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Course Syllabus and Outline: 988 – 1861

I.    Russia’s Geographical Structure
      A. Introduction: Two Russia‟s?
      B. Geography and the growth of the Russian state.
              1. Physical setting of superlatives and extremes
                     a. largest territorial state in the world – 1/7th world‟s land surface
                     b. Russian Empire grew to 8,600,870 square miles
                     c. Three times the size of continental USA
                     d. Larger than all of Latin America or all North America
                     e. Larger than India or China combined
                     f. 10,550 miles of land frontier – twice that of U.S.
                     g. 26,700 miles of coastline
                     h. extends through 11 of earth‟s 24 time zones
              2. In terms of relief – three sections - amphitheater
                     a. Great Plain – west of the Yenisey River to the country‟s western borders in
                         heart of Europe, and that includes the Western Siberian Plain, Central Asiatic
                         Lowlands, Ural Mountains and Great Russian Plain
                     b. Uplands of Northeastern Asia – Central Siberian Plateau, Trans-Baikal
                         mountain ranges of Yablonovoy, Stanovoy, Dzhugdzhur, Verkhoiansk,
                         Chersky, Klyma, Anadyr
                     c. Southern Rim of Mountains – Causasus, Pamirs, Tien Shan, Altai, Sayan
              3. Latitudinal and Longitudinal location – 90% north of 50th parallel
                     a. Archangel – 120 miles south of Arctic Circle
                     b. Leningrad/St. Petersburg – 60th parallel – similar to Stockholm, Sweden
                     c. Most southern point – 36th parallel – equivalent to San Francisco
                     d. Moscow on same parallel as Glasgow Scotland
              4. Northern sector – marine influence lacking – absence of protective mountains
                     a. cold air from artic
                     b. flatness of territory
                     c. severity, uniformity, continental nature
                     d. high pressures, low temperatures, winters are cold, long and windy
                     e. Yakutsk – 94 degrees below zero
                     f. Moscow – 35 degrees below zero
                     g. Summer – brief, dry, windy, hot – Yakutsk +102, Moscow +99, St. Petersburg
                         + 97, Tashkent +125
              5. Soil and vegetation zones
                     a. Permafrost region – Arctic coast and regions east of Yenisey river, permanently
                         frozen ground beneath the surface, depth of summer thaw 18 inches in peat
                         bogs to six feet in coniferous forests, 3,500,000 square miles or 47% of territory
                     b. Tundra – Arctic coastal region several hundred miles in width or 15%, water
                         logged bogs and marshes, frozen in winter, mosquito infested in summer,
                         shallow penetration of roots, main growth is moss, southern part is heather,
                         blackberry, cranberry, black birch, dwarf willow

       c. Taiga – uninhabitable, monotonous, dark, mournfully silent forest with trees
           that grow close together, rarely fine specimens, semimarshy, damp and spongy
           forest, spruce, fir, larch, pine, cedar, south broad leaf deciduous trees – oak,
           linden, ash, alder, birch, 1/3 of Russia covered with coniferous/deciduos forests
       d. Steppe-prairie – 14% of Russia, Ukraine to Urals to Siberia – chief
           characteristics – absence of trees, limited rainfall, intense evaporation, dryness
           of air, strength of winds – richest soil in in the world – chernozem – black soil
           which crumbles into fine powder when dry and thick black paste when wet –
           attracted settlers and invaders
       e. Desert-demi-desert – north and east of Caspian Sea – extending to the Pamirs –
           Ust Urt Desert – Caspian and Aral Seas – Kyzyl Kum desert – east of Aral Sea
           – Karakum desert – south of Aral Sea – 1/6th of Russia
6. Rivers: 200,000 miles of rivers, 70,000 of which are navigable – Moscow is “a port of
   five seas”
       a. European Rivers
                 - Volga – 2,325 miles, drainage area of 563, 300 miles
                 - Kama – tributary of the Volga, 1,200 miles
                 - Dnieper – 1,410, drainage 202,140
                 - Don – 1,325
                 - Ural – 1,000
                 - Pechora – 1,150
                 - Northern Dvina – 1,100
                 - Western Dvina – 640
       b. Central Asia
                 - Amu Dary – 1,400
                 - Syr Dary – 1,300
       c. Northern Asia
                 - Ob – 3,000
                 - Irtysh – 2,700
                 - Yenisey – 3,500
                 - Angara – 1,200
                 - Stony Tunguska – 1,000
                 - Lower Tunguska – 2,000
                 - Lena – 3,000
                 - Aldan – 1,500
                 - Amur – 3,000
7. Population – diversity of country‟s topography and mineral resources
       a. 1990 – 294,000,000
       b. 2004 – 143,000,000
       c. Slavic – Great Russians, Ukrainians, Belorussians
       d. Baltic – Lithuanians, Latvians
       e. Romance – Moldavians
       f. Finno-Ugric – Estonians, Karelians, Veps, Koni, Mari, Mordvinians, Udmurts

