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Nanotechnology and NanomedicineExplosion 3-6 Jan 2011-74 slides _1_

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					    NANOTECHNOLOGY AND EXPLOSION IN
            NANO-MEDICINE
                              N. M. Butt
          M.Sc. (Punjab), Ph.D. (Birmingham), D.Sc. (Birmingham)
                                     &
                 Toqeer Ahmad Ph.D. (Q.A.U)
    Preston Institute of Nano Science and Technology
                         (PINSAT).
           Preston University, Islamabad.Pakistan.

                    ( e-mai: nmbutt36@yahoo.coml).

                                  ***********
Presentation at : The 3rd International Symposium-Cum Training Course on
Molecular Medicines and Drug Research (MMDR-3) . Panjwani Center for
MMDR. Karachi. 3 - 6th Jan 2011.
             CONTENTS
PART-1:
 Introduction to nanotechnology
 Applications of nanotechnology
 Some exotic applications of nanotechnology
 Nanotechnology applications in medicine
 Videos
PART-2:
 Nanotechnology education in Pakistan

                                               2
1. Introduction to Nanotechnology
         Nanotechnology?
“Nanotechnology     is       the   study,
manipulation ,control       and use of
nanomaterials and their structures at
nanoscale sizes      i-e sizes between 1
nanometer (nm) and 100 nanometers . To
give an idea of how small I nm is , the
thickness of a human hair or a sheet of
paper is some 80,000 nm. (1nm is one
billionth of a metre.The sizes of atoms
and molecules are at nanoscale).

             Source: (Butt,N.M-2009)
                                            4
“There‟s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”
Richard P. Feynman December 1959

  The classic talk that Richard Feynman gave
  on December 29th 1959 at the annual
  meeting of the American Physical Society at
  the California Institute of Technology
  (Caltech)

 I would like to describe a field, in which little has been done,
  but in which an enormous amount can be done in principle.
 Furthermore, a point that is most important is that it would
  have an enormous number of technical applications.
 What I want to talk about is the problem of manipulating
  and controlling things on a small scale
                                                                 5
 Why can’t we write the entire 24 volumes of the
  Encyclopedia Britannica on the head of a pin?
 Let‟s see what would be involved. The head of a pin is a
  sixteenth of an inch across. If you demagnify it by
  25,000 diameters, the area of the head of the pin is then
  equal to the area of all the pages of the Encyclopedia
  Britannica. Therefore, all it is necessary to do is to
  reduce in size all the writing in the Encyclopedia by
  25,000 times. Is that possible? The resolving power of
  the eye is about 0.2mm – that is roughly the diameter of
  one of the little dots on the fine half-tone reproductions
  in the Encyclopedia. This, when you de-magnify it by
  25,000 times, is still 80 angstroms (8nm) in diameter –
  32 atoms across, in an ordinary metal.
                                                           6
7
0.1nm   8
            President Clinton, 2000
   The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)
In his speech proposing the NNI, President
Clinton (2000) invoked this vision on
Feynman’s home ground:
My budget supports a major new National
Nanotechnology Initiative, worth $500
million. Caltech is no stranger to the idea
of nanotechnology —the ability to
manipulate matter at the atomic and
molecular level. More than 40 years ago,
Caltech’s own Richard Feynman asked,
“What would happen if we could arrange
the atoms one by one the way we want
them?                                             9
                       Colin L. Powell
       Former Secretary of State United States Government
       Remarks to the 139th Annual Meeting of the National
                     Academy of Sciences.
        10 a.m. Tuesday, April 30, 2002 Washington, D.C.

