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									            Spezialgebiet Englisch


                      Canada




Topics:

              1)Canada, the Beginning

                    1.1)The Indians
              1.2)Kanata, the development
                    1.3) Immigration
  1.4) Waterways and the development of the Canadian
                    Pacific Railway

                   2)Government

         2.1) The Federal or National Government
                       2.1.1) The Queen
                   2.1.2) Governor General
              2.1.3) The Queen´s Privy Council
      2.1.4) The House of Common and the Cabinet
                       2.1.5) The Senate
                 2.2) Provincial Government
                 2.3) Territorial Government
                   2.4.) Local Government
                      2.5) The Judiciary

   3) Quebec: Conflict between the English and

                  French language
Canada has an area of nearly 6,000,000 square miles, but less than one
million square miles are effectively used. Canada is made up from 10
provinces, from the small Prince Edward Island to Quebec. This land is
bounded by three oceans, the Atlantic, the Pacific, the Arctic and shares
an frontier with the enormous lenght of almost 4,000 miles with the
Americans which is the unfortifiest border in the world.

1.) Canada - the Beginning
About 15000 years ago, there was a bridge of land between, what we
call now Siberia, and Alaska. (Bering Strait). Nomadic people crossed
this landbridge 25000 to 15000 years ago. Soon, they settled all over
America, these people were the first indians.
Some thousand years later the vikings crossed the Atlantic ocean and
landed at L ´Anse aux Meadows, lived there, but left the land. Scientists
found rests of stone - built houses, but for the vikings, the land was to
hard for living.
500 years later, the Europeans came to “Canada”. They went fishing at
the Grand Bank fishing grounds. During summer, they stayed there, the
stories they told lateron were the reason for the first settlements of
European people in North America.

1.1) The Indians

Naturally these settlements made some problems. First the Indians were
willing to share the land with the newcomers, but the Europeans needed
more and more land, so the Indians had to leave their territories. The
settlers traded with goods for land. The white people didn´t understand
the indians, but they didn´t kill them. The “Canadian” indians didn´t have
the same fate as the “American” indians. They didn´t die because of their
skin, but because of their unstable immune system. They died of
influenca and other illnesses which were brought in by the settlers. This
development killed many indians.
There are three groups who call themselves the First Nations. These are
the Indians, the Inuit and the Métis.
They want to distinguish themselves from the Europeans because they
came in the 16th century. The three groups were the first. The
Europeans did not discover the land, they invaded it.
Today there are six main cultures, some of them no longer exist.
1.) The Woodland Indians
2.) The Iroquains
3.) The Plain Indians
4.) The Plateau Indians
5.) The Northwest Coastal Indians
6.) The Subarctic Indians




1.2) Kanata

In
1497 John Cabot claims the New World territory for England. He
probably landed in Newfoundland. Only 40 years later on an voyage to
Canada in

1534, Jacques Cartier gave Canada the name.
Kanata means in Huron Indian - a settlement. Cartier meant it referred to
the whole land he had discovered. He sailed up St. Lawrence River and
claimed this area for France. The place he claimed for France is part of
the present - day Quebec.
He established the first permanent European settlement near the St.
Lawrence River. And in

1608 French explorer Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec city. The
life was very hard, the Indians unfriendly and adventurers came to find
gold. But they made their money with another good of Canada. They
made beaver hats who became very modern in Europe. Soon in

1660 there were over 3000 merchants, farmers, soldiers, living at the
Banks of St. Lawrence River. In

1663 the French crown takes control of the colony of Canada.
Some adventurers found, that it would be better to build a trading
company to control everything. They tried to interest the French people
for this idea but they didn´t want to hear anything about that. So they
began to talk with English king Charles II and his brother prince Rupert
Count Palatinate of the Rhine, Duke of BAVARIA. They persuaded a
group of English salesman who should pay for the idea. In

1668 two adventurers sailed to Canada and built the Hudson´s Bay
Company which was really established in 1670 with the English Royal
Charter.It said that they would get control over all lands drained by rivers
which flow into Hudson Bay. The first president of the Hudson´s Bay
company was Prince Rupert.
It was highly succesful. Until today the Hudson´s Bay company is one of
the most important trading companies in Canada. They began as a fur
trading business which exchanged European goods for the furs of the
Indians. This business sent the people further and further inland so the
Hudson´s Bay company eventually became responsible for the
settlement of western Canada. After 327 years of trading, the company
has become smaller but for the Canadians it is still a honour and an
opportunity to work for the company. The British seemed to rule the land,
but the French people were the ones who worked and transported the
goods. Their work was even harder than those of the British.