               g. Turkic – Tartars, Bashkirs, Chuvash, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kirgiz, Turkmen, Kara-
                   Kalpaks, Azerbaidzhans
               h. Mongol – Kalmyks, Buriat-Mongols
               i. Ugric – Khanty, Mansi
               j. Kartvelian – Georian, Svan, Laz, Adzhar
               k. Tungus-Manchu – Evenki, Ulchi, Orochi, Udege
               l. Iranian – Tadzhiks, Ossetians, Kurds
               m. Dagestan – Avars, Darghi, Laks, Tabasarans
               n. Nakh – Chechen, Ingush
               o. Abkhaz – Adige-Kabardians, Adighe, Cherkess, Abaza, Abkhaz
C. Russia: European or Eurasian state? Methodological approach to Russian History
       1. Western historical background is typical and predictable, e.g.,
               a. Optimistic view of man
               b. Tendency to search for a pattern and meaning in all things
               c. Relaxed secularism since the Renaissance
               d. Progress is natural and good
               e. Man is rational
               f. Society is stable and organized
               g. Secular thought systems are orderly
               h. History has meaning
       2. Problems in the study of Russian History
               a. Russians do not accept the above generalizations
               b. Disfunction or disorder is typical of Russian History
               c. It‟s richness is found in its disfunction
               d. There is a Western obsession about what the Russians have said rather than
                   what they have done
               e. Many fundamental questions have been left unanswered about Russian History
               f. Opinions have become stereotypes inherited by students
               g. Russian history does make sense on its own terms
               h. It is not western
               i. It is a complex history that is chaotic and outside the norm
       3. Problems within the Russian historiographic tradition
               a. Russia has a sense of its own history that is very important to the Russians
               b. They believe that “history” has played a number of bad tricks on them such as
                   the Mongol invasions
               c. They believe that the Russian Tsars wrenched Russian history out of shape
               d. When the capital was moved from Kiev to Moscow they believed that there
                   existed little sense of historical tradition
       4. Itinerant Europeans developed four stereotypes of Russian history that were passed on
           to the West
               a. That Russia was a land of ice and snow – 1553 – Shakespearean period –
                   English traders visited Russia through Murmansk – basis of travel literature
                   stereotyped the ice and snow myth

      b. Italian trade up the Black Sea/Dniepr route in summer and early fall to spend
          the winter in Moscow – opposite perception of the English
      c. Oriental stereotype – Russia court imitated the style of the Turks and Persia –
          the British were convinced that the Russians were oriental and the Polish
          historians aided in this interpretation
      d. Orthodox – many Western Europeans were paid by the Muscovite government
          as soldiers of fortune or western merchants and many were religious exiles – but
          Russians were neither Catholic nor Protestant - *Europe sensitized Russia about
          their relion, their difference
      e. Despotic stereotype or tradition – Kievan Rus was an oligarchy led nominally
          by a velikii kniaz of unlimited power? Not really. European refugees had been
          locked in a struggle for power with monarchs and took the “boyar” tales to heart
          about these great princes
      f. As a result, Russia began to compare herself to Europe
5. What then are the fundamental historical questions?
      a. Are Russians Europeans or Orientals?
                 - Europe said they were Orientals
                 - Russia learned to deal with this problem
                 - The Russian soul had a cultural difference
                 - Russia was not to be understood with the mind only
                 - Isolation of Russia led to her being considered oriental
                 - Objective historians considered a more holistic approach in also
                     studying geography, cultural change, Orthodoxy, the impact of the
                     Mongols and the nature of Kievan culture
      b. What is “Russian” about the Muscovite state?
                 - the relationship of the political system
                 - the culture of the court
                 - the dynasty of familial rule
                 - the fundamental formative experiences
                 - the patterns of cultural thought
                 - communal subsistence agriculture
                 - clan to primogeniture
      c. Growth of the Muscovite autocracy and bureaucracy was unique
                 - developed against incredible odds
                 - skilled, political eunics, isolated from politics
                 - mechanism – to muster human resources in an impoverished society
                 - astounded Western society
6. Russian history does not make sense if we view her from a Western perspective
      a. Russia is not a “defective” Europe
      b. But rather a uniquely different culture
      c. We must search for the cause of this morbidity
      d. ***Russia survived while other cultures did not
      e. In spite of being different the culture did work and did evolve
7. Early Kievan culture provided the foundation

                    a. Russia lacked the Western infrastructure
                    b. That which was normative in the West was not in place in Russia – church,
                       language, political system and communication
                    c. Why did this system work? Because of four distinct cultures or forms of
                            - political culture of the warrior class of boyars was passed on from
                                 father to son
                            - the church culture, unlike the West, was accessible to sons of nobility,
                                 sons of priests became priests, fathers teaching and passing on culture
                                 to sons
                            - Chronicles – monastics in scriptoria had a particular way of viewing
                                 the world
                            - The bureaucratic culture of the d‟iaks was a closed caste
                            - They wrote and prayed for the preservation of the state
                            - “state” Slavonic differed from “church” Slavonic
                            - it became a unique “bureaucratic” language
                            - the merchant class was also a closed caste marginally trained with a
                                 small element of writers
                            - finally, the non-literate peasant culture passed on its traditions orally
                                 and was closed to the other castes