 “Indeed, new avenues of scientific
  research may produce technologies as
  revolutionary in their security,
  economic and social implications as
  information technology has been since
  the mid-1980s. One area of biotechnical
  research alone, nanotechnology, could
  have enormous implications -- some
  thrilling, others chilling –on terrorism,
  defence, health, development and the
  world economy”.
TONY BLAIR'S SPEECH ON BRITISH SCIENCE
        THURSDAY MAY 23, 2002
“The current work in nanoscience -
manipulating and building devices atom by
atom - is startling in its potential. From this
we now see emerging nanotechnology.
Programmable and controllable microscale
robots will allow doctors to execute curative
and reconstructive procedures in the
human body at the cellular and molecular
level. Visionaries in this field talk about
machines the size of a cell that might, for
example, identify and destroy all the
cancerous cells in a body. Nanomachines
might target bacteria and other parasites,
dealing with tuberculosis, malaria and
antibiotic-resistant bacteria”.
                                                  11
 Russian Budget For Nanotechnology
The Russian government would allocate 200 billion
rubles ($7.7 billion) to develop nanotechnology
until 2015 and transfer to the state corporation 130
billion rubles ($5 billion) by the end of this year. As
of now, the government has invested about 150
billion rubles ($5.76 billion) in different
nanotechnology studies including weapons projects.
In 2007, 12 billion rubles ($461 million) has been
appropriated       for     the     development       of
nanotechnologies, an incredible sum by Russian
standards i.e. more than 5 times allocated for this
purpose in 2006. This year's nanotechnologies
budget of Russia is comparable to USA, European
Union and Japan.
                                                                              12
                                                                              12
 Source: http://en.rian.ru/russia/20070723/69482473.html, 23rd   July, 2007
         Iranian President Calls for National
            Nanotechnology Organization

President calls for setting up of national
nanotechnology organisation
Sarkar said that there are 15 Iranian
universities which admit students
applying for Master degrees in
nanotechnology and another other 5
universities - for PhDs.
The Islamic Republic of Iran holds 1st
place for nanotechnology in the region.
Iran will enter the 10 leading world
countries by 2015, Iranian official
representatives said on July 21.
                                                13
                                                13
India Sees Growth Opportunity through Nanotech
           India‟s Former President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

Within     India,   nanotechnology  is
frequently taking a prominent role in
presidential speeches.
“One of the two technologies which will take
India to the level of advanced countries by 2015
is nanotechnology and the other is fuel
technology”.
  “Nano-technology is knocking at our doors,” he
said. “It is the field of the future that will replace
microelectronics           and many fields with
tremendous application potential in the areas of
                                                         14
                                                         14
medicine, electronics and material sciences”.
           GLOBAL IMPACT
• Applications of nanotechnology         have
  developed multibillion dollars product
  lines.
• Potential of 3.1 trillion dollar market by
  2015. It was $147 billion products in 2007
  (www.luxresearchinc.com).
• 2580 nanoproducts already in the market
  by Nov 2009.
• Another“ Industrial Revolution” in the
  making.
• Profound effect on the socio-economic
  scenario of the world for 40-50- years.   15
                   INVESTMENT IN NANOTECHNOLOGY (2008)
S. No.          Country                                 Funding
         USA, NNI                   $m 1,444.2(2008), $m 1,527.0(2009), $m 1.65 (2010)
  1      (www.nano.gov)                  [ about 12 b $ SINCE 2001-2010]
         EU                                         $m 1,200( 2008)
  2
         (www.nanowerk.com)                       3.5 b € [2007-2013]
  3      Germany                                   $m 500 (in 2008)*
  4      France                                    $m 210 ( in 2008)*
  5      Japan                                     $m 380 ( in 2008)*
  6      China                      Over 300 organizations ($m 906( in 2006 ).
  8      RUSSIA (2008)                                 $m 5,000
         (www.nanowerk.com)                        (7.7 b$ up to 2015)
 10      TAIWAN (Market value)                    $m 578( in 2008)*
         (Investintaiwan.nat.gov)

 11      INDIA (2008)                                   $m 255
         (www.scidev.net)

 12      PAKISTAN (2008)                                 $m 15
 13      Iran                                            $m 50
            *MINI IGT, Nanotechnology: Materials UK .2010( www.matuk.co.uk).      16
      Market Volume (€ billion)
Exponential Market Growth for Nanotech
              Products




                                         17
http://www.nanotechnology.com   18
                                18
 Why nano will change the properties of materials?
           “Smaller size means larger surface to volume ratio”
                                   Sphere
                                   • Volume, V = 4/3 π R3
      12
      11                           • Surface Area, S = 4πR2
      10                           • Ratio V/S = 3/R α 1/R
       9                               He atom, 2R = 0.1 nm. S/V = 6 × 1010
       8
       7                       R
S/V    6
                                                      R         S/V
       5
       4                                              3           1
       3                                              2          1.5
       2
                                                      1           3
       1
       0                                             0.5          6
           0.5 1   2   3   4       5                 0.25        12
                                                    0.125        24       19
                       R
    Why nano will change the properties
              of materials?
Example: Smaller size means larger surface area
  Diameter: 10 µm                50 nm diameter
  Area:   0.22 m2/g                 44 m2/g




