Collected
                     to be         Collected       Households           (Baht)
                   Collected                        Collected

    2001           1,257,373        781,636           62.16         106,806,811

    2002           1,240,126       1,033,799          83.36         125,871,034

    2003           1,260,380       1,173,120          93.08         138,330,212

    2004           1,283,778        883,810           68.84         273,182,516

    Source: Bangkok State of the Environment 2005.

3.4 Total Expenditure for SWM

   Regarding expenditure in solid waste management, the total cost comprises
of waste collection cost and waste disposal cost as shown in Table 4.

    Waste collection costs vary from year to year. The average cost per ton of
waste in 2004 was 534 baht. The breakdown of waste collection cost is shown
in Table 6.

   Table 6 Breakdown of waste collection cost in BMA.

Year    Staff    Welfares     Fuel    Equipment     Truck      Investment   Total Costs      Waste      Percentage Collection
       Salary                Costs      Costs       Repair      Costs for                   Amount          of       Costs
                   (%)                              Costs        Trucks        (Baht)                   Increasing
        (%)                   (%)         (%)                                                (Tons)        Waste   (Baht/ton)
                                                        (%)       (%)                                     Amount

1998    44.78      13.61     13.55       1.29           7.84     18.92      1,290,026,432   2,847,790      6.31      452.99

1999    49.68      10.65     13.32       1.78           8.40     16.17      1,797,153,361   3,244,907     13.94      553.84

2000    51.11      12.51     14.07       1.96       11.29         9.06      1,535,005,733   3,212,169      -1.01     477.87

2001    42.07      14.73     17.29       0.56       19.87         5.57      1,719,180,122   3,353,697      4.41      512.62

2002    49.64      12.33     17.59       0.87       14.67         4.90      1,448,226,145   3,358,104      0.13      431.26

2003    54.03      13.06     18.29       0.78       11.34         2.50      1,386,889,003   3,412,738      1.63      406.39

2004    53.57      1.90      15.12       0.52       14.48        14.41      1,797,910,678   3,368,312      -1.30     533.77

   Source: Bangkok State of the Environment 2005.

3.5 Summary of Financial Situation in Waste Management at BMA

    The data presented above indicates that the highest expenditure of solid
waste management is on labor (staff salary). The labor cost has risen from
44.78 % in 1998 to that of 53.57 % in 2004. Additionally, fuel costs and Truck
repairing costs has also increased over time due to fluctuation in global oil price
and overused truck that required high maintenance cost.             In 2004, the
investment cost for trucks had increased sharply, expecting to reduce the
maintenance cost in the future.

    From Table 4, it can be seen that cost for solid waste management falls
heavily on waste collection more than waste disposal. Further development in
waste management plan should focus on how to lower the cost of collection or
make collection process more cost effective.

3.6 Gap Analysis

♦   The major revenue for BMA comes from taxes.        Although the BMA collect
    service fee for solid waste management in the metropolis, the fee collected
    are so small, contributing to small portion of costs incur for solid waste

♦   BMA has to bear the cost that cannot be met from collecting service fees.
    This results in decreasing fund available for other development activities.

♦   BMA has planned to invest more money into trucks and equipment;
    however, the number of trucks may not be appropriate comparing to
    quantity of waste produced. Additionally with the high cost in solid waste
    management incur from waste collection and transport, BMA does not try to
    involve much of private sector in this part of solid waste management.

♦   BMA hires private sectors in solid waste disposal works. Expenditures of
    such works are extremely high.

♦   Although waste segregation for reuse and recycle is part of the integrated
    waste management policy, the quantity of waste separated for recycle is still
    low. This reduces the chance of BMA in earning the income from selling
    recyclable materials.      Campaign on waste segregation has to be
    emphasized further.