II.   Russia Before the Russians
      A. Non-Slavic peoples and cultures
      B. The Eastern Slavs
         1. The Slavs were nomadic cattle grazers organized into clans and tribes
         2. Prior to the 9th century they had neither political or military forms of organization
         3. “Slav” – from Slovene or Sloviane – “slovo”- the word
         4. Signified a people with the gift of speech
         5. Roman Empire – Slavs lived in central Europe, homogeneous, ethnically undifferentiated
         6. Their migratory movement beganin the 4th century following the Hun invasion of Europe
         7. Slavs settled in the south on the Balkan peninsula to the borders of Byzantium and in the
             east with no political or military power to stop them – they formed small pockets north of
             the Black Sea to the Baltic and were subjugated by the Finns and Lithuanians
         8. From the sixth to the tenth centuries, the Slavic proto-nation fell apart and split into
             Western, Southern and Eastern Slavs
      C. The development of the Eastern Slavic state
         1. Little is known of the Eastern Slavs during this period
         2. We know that they were tribal communities employing the prevailing agricultural
             technique in the forest zone known as “slask-burn”

     3. Cleared woods, hauled logs away, set stumps and brush on fire, ashes rich in potash and
        lime, seeds sown into ground, soil yielded a few good harvests, exhausted, the peasants
        moved on
     4. Significance of slash-burn – the rapidity with which the slavs spread throughout Russia
     5. Remained the primary form of agriculture until the 16th century
D.   Characteristics of the early Slavic settlements
     1. Construction of stockades or “Kremlins” or fortresses as a steppe built of earth initially
     2. Became common defense centers, multiplied all over Russia
     3. Tribal communities combined to form larger social units
     4. “mir” – “world” was the connecting link and worshipped common gods of nature –
     5. “plemia” – aggolomeration of miry
     6. Largest socio-territorial entity – mentioned dozens of times in the Primary Chronicles
     7. Authority withinthe plemia rested with the patriarch who enjoyed unlimited power over the
        other members of the tribe and their belongings
     8. *At this stage of their history – the Eastern Slavs had neither the institutions nor officials
        charged with the performance of judiciary or military functions
     9. Nothing approximating statehood
E.   Trade along the Volga river
     1. Attracted the Normans and extraordinary expansion
     2. 820 – Ireland, 874 – Iceland, 911 – Normandy
     3. First Norman settlement on Russian soil
     4. Aldeigjuborg
                          - fortresses on the shores of Lake Ladoga
                          - launched trade southward along the “Saracen Route” to the Caspian
                          - connected the Baltic and the Caspian by way of the Volga
                          - entered into commercial relations with the Khazars
                          - Arab coins
                          - Arab traveler Ibn Fadlan left a vivid description of a ship burial of a
                              Norman Russian chieftan he witnessed along the Volga
F.   The “Greek Route”
     1. Was of greater economic value along the Dnieper River
     2. Led down the Dnieper to the Black Sea and Constantinople
     3. After several successful raids, the Byzantines granted them trading privileges and actually
        established a “Russian” trading quarter
     4. This is recorded completely in the Primary Chronicle – the most complete rcord of Norman
        rule in Russia
G.   The Norman settlement in Russia
     1. The Norman commercial traders gradually became territorial sovereigns and behaved
          differently in Russia
     2. They had little interest in agriculture or territorial claims
     3. They preferred to concentrate on foreign trade

          4.   Controlled the riverways leading to the Black Sea, along which they built fortresses and
               exacted tribute from the Slavs, Finns and Lithuanians
          5.   Fortress cities – began to appear in the 9th century brought their families and retainers and
               suburbs of artisans and shopkeepers developed around the fortresses
          6.   In their burial grounds, often in the Same mounds as the slavs, they placed weapons,
               jewels and home implements – distinctly Scandanavian – as well as entire boats
          7.   Their main settlement areas:
                  a. Gulf of Riga
                  b. Lake Ladoga and Volkhov River
                  c. East of Smolensk
                  d. Kiev or Konugard
                  e. They called Russia “Gardariki” or land of strongholds

III.   The Establishment of the Kievan State
       A. Kievan Rus: The first Russian state
          1. Kievan politics emerged in the 9th century when Varangian and Slavic Princes formed a
             “Russian Federation” centering in Novgorod and Kiev
          2. The Normans levied tribute on the native population of Kiev that was required to support
             the garrisons and to export goods to distant markets
          3. Norman cities had to organize in order to conducy economic commerce
          4. Kiev became a natural distribution center to Constantinople and the natural leg down the
             Dnieper to the Black Sea
          5. In May of each year the traders were devoted to the task of outfitting the great annual
          6. In June ships laden with slaves and produce sailed under heavy guard down the Dneiper to
          7. Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus wrote a description of the journey
          8. *Kiev functioned in a double capacity: first as a main depot of tribute collected from all
             parts of Russia and secondly, as a port of departure to her ultimate destination
       B. The “Normanist” Theory
       C. The Russian Primary Chronicle
       D. The debate over the Normanist theory?
       E. The origin of the term “Rus”
          1. Scandanavian sources
          2. Byzantine sources
          3. Arab sources
       F. The Primary Chronicle