But by this time the British settled in other regions.

1713 the Hudson bay, Newfoundland and mainland Nova Scotia became
British because of the treaty of Utrecht. In the
18th century they began to build the settlements along the Atlantic coast.
They built Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia.
Soon the French, who were isolated in Quebec began to feel
overpowered by the British. When the British began to explore the
country the conflict grew.In

1755 the French and Indian war began. There was an open conflict
between France and Britain for the control of North America.
The Seven years War came to Canada. In

1759 the British captured Quebec city. and defeatet the French at the
battle of the plains of Abraham. This development led

1763 to the Treaty of Paris, which said that Quebec would become
British.The next hundred years there was very little change in Canada,
the French became more and more overpowered by the British.
But the 65.000 French inhabitants kept up fighting for their tradition and
this led to the
Quebec act in 1774. Britain guaranteed the French civil laws and
religious freedom. In Quebec most people were Roman Catholics, in
contrast the others were mostly protestants.
After the American war of independence in
1776 many English speakin people came to Canada and settled in
Upper Canada which is now Ontario. The French remained in Lower
Canada, now Quebec.
In 1812 American troops fail to invade British North America
After rebellions by French settlers, the two colonies became the United
provinces of Canada in 1840
English became the official language.
In 1867, Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick became the
Dominion of Canada, this law is called the British North America Act.
The provinces of Manitoba, Alberta and Saskatchewan were formed
between 1870 and 1905.
The remaining land became the North West territories.
In 1871 B.C. joined The dominion of Canada, 1873 Prince Edward Island
joined, and Yukon was established in 1898. Newfoundland became
Canada´s 10th province in 1949.
1939 Canada receives formal independence from Britain. 10 years later
Canada becomes a founding member of the NATO.
And finally in 1965 Canada adopts the Maple leaf flag.

1.3. Immigration

Canada is a land of immigrants. All Canadians are either descendants of
immigrants or immigrants themselves.
Early immigration came mainly from France and Britain.
By the first decade of the 20th century, an important source of
immigration was continental Europe, like Germany.
After the WWII another mass of immigrants came to Canada, they saw
Canada as a refugee of wartorn Europe.
During the 1960ies when there was a boom in the economy,
immigration reached a high.(222.876)
This led to an immigration policy in 1967. The new system introduced
was based on points which were given for language skills, education,
technical abilities, and abilities to create jobs in Canada.
Canada asks itself who many immigrants should be allowed in the 21st
century. Furthermore the problem was established what impact the non -
white immigrants will have on the terms of social problems.
The development of immigration is similar to the waves of immigrants in
America.
The first Canadians didn´t come with the Mayflower but on the same way
and regarded themseves as the founding people. These groups were the
British and the French. Like the Americans they regarded the later
arriving people as minorities and discriminated them in some way
although this development was not as grave as in America.
From 1880 on Jews who were fleeing from Progroms in Europe came to
Canada. The majority came from Russia, Poland, others from
Roumania.
The assimilation was easier than in America. The Jewish Colonization
Association helped the people to become farmer. The problem was, that
the jewish didn´t know hardly anything about farming. For this reason
they gave it up after a few years. The first Jewish Member of Parliament
was Henry Nathan, who was elected to represent Victoria in British
Columbia after entering in the Confederation, without any doubts, an
important and new period in the development of the Jewish and British
Columbia.
With this, so called wave, Swedish, Danish, German settlers came to
Canada .
The construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway led to an influx of
immigrants which began with the construction in the last 20 years of the
former century.

The first Chinese people came to Canada when the gold rush began.
The first came in 1858 but many people had already given up in 1866.
Like in America they only tried to make money and then they returned to
China. But in 1885 it ended for the Chinese, not with a tremendous effort
but with the experience of brutally hard work.

The next “wave” of immigration happened after World War I. It is
astonishing that the majority of immigrants came from China. This
development led to the Chinese Immigration Act. During the next 18
years only 15 merchants, clergymen and students were allowed to enter.
Many Canadian soldiers came home to Canada with brides.
From 1920 to 1929 many people from wartorn and unstable countries
came to Canada.