♦   Waste segregation also helps reducing quantity of waste to be transported
    to transfer and disposal sites, hence reducing cost in waste collection and

♦   With approximately 10 million people living and working in Bangkok, there
    are only three waste transfers sites, thus increasing the distance and
    number of transportation of solid wastes from source to the transfer

                                   Chapter 4

                          Technology Used for SWM

      In the Bangkok State of Environment 2005, the BMA has set its strategy
in dealing with growing municipal solid waste problem. The main strategies are
as follows

1. Solid waste is collected regularly. Sweeping, cleansing and vacuum cleaning
are made on streets, walkways and bridges.

2. Promotion of waste minimization and separation for the purpose of reuse,
including campaigning for public awareness and cooperation.

3. Enhancing the efficiency of solid waste disposal by appropriate technology
and encouraging private sectors to participate in improving solid waste

4. Developing hazardous and infectious waste collection and disposal system
by collecting thoroughly and disposal with appropriate method.

5. Developing grease and night soil collection and treatment system by
collecting thoroughly and treating with appropriate method.

6. Developing information technology system to be the cleansing network center
for supporting solid waste and night soil management.

4.1 Existing Solid Waste Management Mechanisms in BMA

      The Environmental Department and 50 districts offices are responsible
for the collection of solid waste in Bangkok. BMA has applied both direct and
indirect methods for collecting solid waste. For direct collection method, the
waste is collected by vehicles or boats.

       Indirect collection is a system in which BMA provides containers for
collecting waste at various sources such as markets, department stores, and
pedestrian walkways. The containers are classified according to food waste,
recyclable waste, and household hazardous waste. The collected waste is
transported to 3 transfer stations then transferred to 2 sanitary landfills at
Kumpaeng Saen district Nakhon Phathom province and Bang Plee district
SamutPrakarn province. Figure 7 shows the solid waste management scheme
of Bangkok.

                                                                            Solid Waste

                                                   Illegal Dumping                          Composted Naturally

                                            On Site Recycling (3.48%)

                                                                        Disposal (96.52%)

                                                         Separated                          Not Separated

      Recycled (1) by BMA (0.02%)                 Recycled (2) by Garbage                      Collected
                                                    Collectors (4.33%)

                                                Transfer Stations

                     Evaporation of water                               Final Disposal

                 Recycled (3) by waste picker
                       at sites (0.20%)

             Total Recycled = 8.04%

Figure 7 Solid Waste Management of BMA.

Source: Dept of Public Cleansing, BMA, 2002

4.1.1 Household Waste

       Collected household municipal solid wastes both separated and not
separated wastes will be subjected to both formal and informal recycle process.
Treatments for each type of waste separated are shown in Figure 8. Organic
wastes are being sent to landfill while recyclable waste will be sent to related
recycle facilities.

                                    Household Solid


     Yellow Bin                         Green Bin                 Gray Bin
                                                                  Red Lid

  Recycle Waste                      Organic Waste              Household
                                                             Hazardous Waste

       Recycle                            Landfill              Authorized
                                                            Treatment Centers

Figure 8 Sorting and Management of Solid waste in BMA.

Source: Dept of Public Cleansing, BMA, 2002

4.1.2. Hazardous Waste

       Hazardous wastes from household such as batteries, fluorescent tubes,
insecticide cans, herbicide cans, etc. are collected by placing bins (grey bin with
red lid) at appropriate places in the city. These hazardous wastes are collected
by Public Cleansing Department and each district and stored at 3 transfer
stations before transporting to the Authorized Treatment Centers that are
authorized by Department of Industrial Works.

       The Department of Environment has estimated the quantity of hazardous
waste generated to be 24.6 tons/day, representing 0.29 percent of the total
waste amount. However, the amount of household hazardous waste collected
and delivered to three waste disposal centers is lower than the estimation as
shown in Table 7.

       On average, only 0.38 percent of household hazardous can be collected
and delivered by BMA to the licensed company for disposal, leading to proper
handling of hazardous waste with no health effect to citizens.