IV.    Kievan Russia: A Political Outline
       A. Origins
       B. Kievan Political History
          1. 882 – 972 – Kievan Princes subjugate East Slavic Tribes
          2. 972 – 1054 – Kievan hegemony and Orthodox Christianity

   3. 1054 – 1240 – Decline of Kievan hegemony
C. The Rise of the Kievan State
   1. Sources: Primary Chronicle
   2. Varangian Princes subjugation of Kiev: Sovereign Power
      a.Other fortress cities and territories adjoined Kiev
      b. Sovereignty was assumed by a dynasty claiming descent from the semi-legendary Norse
      Prince Hroerekr of Roderick (Riurik in the Russian Primary Chronicles)
      c. Head of the dynasty was the “Velikii Kniaz” or Great Prince who officiated in Kiev with
      relatives and retainers who managed provincial towns
   3. Byzantine trade, commerce and civilization
          a. The Norman State in Kiev resembled the great merchant enterprises of 17th and
               18th century Europe such as the East India or Hudson Bay Companies
          b. They were founded to make money and compelled by the absence of
               administration to assume quasi-governmental responsibilities
          c. The Great Prince was the merchant par excellance
          d. His realm was essentially a commercial enterprise
          e. Loosely affiliated towns whose garrisons collected tribute and maintained public
               order with the princes quite independent of one another
          f. Each Prince had his own retainers or “druzhiny” that comprised a caste that lived
               apart from the rest of the population
          g. They judged their own members by special laws and preferred to have their
               remains buried in separate tombs
          h. During the winter months, princes accompanied their druzhiny in the countryside
               arranging for the delivery of tribute and dispensing of justice
          i. In the 11th century, as the Kievan State showed symptoms of decline, popular
               assemblies – veche – appeared in the larger cities and gave the prince advice on
               important policy questions
          j. In Novgorod and Pskov, the veche forced princes to execute its will
          k. ***Yet, the prince-veche relationship remained fluid, informal and unstructured –
               the population of Kiev did not exert any institutional pressure on the ruling elite
          l. The population of Kiev
   4. The Norman problem: failure to develop an orderly system of princely succession
          a. The death of a prince was followed by fratricidal warfare between princes and the
              victor claimed the throne
          b. Scholars have long debated whether Kievan Russia in fact had any system of
              succession or even any guiding principle
          c. Some have argued that Kievan Rus was at a pre-governmental stage of societal
              development; that the kingdom and constituent cities belonged to the entire
              dynastic clan; that succession followed the principle f clan seniority according to
              which princes rotated the cities among them and the the eldest took Kiev
          d. Other historians as A.E. Presniakov claimed that the princes treated the state as an
              entity, fought among themselves for control not of individual cities, but the state as
              a whole
          e. ***Key characteristic was the absence of primogeniture

         f. ***Normans considered Russia their common dynastic property rather than
             that of a single member or branch of the family, thus a lack of a clear notion
             or authority
         g. ***Normans viewed power in private and not public terms
   5. Normans did not resist assimilation of culture
         a. They were a nation of crude freebooters
         b. They originated in a backward region on the periphery of the civilized world
         c. The tended everywhere to succumb to the culture of the people they subjugated by
             force of arms
         d. Kievan Normans were “Slavicized” by the middle of the 11th century
         e. ***An important factor in their assimilation was the conversion to Orthodox
         f. The consequence being the adoption of Church Slavonic, a literary languaged
             devised by Byzantine missionaries
         g. They used the language in all written documents that in turn contributed greatly to
             the loss by the Norman elite of their ethnic identity
         h. Intermarriage was another factor that promoted the assimilation process with Slavic
             women and the gradual infiltration of indigenous warriors into the ranks of the once
             solidly Scandanavian druzhiny
D. The Genesis of the Patrimonial State in Russia: 862-1240
   1. The term for property in Medieval Russia was votchina
         a. The root of votchina is ot or the Russian term otets (father)
         b. The term denotes goods and powers inherited from one‟s father at a time when
             there were no firm legal definitions of property
         c. This language was readily understood in a society in which the patriarchal order
             was still very much alive, especially among the lower classes
         d. Votchina – included the land, estate, slaves, valuables, fishing, mining and forestry
             rights, one‟s ancestry or pedigree
         e. Political authority was thus the right to levy tribute or an economic prerogative
         f. Primogeniture never struck root in Russia because all the necessary conditions for
             it were missing including the knowledge of Roman Law and opportunities in
             manufacture and trade
         g. ***In medieval Kievan Rus it had been customary to divide all property in
             equal shares among male heirs
         h. Upon the death of a prince, the realm was apportioned among his sons
         i. Each son received his share or udel
         j. Udel = Appanage
   2. Appanage
         a. The appanage that a Russian Prince inherited from his father became his
             patrimony or votchina
         b. Once the time came to draw up his final will, he in turn subdivided it together with
             all his acquisitions
         c. The practice led to relentless diminution of the north-east principalities reducing
             the size of the small estates