                                                  20
                                                  20
Nanotechnology is Multidisciplinary


 Electrical
Engineering                    Physics

Mechanical
Engineering   Nanotechnology   Chemistry


Information      Material      Biology
Technology       Science


                                      21
       PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS AT NANOSCALE

              Higher electrical conductivity in ceramics and megnatic
 Electrical
              nanocomposities; higher resistivity in metals.

              Increase in magnetic coercivity         ;    Superparamagnetic
 Magnetic
              behavior.Efficient sensing properties

              Increase in hardness and strength of metals and alloys;
              enhanced ductility, toughness and formability of ceramics;
              super strength and super plasticity.
Mechanical
              Increase in luminescent efficiency          of   semiconductors;
              transparency of nanoparticies.
  Optical
 Chemical     Enhanced catalytic properties and sensors


                                                                                 22
     Adopted from John Werry, 2003, “Nanotechnology and you”
            Impact of Nanotechnology
The benefits of Nanotechnology for Industry and
  the Society are extensive and varied . Such as:
•   Nano Materials and Manufacturing Industry
•   Nanoelectronics and Computer Technology
•   Medicine and Healthcare
•   Environment and Energy
•   Clean Drinking Water-nanofilteration.
•   Biotechnology, Food & Agriculture
•   National Security and Defence
•   Aeronautics and Space Exploration
•   Pharmaceutical industry
•   Oil and Gas Industry
•   Sports and Textiles Industry
•   Construction Industry
•   Intellectual Property Rights / Patent & Legal Offices   23
2. Applications of Nanotechnology
          Applications of Nanotechnology
Industrial Revolution at Door-steps, 2-3 trillion $ Marketing of
     Nanoproducts and 3.1 million job creation by 2015
  i.    Medical and Health Care:
        Anti-cancer drugs, Bio-sensors, Implants, Dental Pastes,
        Cancer treatment, Targeted drug delivery, Pharmaceuticals,
        Nanodetergents for hospitals
 ii.    Energy:
          Solar, Fuel cell, Bio-fuels, Long life Batteries
 iii.   Automobiles:
           Lubricants, Glass Coatings, Resins, Phosphors, Fog and dust free
        wind screens and glass
 iv.    Industry:
          Ceramic, Insulation, Phosphors, Hard Materials, Mechanical,
        Spray, Sensors
 v.     Computer/Information Technology:
          Bio-molecules for electronics, Fast processing, Large Memories
 vi.    Defence:
          Special Materials, Sensors, Intelligent Clothing, Bee size Drones( Israel),
                                                                                    25
   Applications of Nanotechnology ---                      Continued


Vii.    Cosmetics:
              Anti aging creams, Skin Creams, Sun creams
viii.  Agriculture:
              Food Safety, food preservations, Quality Assurance,
      water purification
 ix. Environment:
              Filters, anti toxicants, Anti-pollutants
  x. Textiles:
              Special clothes, Bullet proof T-shirts, Anti- smelling socks
 xi. Sports:
              Sunglasses, Rackets, Tennis and Golf balls, Hockey
      sticks
 xii. Aerospace:
               Communication, High strength light weight
      materials
 Xiii Nanotechnology in Oil and Gas Exploration
              50% more exploration due to oil extraction, diesel, oil
      cleaning, Sensors
                               ************                            26
      Nanotechnology Industrial Applications

       Food Science                           Biotechnology
                               Cosmetics