Pre WWII immigration was significant Jewish dominated. From Adolf
Hitlers talk of a “master race” on , many Jews fled as refugees to
Canada, from 1930 on to 1939 there was a constant flow of Jews to
Canada, reaching a high slightly before the beginning of WWII.
The Jews coming to Canada, were mostly rich and famous. Scientists,
educators, engineers and industrialists, came to Canada
After WWII, the Post - war immigration took place.
Soon the stream of “displaced persons” came to a flow.
It was remarkable that many of those persons were people with former
occupied positions of prominence. They were business leaders and
industrialists, educators and scientists.

The main stream of immigrants came from Britain and generally from
Central Europe.
The Hungarian revolt in 1956/57 led to an dramatic uprise of Hungarian
refugees. 35000 immigrant arrived.
1.4 The Railway and the Waterways - important factors in the
development of Canada.

Canada´s first prime minister John A. MacDonald had the dream to bind
all the nations together. When, in 1871 British Columbia entered the
Confederation, the citizens weren´t that patriotic. They felt they should
belong to the south.
So John A. MacDonald made the building of a railway from the Atlantic
to the Pacific his top priority. He felt that only by these measures,
Canada would be safe from all influences from the United States.
It was a very hard work through the 1870´s, the last spike was driven in
the mountains of British Columbia. →Canadian Pacific Rail Road,
completed on November 7th 1885 Between 1880 and 1885, 3,040
kilometres of tracks were added to the 1,100 kilometres still built.

The waterways were an important factor in the industrialisation of
Canada.
Since the 17th century the St. Lawrence Seaway system has been the
major feature in the North American Transportation system. It includes
the five Great Lakes, Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie and Ontario, which
were all drained to the Atlantic ocean by the St. Lawrence river. The
total lenght of this system is nearly 3,000 kilometres.
Canadas longest river is the Mc Kenzie river, with a lenght of nearly
4,000 kilometres from the source in the Rocky Mountains to the Arctic
Ocean.


2.) Government
The British North America Act in 1867 provided for the establishment
and functioning of political institutions at three levels of representative
government in the Canadian Federation
1.)The National or Federal Government
2.)The provincial Government
3.)The local or municipial Government

2.1)The Federal or National Government

This government is similiar to the British parliamentary system,
Canada´s institutions consist at the federal or national level of three
branches, the executive, the legislative and the judicial. There is no
separation of branches - “checks and balances” in Canada.
The Crown is the unifying symbol of these branches.
The government consist of “The Queen, an Upper House (Senat) and
the House of Commons.

2.1.1)The Queen

Until today Her Majesty Queen Elisabeth II. is Queen of Canada
symbolizing the influence of the British Government system on the
Canadian Government.
But her power is limited, in fact reserved to such occasions like a royal
visit or the periodic appointment of her personal representative on the
advice of the Prime Minister of Canada.

2.1.2.)The Governor General

is appointed by the Queen and the legal representative of Her Majesty
for an unfixed term of five years. Under new Letters Patent established
on the first of October 1947, he got the power to execute, on the advice
of the Queen´s Privy Council, all royal powers and executive authorities
of the Crown in relation to Canada. He receives no instructions from
Westminster, doesn´t make reports for them, but exercises formal
authority as summoning, poroguing and dissolving parliament and
assenting to Bills in Queen´s name. Since
1952 Canadians are Governors General of Canada.

2.1.3.)The Queen´s Privy Council

Consists of about 100 members, appointed for life time by the Governor
General on the advice of the Prime Minister.
The Council consists chiefly of present and former Ministers of the
Crown, but occasionally membership is conferred on former speakers of
the Common and the Senate. the Council does not meet as functioning
body and the constitutional responsibilities as adviser to the Crown are
performed exclusively by a select committee, composed of the Ministers,
who actually constitute the Cabinet of the Day.

2.1.4.)The House of Common and the Cabinet

A new House of Common is chosen in a general election usually held at
any time within five years after the last election. A normal dissolution
before the election follows. The dissolution is pronounced by the
Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister.
If necessary (in Canada only in 1926 and 1963) a general election may
be called when a governmental passagge of a vote of want of
confidence is defeatet by the House in the government of the day.
The House of Common consists of 295 members from different parties.

The franchise, that is the right to vote is given to all citizens (Canadian
citizens or British subjects), male or female, of the age of 21, or to
people who have lived in Canada for over 12 months conferring to the
polling day, with certain exeption, for example, people who have lived in
a penal institution or a mental hospital. Now there is something different.
The “active franchise” is for all citizens and British subjects of the age of
18.