          d. mid-12th to the 15th century was known as the appanage period or Udelnyi period
          e. In reality, the appanage ruler had neither the money nor the administration to
              enforce proprietary claim
          f. Because 90% of a typical principality was wilderness, Russian ownership was
              reduced to a state of nature
          g. Vasili Kliuchevskii stated that “this land is mine, because it is my men who
              cultivate it, whom I have attached to it”
          h. In each appanage there existed three principal types of land tenure
                           (1)     Private domains of the prince directly exploited by him
                           (2)     Estates of landowners and monastic establishments
                           (3)     “Black lands” cultivated by free peasants
          i. The Prince was the principality‟s largest landowner
          j. Revenues from his exploitation of private domains were the basis of his economic
              power and rested on his:
                           (1)     oikos – household properties worked by and administered by a
                                   labor force mostly of slaves or kholopy
                           (2)     kholopy – came from war (forced into bondage) or from those
                                   who could not pay their debts
                           (3)     voluntary bondage – as a source of aid and protection
          k. The decisive factor was supply and not demand, i.e., that slave economies can come
              into being because of the availability of a massive supply of slaves for whom work
              had to be found
          l. The rupture of trade with Byzantium – where slaves had been in great demand –
              created in Russia a glut of human merchandise (five slaves sold for the price of a
          m. ***Appanage princes thus turned to the exploitation of the land because of the
              great excess supply of slaves
E. Kiev at the zenith of power
   1. The reigns of the Great Princes through the reign of Vladimir I
          a. Oleg (882-913)
                        - a Varangian Prince of Novgorod who united Kievan Russia by linking
                             Novgorod with Kiev and fusing the Varangian aristocracy with the
                        - in 878, he moved southward along the Dnieper and seized Kiev
                        - he defeated several eastern Slavic tribes and imposed tribute upon
                        - The Primary Chronicle depicted him as a successful warrior, shrewd
                             diplomat and a wise and farsighted ruler
                        - He secured the river route of the Dnieper and its tributaries northward
                             to the Baltic with an assault of 2,000 ships, plundered Constantinople
                        - Byzantium granted Oleg a favorable commercial treaty, paid a large
                             indemnity, and admitted Russian merchants into the city
                        - The Treaty of 911 authorized regular and equal commercial relations
                             with Constantinople

b. Igor (913-945)
            - successor to Oleg who fought constantly to control the eastern Slavic
               tribes and to collect tribute
            - Under Igor, Kiev became Russia‟s central core
            - Slavic tribes paid Kiev tribute in furs or money
            - Although each Slavic town had its own prince, all deferred to the
               authority of the grand prince (velikii kniaz) of Kiev
            - Igor married Olga, a Slavic mainden from Pskov as part of a princely
            - In 941-944, Igor‟s forces, swelled by Pecheneg and Varangian
               mercenaries, moved against Byzantium
            - 945 – Commercial Treaty – establish permanent trade relations
               between the two civilizations
            - Arab Chronicler – Ibn-Miskawaih wrote “The Russians are a mighty
               nation with vast frames and great courage. They know not defeat, nor
               does any of them turn his back until he slay or be slain.”
   d. Olga (945-962) – “Russia‟s first female ruler”
            - For seeking excessive tribute, Igor was killed by the Drevlianuians
            - Olga avenged Igor‟s death by burning Drevlianian delegates to death
               in a large bathhouse
            - Olga‟s tales of revenge as told in the Russian Primary Chronicle
            - To consolidate and prevent future murders of princes, Olga divided
               her realm into districts with a tax collector for each
            - In the Primary Chronicle she is described as “the wisest woman”
            - She became a Christian while in Constantinople in 955
            - Yet Russia remained pagan and the traditional animistic culture of a
               tribal nature prevailed
   e. Sviatoslav (962-972)
            - Olga‟s venturesome son
            - A typical Viking despite a Slavic name who concentrated on conquest
            - Primary Chronicle – “stepping like a leopard, he undertook many
               campaigns. Upon his expeditions he carried with him neither weapons
               nor kettles, and boiled no meat, but cut off small strips of horseflesh,
               game, or beef, and ate it after roasting it on the coals. Nor did he have
               a tent, but he spread out a garment under him, and set his saddle under
               his head; and all his retinue did likewise”
            - Campaigns – 964-965 – conquere the Viatichians and Volga Bulgars
               who had established a flourishing commercial state
            - He destroyed the Khazars near the mouth of the Volga and completed
               eastern Slavic unification
            - Following this, he inaugurated Russian trade with the east
            - He became ruler of Tmutarakan uniting it‟s forces with Kiev
            - In 967, with a powerful army he assisted he assisted Byzantium
               against the Balkan Bulgars, conquered northern Bulgaria, and