Sports Goods                                         Environment




   Textiles                  Nanotechnology         Pharmaceuticals




                                                      Health and
   Defense                                            Medicines


                               Computer and      Oil and gas
               Agriculture         IT            Exploration
                                                                   27
3. Exotic Applications of
    Nanotechnology
i). CANCER TREATMENT
•   A gentle touch of a brush on the tongue or cheek can detect
    oral cancer AND found to be 97 percent "sensitive" and 93 percent
    specific in detecting cancer.
•   Nanotubes for diagnosis and cancer treatment.
ii). TB TREATMENT
•   Needs to be taken just one shot/ week for 2 months instead of current
•    one shot/day for 6 months and there are no adverse reactions.
iii). DETECTION OF ALZHEIMER'S
•   Gold Nanoparticles to identify and give early detection of Alzheimer's
    disease.
iv). TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY
•   Targeted drug delivery – right time, right place and correct dosage.
•   NEMS for the active release of drugs.
                                                                           29
•   Increase medicine solubility in bloodstream
v). NANOEMULSION FOR BURN TREATMENT
•   Lotion from soybean oil, alcohol, water and detergents that was
•   emulsified into droplets less than 400nm has shown useful
•   bactericidal, fungicidal and viricidal effects.
vi). NANO -VACCINES
•   Nanotechnology-based skin patch against viruses. inactive virus is
•   bound up with nanoparticles to increase the immune response.
    Nanovaccines for Hepatitis B.
vii). Breath analyzer to detect Lung Cancer
•   A portable breath tester that detects lung cancer with 86 percent
    accuracy .The device could provide an early warning system that flags
    the disease before tumours become visible in X-rays (Nature
    Nanotechnology).
                                                                         30
Viii). DENTISTRY: Competitive technologies‟ agreement for dental use of
    nanotechnology bone biomaterial
IX). TISSUE ENGINEERING: To replace damaged tissue or provide the
    missing ones
X). LONGER LASTING MEDICAL IMPLANTS:
•    Immediate mapping of an individual‟s genetic code
•    Instruments for studying individual molecules
XI). ARTIFICIAL SENSOR:
•    For eye, ear or nerve, bioelectronic interface
•    Diagnostic sensors (Easy detection of diseases)
•    Quantum dots of 3 – 5 nm suitable for building biomolecules
XII). LAB. TESTS:
•    Lab-on-a-chip for blood test and analysis
•    Detection of clothing contact with Anthrax within 20 minutes
                                                                    31
  4. Nanotechnology in
Healthcare and Medicine
     (Nanomedicine)




                          32
         Nanomedicine?

Nanomedicine is the application of
nanotechnology to healthcare. It has
potential impact on the early and
reliable diagnosis, monitoring, and
treatment of diseases.



  Source: Roszek et al. Medical nanotechnology
                                                 33
                                            Nanotechnology
                                        & Biotechnology


                                       Nanobiotechnology




                                                                               Molecular
      Targeted              Nano-                    Nanomedicines             Diagnostics
        Drug                pharmaceuticals
      Delivery
                                                                               Molecular
                                                                             imaging devices



Antimicrobial     Oncology        Burns
                                Treatment
                                                Tissue
+ Antiviral                                                 Neurologic      Nano      Cardio-
(Aids, Hep B, C   (Cancer                    Regeneration   al Disorder,   Vaccines   vascular
),                                                          Alzheimers                diseases
                  treatment)
                                                              disease
                                                                                             34
    NANOTECHNOLOGY BASED CANCER TREATMENT
 Nanotechnology has generated a
  great deal of interest in the field
  of oncology due to its potential to
  selectively deliver and concentrate
  drugs to tumors while minimizing
  damage to healthy cells.
 Two FDA approved nanoparticle
  formulations for the treatment of
  cancer:
  1. Abraxane: a suspension of          http://www.abraxane.com/images_charts/vhs_tape_box.gif
  albumin-bound Taxol (paclitaxel)
  for breast cancer          through
  injection. FDA approved in
  January, 2005.
  2. Doxil: liposomal formulation of
  doxorubicin (100 nm) through
  injection.    FDA approved in
  February, 2005.
                                         http://www.doxil.com/images/clientChart.gif
 Medicine and Health
 Nanorobots could also be programmed to
  perform delicate surgeries – such nanosurgeons
  could work at a level a thousand times more
  precise than the sharpest scalpel.
 By working on such a small scale, a nanorobot
  could operate without leaving the scars that
  conventional surgery does.
 Nanorobots could change your physical
  appearance. They could be programmed to
  perform cosmetic surgery, rearranging your
  atoms to change your ears, nose, eye color or
  any other physical feature you wish to alter.
                                                   36
  Nanotechnology and Molecular
         Bioengineering

Regulation      of   muscle
contraction resulting from
cyclic interactions between
myosin and actin, which is
regulated      by    several
associated proteins.