The leader of the party which has won the largest number of seats in
The House of Common is normally asked by the Governor General to
work as the representative of the Queen and to form the Parliament.
This leader becomes the Prime Minister. Normally he chooses members
of the House of Commons, but it is also possible to choose other people.
That person has to pass through a by - election to secure his seat in the
house.
The Cabinet and the House of Commons are the executive powers in
Canada.
The Cabinet is responsible for determining all important policies of
government and securing the passage of such legislation, financial
measures and administrative provisions.
The members of the Cabinet are also often called Ministers of the
Crown.
They represent all regions of the country, and their religious, cultural and
social interests.
The references to the executive power, such as the Prime Minister and
the Cabinet, the composition and all requirements are not written down
in the BNA Act, but part of the unwritten, but nonetheless cherished
CONVENTIONAL CONSTITUTION.

The choice off the Canadian citizen doesn´t only say who should form
the Parliament, but also designates who becomes the Official
Opposition.
The Ministers of the Crown carry out the political responsibilities of their
respective departments but the federal service forms the staffs of 20
departments and of various boards, commissions n coporations, bureaus
and so on.
The Deputy Minister is the permanent head of the day to day
adminstration of a department.
2.1.5.)The Senate

The Senate or Upper House shares the responsibility and the enactment
of the federal legislation with the House of Commons.
Bills have to pass both houses before they are signed up by the
Governors General.
The influence of the Senate is less than that of the House of Commons
in which most public bills are introduced.
But the Senate has the power to perform a valuable service to the nation
in amending and delaying the passage of measures that might result
from sudden shifts in public oppinion or party strenght.
Senators are appointed by the Governors General on the nomination, by
constitutional usage, of the Prime Minister
In 1965 life appointment was reduced by legislation, providing the
retirement of Senators by reaching the age of 75 years.
The Senate consists of 104 members, of all regions and territories of
Canada.

2.2)Provincial Government

The Provincial Government is part of the Federal Government and
therefor represented by a Lieutnant Governor, who is appointed by the
Governors General for a term of five years. Although he works for the
Federal Government, his powers are exactly the same as those of the
Governors General but only in the Provincial Government.The legislative
Assembly is elected for a term of five years and only for Quebec a
Legislative Council of 24 members appointed for life by the Lieutnant
Governor in Council.
The franchise is granted to every adult of the age of 21 although in
Quebec and Saskatchewan at the age of 18 and in Alberta, British
Columbia and Newfoundland the age is 19.
The legislative powers of the Provincial Government are defined under
Section 92 in the BNA - act.
Each of the 10 provinces has a different constitution. The Province
Governor represents the Crown and is appointed by the Governor
General. He follows the advise of the Prime Minister.

2.3)Territorial Government:

The sparsely populated regions in Canada have a different system of
government a local self - government.
For example the local self - government of the Yukon territory is
represented by a Commissioner who is resident in Ottawa, and who is
appointed by the Federal Government and a locally - elected Legislative
Council of seven members, meeting at Whitestone.
The Commissioner is assisted by a Council of 12 members of whom
seven are elected.
The Council meets once a year in the territories and at least once each
year at Ottawa, which is the seat of the government.
The Administration of Yukon, Indian and Eskimo affairs and of the
resources of the territories, except hunting is the responsibility of the
Department of Indian Affairs and Northern development.


2.4Local Government:

The smallest of all governments. The Local Government is divided into
municipial levels, which again are divided into ten different systems.
The municipalities, are also known as Towns, townships, rural
municipalities. Governments corporations in Montreal, Toronto and
Winnipeg are organized to provide certain services to a number of area
municipalities.
Municipalities have a provincial government and have different powers
and responsibilities according to their classification.
The head of a municipality is elected and my be called mayor, reeve or
overseer. The responsibilities are mostly relied to keep up the citizens
day - life his well - being and the protection.

2.5)The Judiciary:

It is the third element of government and it has to interpret and
administer the law. Each province has an magistrate´s court and is
furthermore divised into supreme or county courts.
In the provinces all judges except the police magistrates and the judges
of the courts of probate in N. S and N. B. are appointed by the
Governors General.
Their salaries allowances and pensions are paid by the Parliament of
Canada. Pension: 75 years.