            established his capital at Pereiaslavets (Little Preslav) on the lower
        - Russia now had commercial and military outposts at both ends of the
            Black Sea
        - However, his Balkan campaigns failed
        - The Bulgar-Byzantine Alliance defeated him
        - He abandoned his Bulgarian claims
        - On his homeward journey, Sviatoslav was ambushed and killed by the
            Pecheneg nomads
        - ***Kiev‟s imperial pretensions in the Balkans ended
        - Yet, its hold over the Don, Volga and Azov regions was strengthened
f. Vladimir (980-1015)
        - Sviatoslav‟s youngest son and of pure Scandanavian blood ruled
            Russia as Vladimir I
        - Judicious and successful prince
        - Reasserted Kiev‟s authority over the Slavic tribes
        - Expanded Russia to the Baltic Sea and eastern frontier deeper into the
        - He gave his sexual impulses free reign …”now Vladimir was
            overcome by his lust for women. His lawful wife was Rogned…by her
            he had four sons and two daughters…The Greek woman bore him
            Sviatopolk; by one Czech he had his son Vysheslav; by another,
            Sviatoslav and Mstislav; and by a Bulgarian woman, Boris and Gleb.
            He had 300 concubines in Vyshegorod, 300 at Belgorod and 200 at
            Berestovo…he even seduced married women and violated young
            girls…but Vladimir, though first deluded, eventually found salvation”
        - The writer of this Chronicle was of course Christian and wanted to
            reveal a “conversion” in Vladimir
        - 988, his conversion to Christianity
        - to Orthodox Christianity
        - ***this fateful choice set Russia apart from the Latin West and the
            Moslem East
        - It increased Byzantine political and cultural influences
        - Vladimir became renowned for practical Christianity and generous
        - He made peace with neighboring princes
        - Defended Kiev‟s southern and eastern borders against the Pechenegs
        - Built fortified lines along the steppe rivers
        - Late in his reign-rebellion of his ablest son, Iaroslav of Novgorod, he
            demonstrated the rivalry between Kiev and Novgorod
        - Civil War broke out as a result of strife among Vladimir‟s sons and
            threatened Kievan Russia‟s fragile political unity
        - Sviatopolk seized Kiev with Pecheneg aid

                    -   For murdering his younger brothers Boris and Gleb, he was known as
                        the “Damned”
                    -   He lost Pechened and Polish aid and was expelled from Kiev
                    -   In 1026, Iaroslav of Novgorod and Mstislav of Tmutarakan divided
                        Russia between them, when the latter died, Iaroslave became grand
                        prince of all Russia

2. 988 – The Christianization of Russia

3. Iaroslav the Wise (1036-1054) – “The Testament”
       a. Restored Kiev‟s leadership and brought Kievan Russia to its peak of power and
       b. He ruled from the Black Sea to the Baltic, from the Oka River in the East to the
           Carpathian Mountain ranges
       c. His defeat of the Pechenegs gave Kiev respite for a generation from nomadic tribes
       d. Europe‟s royal houses sought marriage alliances with his family
       e. Yaroslav was referred to as “kagan (khan)
       f. Others referred to him as “tsar” and as the Byzantine Emperor
       g. Kiev became the capital and center of learning rivaling Constantinople
       h. Byzantine masters erected churches including the Cathedral of St. Sofia
       i. The Metropolitan of Kiev headed a Russian Church under the Patriarch of
       j. ***1051 – seeking religious independence, Iaroslav convened a bishop‟s assembly
       k. elected the Russian Ilarion as Metropolitan and Iaroslav‟s son, Vsevolod, married a
           Byzantine Princess
       l. Iaroslav assigned the major Russian towns to his son‟s administration
       m. “Testament” – “Love one another, since ye are brothers by one father and mother. If
           ye dwell in amity with one another, God will dwell among you, and will subject
           your enemies to you, and ye will live in peace. But if ye dwell in envy and
           dissension, quareeling with one another, then ye will perish yourselves and bring
           ruin to the land of your ancestors, which they won at the price of great effort…”
       n. Iaroslav willed the Kievan throne to his eldest living son Iziaslav
       o. He distributed the leading towns to his sons without dividing the country formally
       p. Velikki Kniaz retained the final authority over rulers without dividing the country
       q. Hence, a town‟s rank in the Testament was determined by the prince‟s seniority in
           the dynasty, his fortunes in war, and the determined succession to the grand
           princely throne
       r. Theoretically, a hierarchy of thrones existed –Kiev, Chernigov and Pereiaslavl, but
           interprincely strife often prevented orderly rotation
       s. Strong links were forged between local princes and their subjects and separatism
4. Iziaslav (1054-1072)
       a. Fratricidal warfare during his reign forced him to flee Kiev