Table 7 Comparison of expected generation and collected amount of hazardous

Fiscal Year    Average        Average         Amount       of Percentage
               Solid Waste Household          Household        of Collected
               Collected      Hazardous       Hazardous        Household
               (tons/day) (1) Waste           Waste (Kg)       Hazardous
                              Collected                        Waste
                                              (3)   =   (1)x
                              (Kg)                             Compared to
                                              0.29%x 1,000
                                                               Amount (4) =

    1997          8,694.79          29.81       25,214.89          0.12

    1998          8,538.49           6.79       24,892.12          0.03

    1999          8,772.49          21.13       25,440.22          0.08

    2000          8,988.19          191.06      26,065.75          0.73

    2001          9,162.32          109.27      26,570.73          0.41

    2002          9,460.40          144.07      27,435.16          0.52

    2003          9,349.97          116.37      27,114.91          0.43

    2004          9,356.69          136.24      27,134.40          0.50

    2005          8,495.97          141.58      24,638.31          0.57

  Average         8,984.69          99.59       26,055.61          0.38

4.1.3 Infectious Waste

         Infectious waste from health institutions such as state and private
hospitals and clinics are collected by temperature-controlled vehicles and
disposed by 2 incinerators at On-Nuch transfer site. Each incinerator has the
capacity of 10 tons per day.

         Management of hazardous and infectious wastes are described in Figure

                                     Hazardous Waste

         Household                     Health Service              Industry

           Sorting                            Sorting               Sorting

         Collection                       Collection              Collection

       Transportation                  Transportation           Transportation

          Storage                             Dispose              Dispose

         Treatment                       Incineration        Authorized Treatment

     Authorized Treatment

Figure 9 Hazardous Waste Management Scheme of BMA.
Source: Dept of Public Cleansing, BMA, 2002

4.2 Description of Technology Used for Solid Waste Management

4.2.1 Primary Collection and Transport

       The primary collection work involves all collection ad transportation
activities from collection points to transfer stations. The district offices of BMA
are responsible for the collection and transportation of wastes. The planning
and operation of waste collection work are the responsibility of the public
cleansing sections in districts offices. The collection method varies by collection
area as the characteristics of each area differ.

       Collection of solid waste in Bangkok is highlighted by the fact that there
are a lot of vehicles in use compared with what other countries in the region. In
2005, collection of raw wastes is done with a 2,610 vehicles fleet, and over
7000 persons workforce. However, there is little maintenance operations of the
fleet and this activity is managed separately by most of the 50 districts. Types of
vehicle and number of each type are shown in Table 8.

       Waste collection team normally consists of a driver, four collection
workers with one or two helper per compactor truck.         The collectors, while
collecting the waste, do separate and sort wastes for recoverable materials.
Segregation of the valuable items is done whenever possible on the way
between the street and the transfer station, therefore decreasing the
productivity of the system, however, increase income for collectors and helpers.
The trucks deliver the remains to the three transfer stations; On Nut, Tae Raeng
and Nong Khaem.        Hospital wastes are collected separately on a private
contract basis to be transferred and incinerated at On Nut transfer station.

Table 8 Number of BMA’s waste collection trucks.