                                 37
    Multifunctional Nanoparticles for
   Molecular Imaging and Drug Delivery
• Engineered nanostructures for
  detection/analysis
• Treatment of human diseases such as:
   – Cancer
   – Cardiovascular diseases
   – Infectious diseases
   – Neurological diseases
 For example. Advances in semiconductor quantum dots
 (Q-dots) have produced a new class of nanoparticles
 providing unique optical and structural properties that are
 not available from either traditional single molecules or
                                                           38
 bulk solids.
   Multifunctional Nanoparticles for
  Molecular Imaging and Drug Delivery
Valuable Q-dot have different properties
such as:
   – Size-tunable emission
   – Large absorption coefficient
   – Narrow emission peak
   – Broad absorption profile
   – Photostability
   – Very high brightness


 Q-dots : the best molecular probe for
imaging and detection.
                                           39
Nano-particles For Drug Delivery

  Gold      Nano-particles
   made it possible to
   deliver cancer drugs
   only to target tumours,
   thus minimizing side
   effects.
  Gold Nano-particles are
   being evaluated not only
   as drug delivery systems
   but also as cancer
   monitoring           and
   treatment system.
                                   40
  Biological Nanodevices
 Bottom-up       approach
  frequently used     when
  constructing
  nanomaterials for use in
  medicine.
 Most animal cells are 10
  to      20      thousand
  nanometers in diameter.
 Nanodevices smaller than
  100 nm would be able to
  enter   the   cells  and
  organelles where they
  could interact with DNA
  and proteins.

  This could assist in the detection of disease in
   very small cell or tissue samples.
  Could also allow less invasive examination of
   living cells within the body.                      41
Cancer Treatment with Nanotechnology
• Nanotechnology created particles directly
  attach to cancer cells with ―Lethal payload of
  drugs‖
• Nano-cell, 1/5 of normal cell is tagged with
  antibodies attracted by cancerous tumours
• Do not flood the body with toxic chemicals
• No usual harmful debilitating side effects such as
  nausea, hair loss
• No life threatening as chemotherapy
• Trials on lab animals
• Human trials soon


   The News 14th May 2007 (From Australian Scientists)
                                                         42
Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Detection




                                        43
    Nanoparticles improve delivery of
       medicines and diagnostics
• Using an innovative technique a Princeton
  University-led research team has created
  particles that can deliver medicine deep into
  the lungs or infiltrate cancer cells while
  leaving normal ones alone.
• Only 100 to 300 nanometers wide -- more than
  100 times thinner than a human hair -- the
  particles can be loaded with medicines or
  imaging agents, like gold and magnetite, that
  will enhance the detection capabilities of CT
  scans and MRIs.
              Source: Princeton University
Radio Waves Destroying Liver Cancer

• Cancer cells treated with carbon
  nanotubes can be destroyed by non-
  invasive radio waves that heat up the
  nanotubes while sparing untreated tissue.
• 94% of doctors don’t know that stage
  IV-cancer     can      beat      without
  Chemotherapy or Radiation.

  Source: National Cancer Institute (NCI), December 03, 2007.
Nano-Probes Stay inside a Cell's Nucleus for Days
Nano-sized probes can sneak inside
cell nuclei where they can track life's
fundamental processes and repair
DNA for hours on end. Quantum dots
may also be introduced inside a cell's
nucleus,
To breach the nuclear membrane
with pores only about 20 nanometers
wide,     a     compact      cadmium
selenide/zinc sulfide quantum dot
coated with silica can pass the highly
                                          A nano-sized probe (red arrow)
selective membrane that guards the        is entering a cell's nucleus, "a
entrance into the nucleus.                large aggregate of immobile dots.
                                          Circled stars and arrows indicate
                                          dots that move."            46
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
• An international team of investigator has
  created a new class of magnetic
  resonance image (MRI), contrast agent
  that are atleast 40 times more effective
  than the best in clinical use.
• The new agents dubbed gadonanotubes
  use the same highly toxic material
  gadolinium, i.e is given to more than a
  quarter of MRI patients today.
     Source: Rice University, 26th November 2007
           ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIVIRAL AND
               ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS
 Nano-particles and nano-crystalline materials are already
   commercialized as antimicrobial and antifungal agents. The
   health care industry needs for improved protection against
   bacteria in the face of growing antibiotic resistance.
 Silver has antibiotic properties and is being used to made
   into crystalline nano particles, which increase solubility and
   potency.
 There are developments which consist of nano-droplets of oil
   that can destroy bacterial spores, viruses and fungi.
 Another potential weapon against antibiotic-resistant bacteria
   lies in self-assembling nano tubes made of peptides
49
Nature 423, 10-12 (1 May 2003) | doi:10.1038/423010a