The Supreme Court and the Exchequer Court were established in 1875
under the BNA - act. The Chief Justice and the eight puisne judges of
the Supreme Court and four puisne judges of the Exchequer Courts are
appointed by the Governor General in Council.
They hold office as long as they show good behaviour, but are
removable when it is wanted by the Governor General on advise of the
senate and the House of Commons. Pension : 75 years. The Supreme
Court is in Ottawa and exercises general jurisdiction throughout the
country. It answers the Question of the Governor General
The Exchequer Court also sits at Ottawa and at other centres as
necessary.


The newest Governor General in Council is Roméro LeBlanc.
The Prime Minister is Jean Crétien.
The last elections were 1995, the new government is on power since the
25th of January 1996.
There are different parties in Canada
1.) The liberal Party
2.) The Reform Party
3.) The New Democratic Party
4.) The Progressive - Conservative Party
5.) The Bloque Quebecois


3.) Quebec: Conflict between the English and French speaking
population

The reasons for this long - lasting conflict in Canada can be found in the
history. The French population always had the feeling of being
overpowered by the British citizens. The roots of this conflict lie surely in
the battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759 which led to the Treaty of
Paris. This treaty said that Quebec would become British.
The development in our century is even more radical and diverse.
Canadian newspaper often state the possibility of breaking - up. Modern
Canada was founded by the French and the English. The French came
first, but the English took control.
Before the Dominion of Canada was founded in 1867 many rebelions of
French had to be put down.
Since this time the French tried to preserve their culture and language in
an English dominated land.
The rest of Canada respects Quebec ´s demands but is not willing to
give them more powers than they have.
Quebecs language laws have caused some bitterness.
In
1989 Quebec insisted that business signs appear in French only in the
province.
But in accordance withe The Official Languages Act of 1969 all the other
nine provinces also had to become bilingual although other languages,
like German and Ukrainian were spoken more widely in these provinces.
Canadas seven million Francophones represent 28% of the population.
But only in New Brunswick the partnership of English and French is
successful.
In Manitoba five percent of the population speak French, but all pupils
have to learn completely French from the Kindergarten to the University.
The Francophones have their own festivals and broadcasting stations.
In connection with the Problem of Quebec it is necessary to mention a
man who dealt effectively with the kidnappers of a British diplomat and
the Minister of Quebec who got killed by the kidnappers in
1970. Pierre Trudeau spoke with the kidnappers who were from the
Quebec Liberation Front, a party wanting Quebec to be seperated from
the rest. Pierre Trudeau became Minister of Justice in 1967 and in 1968
Canada´s 15th Prime Minister. Trudeau believed in a United Canada. He
spoke English and French, a fact which made him popular. He was
responsible for the Official Language Act in 1969 which gave both
languages an equal status.

In
1980 a referendum asking Quebec people wether they wish to partially
seperate from Canada is defeated.
In 1992 the next referendum followed. The result was nearly fifty - fifty.
Today more than 60% of the Quebeckers believe that Quebec becomes
a seperate province by the end of the decade.
Quebec is one of the wealthiest provinces and the largest. But there are
also some grave economic problems to solve. The Parties couldn´tsolve
them, so the seperatists party Bloc Quebequois get´s more and more
powerful. Some Quebeckers are confident that they can succeed alone.
The problem is, that other colonies could follow. Nova Scotia and New
Brunswick think that they could benefit from becoming part of the U.S.A.
Alberta and British Columbia think about this too, but both Provinces are
important for the economy of Canada, but on the other side they have
important trade and cultural relations to the U.S.
But the majority of Canadians does´nt want to become part of another
country.
 It seems that the problem goes further. The Métis, the Eskimos, the
minorities watch with interest what is going on in Quebec. They will not
allow special conditions for Quebec if they don´t get those rights too.

A group of the Federal Commitee drives throughout Canada, asking the
people what they want. The results were showed at the referendum in
1992.
Literature:

Canada, One Hundred, 1867 - 1967, Handbook and Library Division,
Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Queen´s Printer, Ottawa, Canada 1967

Canada - Perspectives. Ernst Klett Verlag GmbH. u. Co. KG. Stuttgart
1989

Colourful Canada. Roger Burford Mason. Cornelsen Verlaf Berlin, 1992

Facsimile from the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and
International Trade.
The Canadian Encyclopedia Plus. Mc Clelland & Stewart Inc. 1995

								
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