   Item                 Type of Vehicle            Quantity

        1    Compaction Truck; 4 cu.m.               128

        2    Compaction Truck; 4 cu.m. (rented)      152

        3    Compaction Truck; 10 cu.m.              627

        4    Compaction Truck; 10 cu.m. (rented)     464

        5    Compaction Truck; 20 cu.m.              20

        6    Compaction Truck; 23 cu.m.              42

        7    Side Open 1 ton                         83

        8    Side Open 1.5 tons                      120

        9    Side Open 12 cu.m.                      21

    10       Lift-up 1.3 tons                        173

    11       Container lift-up truck                 89

    12       Container lift-up truck (rented)        124

    13       Compactor                               25

    14       Waste segregation truck                 41

    15       Infectious waste collection truck       19

    16       Tree-branch digestion truck              3

    17       Dump truck                              189

    18       Small dust vacuum sweeper truck         24

    19       Medium dust vacuum sweeper truck        50

    20       Large dust vacuum sweeper truck         30

    21       Fiber-glass ship                        186

Total                                               2,610

4.2.2 Secondary Collection at Waste Transfer Sites

        Concerning the transfer of the waste, BMA has three transfer sites,
located in the North, in the East and in the West of Bangkok. These sites
belong to the BMA and these are former landfill sites, but as the city expanded
in the last 20 years, these landfills sites were abandoned and moved to the
outside area of the Bangkok Metropolitan Area. The sites are now clean except
that the soil is still at the natural ground level, and underneath there remains
from 2 to 4 meters of un-cleaned waste. Recently, the BMA had already
implemented some industrial activities, treatment activities, which focus mainly
on composting.

        All the collecting trucks arrive in one of the transfer station o f the BMA.
All transfer stations are equipped with a weighbridge, which is operated by the
BMA staff, who also enter all data acquired into the computer.             General
information for each transfer station is shown in Table 9

Table 9 General information of transfer stations

Items                      On Nuch             Tha Raeng            Nongkhaem

Estimated design        1,500 ton/day         1,000 ton/day        1,500 ton/day

Actual transfer         3,818 ton/day         2,576 ton/day        3,150 ton/day
amount in 1999

Transportation              10 km                110 km                80 km

Landfill site            Rachathewa        Kampangsaen (2)       Kampangsaen (1)

       The works at the transfer stations include the unloading of waste onto
transfer stations and the loading of waste from transfer station onto trailers to be
transported to the landfill sites. Private contractors undertake transporting of
waste in the trailers to landfill sites for final disposal. Waste loaded onto the
trailers is covered with a sheet prior to the transportation. Waste pickers were
regular at the three transfer stations.

       It can be seen from Table 9 that the amount of waste brought in is far
beyond the estimated capacity of the transfer stations resulting in accumulation
of waste at the sites.

       Two of the transfer sites include other activities or equipment than those
involving transfer of the waste.     On Nuch transfer station is equipped with
hospital waste incineration (privately owned and operated), composting plant
(stopped in 1996 after private operation) and night soil treatment plant
(managed by the night soil treatment Division). Nong Khaem transfer station is
managing a night soil treatment plant (nightsoil treatment Division) and
wastewater treatment plant (under construction by Sewerage and Drainage

4.2.3 Final Disposal

       Transport and disposal of the waste to the landfill sites outside of
Bangkok is done under private contracts with BMA. The waste are dumped
through the transfer station’s hoppers into the contractor’s trucks. The waste
from Tae Raeng, Nong Khaem and On Nuch transfer sites are transported to
landfills located outside of the Bangkok metropolitan area. There is no recovery
of the waste for the time being apart from the informal collecting of recyclable
materials and some form of biogas recovery at Kampangsaen (private site).

       In particular there is no organic matter or energy recovery. Disposal of
industrial toxic waste is not under the responsibility of Department of Public

Cleansing. Household toxic wastes arriving at transfer stations are not treated
because of the high costs.

         Rachathewa landfill site has a capacity of 7.5 million cubic meters and
was operated from July 2000.           At present, around 3,800 tons of waste is
brought to the site daily. Kampangsaen landfill sites are located in a sugarcane
field and are under going the expansion. At present both sites receive around
5,700 tons of waste per day (Padungsirikul)

         The regulations and guidance established by Pollution Control
Department (PCD) regarding municipal solid waste management detail how
landfill sites should be structured. Standard structures of the landfill sites are
described in Table 10 (Luanratana, 2003).

Table 10 Standard structures of landfill sites.