Cell Nanotechnology: The tiny toolkit

Can we probe the workings of cells without
destroying them? Yes, says an influential and
interdisciplinary group of US researchers — the
answer lies in nanotechnology. Catherine
Zandonella reports.



                                                       50
        SILICON NANOWIRES CAN DETECT DENGUE
            VIRUSES IN LESS THAN 30 MINUTES

1. Dengue is an infection caused by
   one of four types of dengue
   viruses.
2. The symptoms of dengue are very
   similar to those of influenza:
   infected individuals commonly
   experience headaches, rash and
   pain in muscles and joints.
3. Zhang and coworkers at the STAR
   Institute of Microelectronics have
   developed a silicon nanowire-
   based biosensor that can detect
   the „reverse transcription
   polymerase chain reaction‟
   product of dengue type 2 (DEN-2)
   viruses in less than 30 minutes.
                                              51
         NANO VACCINE FOR HEPATITIS B
1. Chronic hepatitis B infects 400 million people worldwide, many
   of them children.
2. In many poor countries, refrigerated conditions required for the
   current vaccines are costly and hard to come by. It's often
   difficult in the field to keep needles and syringes sterile.
3. The need to have people return for the three shots currently
   required also limits success.
4. The nanoemulsion represents a new delivery method for an
   antigen already used in existing hepatitis B vaccines .
5. The nanoemulsion is made up of soybean oil, alcohol, water
   and detergents emulsified into droplets less than 400
   nanometers in diameter placed in the nose.
6. Nanoemulsion vaccine retained its effectiveness for six
   months when kept at 25 degrees Celsius (77 degrees
   Fahrenheit), and even was stable and effective for six weeks at
   40 degrees C (104 degrees F).
                                                              52
    http://nanotechweb.org/cws/article/yournews/35398
          NANOMEDICINES IN THE TREATMENT
             OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS - C
  1. Patients receiving treatment for chronic hepatitis C
     infection (HCV), the response to therapy shown that
     patients have an extremely low probability of relapse
     and probably cured.
  2. Using techniques evolved though nanomedicine, the
     protein interferon has altered by way of attaching a PEG
     moiety.
  3. This adaptation improves the pharmacokinetic
     properties of the protein. This includes increased
     solubility, increased resistance to enzyme degradation,
     reduced immunogenicity, and reduced renal clearance.
  4. Drug response in patient can be administered once a
     week.
Thomas, T. and Foster, G. 2007. ―Nanomedicines in the treatment of chronic hepatitis   53
C – focus on pegylated interferon alpha-2a‖ Int. J. Nanomedicines. 2(1):19 – 24.
NANOVIRICIDES AGAINST HEPATITIS- C, AIDS,
     INFLUENZA AND DENGUEFEVER
1. NanoViricides, Inc. is a development stage company that
   is creating special purpose nanomaterials for viral therapy.
2. The Company's novel nanoviricide drug are designed to
   specifically attack enveloped virus particles and to
   dismantle them.
3. The Company is developing drugs against a number of
   viral diseases including H5N1 bird flu, seasonal influenza,
   HIV, hepatitis C, rabies, and dengue fever etc.,


        http://www.nanotech-now.com/news.cgi?story_id=27881   54
                      MICROBIVORE