      b. Civil strifepersisted under his ineffective successors
5. 1097 – Liubech Conference
      a. An interprincely conference was held to end the civil wars
      b. “Why do we ruin the Russian land by our continued strife against one another? The
           Cumans (Polovsty) harass our country in divers fashions and rejoice that war is
           waged among us. Let us hereafter be united in spirit and watch over the Russian
           land, and let each of us guard his own domain…”
      c. The Liubech Conference of 1097 assigned the keeping of domestic order and
           organizing of external defense to the princes collectively
      d. The “seniority” principle was retained
      e. Yet, each princely line ruled its own territory
      f. ***KievanRussia became a loose confederation of independent princes with
           increasingly tenuous family ties and a vague tradition of national unity
      g. With the death of Sviatopolk II in 1113, a severe social and political crisis led to
           popular disaffection in Kiev and subsided only when Vladimir Monomakh assumed
           the throne
      h. Soviet historians stressed his lofty patriotism and sensible popular rule
      i. Vladimir‟s Testament depicts his love for his fellow man and strong sense of
           responsibility; well educated, he urged his sons to “…forget not what useful
           knowledge you possess, and acquire that with whch you are not acquainted, even as
           my father, though he remained at home in his country, still understood five
           languages…laziness is the mother of all evil…”
      j. Kiev‟s leadership exercised strong leadership under the eldest son of Vladimir II,
           Mstislav I (1125-32) but his brother, Iaropolk II (1132-39), failed to preserve unity
           and Kiev‟s political leadership was undermined fatally
6. Vladimir II (1113-25)
   a. Vladimir was renowned for his writings and numerous successful campaigns against
      the Polovsty
   b. He restored Kievan Russian unity temporarily and ruled firmly and wisely
   c. A true Christian prince with a practical mind, unusual energy, military ability and
7. Final century of Kievan Russia
   a. Virtually sovereign principalities fought to control Kiev
   b. Princes united to repel invasions from the steppe regions
   c. The Orthodox Church sought to preserve national unity
   d. 1169 – Prince Andrei Bogoliubskii of Suzdal captured and sacked Kiev
   e. He controlled Suzdalia and Novgorod and placed a vassal on the Kievan throne but
      could not reunite Russia
   f. **Political fragmentation continued
   g. ***Prior to the Mongol invasion Russia split into several segments
                    - declining Kiev
                    - southwest – Galicia and Volhynia
                    - dynamic northeast – Suzdal and Vladimir
                    - northwest – the commercial republics of Novgorod and Pskov

        8. The Russkaia Pravda – The Russian Justice
     F. The decline and fall of the Kievan State
        1. Fratricidal warfare
        2. The “patrimonial system”
        3. Vladimir Monomakh – Kiev‟s last great ruler
        4. Monomakh‟s “Testament”
     G. The reasons for the fall of Kiev
        1. Loose nature of Kievan states
        2. Evolution toward decentralization and feudalism
        3. Patrimonial concept of princely succession
        4. Fratricidal warfare – foreign aggression
        5. Need for exceptional leadership – independent towns
        6. Social relationships – enserfment of the peasantry
        7. Destruction of trade – “Greek route” of trade
        8. Rule of force without broad agreement on principle

V.   Kievan Russia: Government, Economics, Society, Institutions: 872 – 1240
     A. Princely power plus the city-state form
                   1. Kievan government contained monarchical, aristocratic and democratic
                   2. Though the greatest Lievan rulers, Iaroslav and Vladimir, models were the
                       absolute Byzantine ruler, their powers were actually quite limited
                        a. In one sense, they stood above the classes and reflected the popular
                            desires in striving for unity and order
                        b. But they also claimed to be God‟s representatives on earth
                        c. Yet neither could achieve absolute authority
                        d. ***Princes were the chief executives, directed justice and defense and
                            protected the Orthodox Church
                   3. ***Even Kievan rulers regarded Russia as their joint patrimony, e.g., after
                       Iaroslav, the dynasty‟s senior prince supposedly occupied Kiev as Velikii
                       Kniaz – the rotation system was too complex to administer
                   4. By the late 12th century, Kievan town assemblies were as important as
                       seniority in the elevation of princes
                   5. Velikki Kniaz: how did he govern?
                        a. Noble Council (boiarskaia duma)
                            - without whose consent, no decisions were made
                            - the boyar council developed from the princely retinue
                            - the leading Varangian and Slav members became boyars(boiarstvo)
                                with estates and commercial interests
               c. Boyars (boiarstvo)
                            - owned extensive hereditary land

                              -   grew more independent of the prince than the warrior chieftans of his
                                  retinue had been
             d. Boyar Councils
      B. Kievan ruler as a merchant-prince
      C. Constantine Porphyrogenitus thesis – foreign policy followed economic interests
      D. Russo-Byzantine relations
      E. Trade and commerce reflected in the Russian Justice
      F. Role of Russian agriculture and Russian silk-flax
      G. Agriculture determined the social character of the Prince, his druzhnia and the class structure
         of Kievan society
      H. Kievan exports of raw materials to Byzantium
      I. Commerce – led to wide circulation of currency
      J. “Slash/burn” methods of agriculture
      K. Perelog process – two and three-field system
      L. Structure of Kievan Society
         1. Druzhina - muzhi
         2. Junior Druzhina - muzhi
         3. Boyars
         4. Smerdy – “smerdit” – to stink
         5. Izgoi – slaves
      M. Kievan institutions: Government
         1. duma
         2. veche
         3. Russian Justice
VI.   Kievan Russia: Religion and Culture
      A. Two religions: paganism and Christianity
      B. East Slavic paganism: deification of the forces of nature – animism
      C. Dvoeverie – “double faith”
      D. Byzantine influences
      E. Saints and canonization
         1. Vladimir – baptizer of Russia
         2. Olga – first Christian ruler of Kiev
         3. Boris and Gleb – murdered by half-brother Sviatopolk – canonized as victims of
             fratricidal civil war
         4. St. Anthony – 982-1073 – Monoastery of the Caves – took monastic vows on Mt. Athos –
             practiced asceticism
         5. St. Theodosius – founder of Russian monasticism
         6. Monastics linked to the writing of the Primary Chronicles
      F. Language and Literature
         1. St. Cyril and St.      Methodius – Cyrillic script
         2. Old Church Slavonic – Primary Russian Chronicles
         4. Kievan literature
             a. oral creations
             b. written works