Layers                Layer Material        Thickness          Structure
Top Layer             Cover soil            0.6 m
                      HDPE liner            1.0 m
Waste Layer           Cover soil            0.3 m/layer        Underground: 6 layers
                      Waste layer           2.7 m/layer        Aboveground: 2 layers
Slope       Cushion   Geonet
            Layer     HDEP liner            1.6 mm
            System    Clay                  0.6 m              Hydraulic Conductivity 1 x
                                                               107 cm/sec, 85%
                                                               Standard AASHO
Bottom      Cushion   Sand                  0.4 m              ϕ100 PVC pipe installed
            Sealing   HDEP liner            1.6 mm
            Layer     Clay                  0.6 m              Hydraulic Conductivity 1 x
                                                               107 cm/sec, 85%
                                                               Standard AASHO

4.2.4 Recycling and Resource Recovery

       Recycling has been promoted by the BMA as means to reduce waste
generation and quantity of waste transferred for final disposal. The current
recycling activities in BMA are as follows;

          •   Material recovery by waste pickers in the city or densely
              settlement areas.

          •   Material recovery by BMA’s waste collectors during their routine
              waste collection work.

          •   Material recovery by waste pickers at transfer stations

          •   Material recovery through BMA’s official recycling programmes.

       The total amount of waste recycled is estimated at 766 tons per day.
The percentage of waste recycling system in Bangkok metropolis is shown in
Figure 6. The recycling rate is approximately 8% of total waste generated.

       Apart from material recovery activities stated above, recycling at
generation source is normally practiced.       Households normally store their
recyclable materials such as paper, glass bottles and plastic bottles at home
until the amount is large enough to sell to waste buyer or recycling shops.
These activities have been practiced by household long before official
programme to educate the public about recycling was originated.

4.3 Gap Analysis

1. There are areas that are not covered in waste collection system due to
difficult access to the area and insufficient equipment and workforce of BMA.

2. The BMA has high number of waste collection fleets, however, they are
poorly maintained, which has lowered the effectiveness of the system by
reducing the total capacity of collection.    Some equipment is not in working

3. Waste collections were not carried out in a sanitary, environmentally sound
manner.     Protective equipments for waste collectors were provided, however,
the collectors do not give much attention to hygienic condition of their works.

4. Waste separation at source is not effectively done, thus, reducing potential
of waste recovery and recycling. Lack of public awareness and participation in
the separation of waste and waste reduction, the quantity of waste will maintain
to be major threats to proper solid waste management.

5.   Sorting out valuable items from waste collected during the daily waste
collection work reduce the quantity of waste to be transported to the transfer

6.    Piles of remain waste to be transported to landfill sites degrade
environmental conditions of the surrounding areas. Complaints over odour and
leachate are common. The poor sanitary condition at the sites can be the
source of diseases, as it has become breeding ground for flies, mosquitoes and

                                   Chapter 5


         The report has described status of waste management system for BMA
by covering four main aspects; policy and regulatory framework for solid waste
management, institutions involve in solid waste management, financial aspect
of waste management, and system and technology employed at present.

         It can be concluded that in terms of policy and regulatory framework,
details were laid out to cover different kinds of waste at both national and local
level.    Changes in government structure have been done to reduce the
overlapping responsibilities of different agencies, solid waste management

         At present, solid waste management is the responsibility of the BMA,
which together with the 50 districts offices collect, transport and regulate the
final disposal of wastes. There are gaps in terms of infrastructures, finances,
and technological issues.    Vehicles and fleets are poorly maintain make it
impossible to provide service at full coverage.      Transfer stations normally
receive more waste than what they can manage per day resulting in
accumulation of waste at transfer sites. Financially, BMA enjoys budget surplus
annually.     However, the income generated from providing environmental
services is extremely low.     Budget allocated for solid waste management,
therefore coming from other source of income, thus reduce the potential to use
the money in other development of infrastructures.

         Gradual increase of community cooperation and participation is needed
in order to reduce quantity of waste generated as well as quantity of waste to be
disposed at landfill sites. Formal waste recovery scheme should be promoted,
as there are many waste traders in the country.


Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Bangkok State of The Environment

Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Statistical Profile of BMA 2003.

Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Bangkok State of The Environment

Luanratana, W. Cleaner Production Potential at Bangkok Metropolitan
Administration. MS Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology. 2003.

Padungsirikul, P. Sustainable Solid Waste Landfill Management Research
and Development in Thailand.

World Bank. Thailand Environment Monitor 2003.


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