1. "Microbivore" is the name given to a speculative future
   micromachine containing numerous nanomachine systems,
   which function together as an artificial phagocyte (white blood
   cell.)
2. A fleet of microbivores could be injected into a person and act as
   a supplement or even completely replace their immune system.
3. The microbivore concept was invented by Robert A. Freitas Jr.
4. At present (2010) we lack the "atom-by-atom" molecular
   manufacturing technology required to construct such a device.
   Some futurists expect the dream of molecular nanotechnology to
   become a reality sometime next decade, (2020-2030).
                                                                55
    Cardiovascular Diseases
Applications of nanotechnology to
diseases of the cardiovascular system
include the non-invasive diagnosis and
targeted therapy of atherosclerotic
plaque.
Devices to monitor thrombotic and
haemorrhagic events can have a high
impact, e.g. in the diagnosis and
treatment of stroke and embolisms.
         Source: European Commission
ROLE OF NANOMATERIALS IN DRUG DELIVERY
Different nanomaterials are used for targeted and
  safe drug delivery like :
1. Liposomes (made up of Lipids bilayers)
2. Niosomes (prepared similarly)
3. Dendrimer (made up of amino acids)
4. Fullerenes (made up of amino acids)
5. Carbon Nanotubes
6. Polymeric nanoparticles (polystyrene   and polyvinyl alcohol).

7. Quantum dots (Inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals).
                                                                    .
8. Nanosuspensions
    APPICATIONS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLES
            IN DIFFERENT AREAS

                  Ex vivo and in vivo imaging
                    (eg reflectance, OCT, PAT, Raman)




In vitro assays           Gold Nanoparticles            Drug delivery
   eg DNA,               Sphere, rod, sell, cage,       eg TNF-α, MTX
 immunoassay                    SERSh




                          Cancer therapy
                     eg photo thermal, radio/photo
                               sensitizer
   CARBON NANOTUBES BASED CANCER TREATMENT




Liu et al., 2008 reported the conjugation of the paclitaxel (PTX)
with single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and made a
complex of SWNT-PTX which showed the high suppression of 59
tumour
                 DNA Repair Machines

 Image Description: Floating inside the
 nucleus of a human cell, an assembler-
 built repair vessel performs some
 genetic maintenance. With a diameter of
 only 50 nanometers, the repair vessel
 would be smaller than most bacteria and
 viruses, yet capable of therapies and
 cures well beyond the reach of present-
 day physicians.


Source: http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine/Gallery/Medical/Cancer.html
                                                                        60
                Cell Repair Machines

Image Description:
Conceptual drawing of cell
repair devices evaluating
red blood cells, after
infusion of transport liquids
carrying a wide assortment
of molecular structures
useful in reconstruction of
biological tissues.

Source: http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine/Gallery/Medical/DiagTest.html
         Nanoinjector with Red Cells
Image Description:
The image, originally titled
"Nanotechnology"      as   the
winner of the 2002 Visions of
Science Award by The Daily
Telegraph of London and
Novartis, was created to show
one     of    the     possible
applications                of
nanotechnology in medicine in
the future - microscopic
machines roaming through
the bloodstream, injecting or
taking samples for tests.
   Source: http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine/Gallery/ Medical/DiagTest.html   62
63
ANNUAL NANOMEDICINES PATENTS




Annual nanomedicines Patents are 4000
                                        64
                CONCLUSION
Nanotechnology is expected to have great impact
on many areas in medical technology, specially:
    Surgery               Cardiovascular
    Cancer diagnosis       diseases
    Cancer therapy        DNA and damaged
    Biosensors             cell repair
    Molecular imaging     TB
    Implant technology    Alzheimer's disease
    Tissue engineering    Tissue engineering
    Drug delivery         Labs tests- Lab on a
    Gene delivery          Chip
    Hepatitis             Vaccines
    AIDS                  Burns treatment     65
         PART-2
           *******


Nanotechnology Education
           in
        Pakistan

   B.S( 4 year) Degree
            ******



First initiative in Pakistan
                               66
                       Why PINSAT?
• Nanotechnology is a fast emerging field for applications in
  Industry. By Nov. 2009 some 2586 nano-industrial products
  were in the market.
• Another ―Industrial Revolution‖; will have profound Socio-
  economic impact for the next 40-50 years.
• World over –Countries Follow National Level Programs.
• Need of specifically trained and qualified          Human
  Resource.
• Job market in universities, R&D organizations and
  industry in the developed countries .
• In Pakistan these graduates should be absorbed in
  Industry , Universities, R&D organisations ,other relevant
  S&T departments and Itellectual Property /Legal
  departments etc.
  Industries in Pakistanneed nanotechnologytheir survival.
• Several Universities accross the world starting BS in
  Nano S&T.
• Appropriate moment for the establishment of            the
  Institute of Nano Science and Technology (PINSAT) in
  Pakistan.                                                     67
    INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITIES OFFERING B.S. IN
               NANOTECHNOLOGY

•   Brazil (1)           • United States (2)
•   Czech Republic (1)   • Australia (10)
•   Denmark (4)          • New Zealand (1)
•   Germany (5)          • Pakistan –Preston
•   Norway (2)             University(1)
•   Poland (1)           • Canada (2)
•   Sweden (1)           • Malaysia (1)
•   Switzerland (1)
•   United Kingdom (2)


                                                  68
      Undergraduate( 4 yr BS) Degree Programme
     Nanoscience/Nanotechnology is inherently multidisciplinary:
•   The course structure envisages to prepare the students in
    disciplines that are vital for this field viz: Maths, Physics,
    Chemistry, Biology and Nanotechnology with Applications in
    Industry/Engineering.
•   The basic subjects will be compulsory for the first two years
•   In the 3rd year the students have elective subjects giving
    them a background in different fields of Nanoscience and
    Nanotechnology.
•   At the end of 3rd year, during the summer semester, the
    students will undergo Internship in Industry.
•   In the 4th year the students will undertake a major Research
    Projects, supported by more elective subjects.
                                                              69
               Total Credit Hours
Break up per year:

1st year ( 2 semesters)   17+17=34 Credit Hours (CH)
2nd year (2 semesters)    18+17=35 CH
3rd year (2 semesters)    18+14=32 CH
Summer Semester                  6 CH
4th year( 2 semesters)    12+12=24 CH

Total (8 semesters)              =131 CH
                                                  70
    Intake of Students for the
       Degree Programme

 Minimum qualifications for enrollment
  in the 4 year B.S. degree programme
  will be
   F. Sc. /A-level with both pre-medical
  and pre-engineering background.
 Selection will be on merit.

                                       71
         Workshops/Conferences
PINSAT will hold regular workshops for different segments of
    society to familiarize them with the developments in
           Nanotechnology. Some of the fields are:
• Medicine/ Health Care   • Computer Industry
• Food &Agriculture       • Energy
•Oil and Gas              • Environment
• Defense                 • Biotechnology
• Pharmaceuticals         • Aeronautics and Space Exploration
• Electronics             •Materials and Manufacturing

• Sports goods            • Water Treatment
• Textiles                • Intellectual Property Rights

• Legal aspects
                                                                72
                                 PINSAT
                                OBJECTIVES


                           Workshops/ Conferences
BS (4 Years)                                             R & D Work
                           •Nanomedicines / Health
  Degree                   care
Programme                  •Environment                  FUNDS AND
                           •Agriculture                  GRANTS:
                           •Electronics                   National
                           •Textiles                       PSF/ HEC/ MoST      Legal,
                           •Sports goods                  International      Ethical
                           •Computer industry             IDB/ EU/ IDRC       Moral &
                                                                              Societal
                           •Pharmaceutics
    Liaison with                                                               Issues
      Industries
Direct and Strong                            TRAINING:
                                                                            Public
Liaison with                                    Technical Training of
                                                                            Awareness and
industries in this field                        Manpower as per
                                                                            Challenges /
                                                Requirement
                                                                            hazards
               BS (4 YEARS) DEGREE
                   PROGRAMME




                         INTAKE OF              CAREER
FINANCIAL
REQUIREMENTS:            STUDENTS:              PROSPECTS FOR
Faculty                 F. Sc. / A-level (or   GRADUATES:
Manpower                equivalent)            Industries
Labs / Equipment                               R & D Institutions
Library                                        Universities
 Administrative Block                          Intellectual Property
 Networking                                    Organisation
                                                Patent Offices
             Video Clips
 Microplane-Shanghai Nanotech Inst-
  Helicopter Demonstration.MPG
 Micropump-Shanghai Nanotech Inst-
  Demonstration.MPG
 Microreducer- Shanghai Nanotech Inst-
  Demonstration.MPG
 Nanotechnology in Cancer.mpeg
 Soldier Nanotechnology.mpeg
 Nanobot_vir_caution.wmv

                                          75
                                          75
      &
God Bless You.

				
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