             c. folklore
             d. funeral dirges
          5. Byliny – epic cycles of Russian history
          6. Bogatyri great epic warriors of the byliny
             a. Ilia of Murom
             b. Dobrynia Nikitych
             c. Alesha Popovich
       G. Written literature
          1. Palaea – church service books, Old Testament narratives, canonical and apocryphal
          2. Paterikon – collection of the lives of the saints of the Monastery of the Caves
          3. Hilarion – metropolitan – Sermon on Law and Grace
       H. Russian Chronicles
          1. Primary Chronicle
          2. Laurentian Chronicles
          3. Hypatian Chronicles
       I. Secular literature
          1. The Lay of the Host of Igor
          2. Greatest Russian epic
       J. Architecture and the arts
          1. Byzantine models
          2. Wooden traditions
          3. Cathedral of Saint Sophia – Kiev – 1037
          4. Icons
          5. Our Lady of Vladimir
          6. Popular travelling performers - skomorokhi

VII.   Appanage Russia: 1240 – 1480
       A. Invasion from abroad – Mongol Yoke
       B. Appanage – udel – basis of “patrimonial system”
       C. Principle of patrimony – historical subdivision
       D. Patrimonial principle destroyed centralized authority
       E. Appanage Rus was characterized by internal linguistic and ethnic division and fell subject to
          external conquest
       F. Mongol Yoke – 1240 to 1380 or 1480
       G. Weak appanage princes and udels

VIII. The Mongols and Russia
      A. Mongols and Tatars
      B. Jenghiz Khan
      C. 1242 – sack of Kiev
      D. Capital at Sarai
         1. daruga – department which handled Russian affairs
         2. basquaq – collector of taxes
      E. The role of the Mongols in Russian history

         1.   Limited roots
         2.   Iarlyk – trademark, customs stamp or patent
         3.   Denga – coin
         4.   Head tax
         5.   Tax collection
         6.   Postal system

IX.   The Rise of Moscow: 1300 – 1533
      A. The rise of Moscow to the reign of Ivan III – 1300-1462
      B. Daniel
      C. George – 1303
      D. Ivan I – “kalita” – 1327-1341
      E. Metropolitan of Moscow
      F. Simeon the Proud – “Prince of all Russia” – 1341-1353
      G. Ivan the Meek – 1353-1359
      H. Dmitri Donskoi – 1359 – 1389 – stone wall Kremlin
      I. Kulikovo – 1380
      J. Vasili or Basil I – 1389-1425
      K. Basil II – 1425 – 1462
      L. Disintegration of the Golden Horde
      M. Council of Florence – 1439 – Byzantium signed treaty with Rome recognizing Papal
         supremacy (Greek Clergy)
      N. 1443 – Russian bishops condemned the church union and imprisoned and deposed Isidore
      O. Elected Archbishop Jonas as metropolitan
      P. 1453 – Constantinople fell to the Turks
      Q. Moscow – “third Rome, second Jerusalem”
      R. Reigns of Ivan III and Basil III
         1. Ivan III 1462 – 1505 – “the gathering of the Russian lands”
            a. United the princely appanages
            b. Acquired Novgorod and Tver – 1489
            c. 1493 – Ivan III assumed title of Sovereign or “gosudar”
            d. 1480 – ended the “Mongol Yoke”
            e. 1472 – Ivan III married Sophia or Zoe Paleologue, the Byzantine Princess which united
                 the grand prince of Moscow wirth the niece of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI
            f. Ivan III adopted the “bicapitate eagle”
            g. Ivan III adopted the titles of “tsar and autocrat”
            h. 1497 – promulgated the Russkaia Pravda codes into a single law code known as the
                 Sudebnik of 1497
            i. Developed the doctrine of “Moscow the Third Rome”
         2. Basil III – 1505 – 1533
            a. Annexed all remaining appanages
            b. Russian gains in Lithuania
            c. Herberstein – Rerum moscovitarum commentarii
            d. Established the principle of “Russian” merchant fairs

     S. Why Moscow succeeded?
        1. Doctrine of geographical causation
           a. Confluence of four rivers: Oka, Volga, Don, Dnieper
           b. Distance from the Golden Horde and Sarai
           c. Natural trading route
           d. Central position – Great Russian ethnicity
           e. Moscow River as a trade artery – growth of a common market
        2. Role of the rulers of Moscow
              a. continuous male succession
              b. “struggle between the „uncles‟ and the „nephews‟”
              c. resulted in substantiation of succession of “father to son”
              d. princes as “gatherers of the Russian lands”
        3. The “Velikii Kniaz” or Great Prince as both “organizer of state unity and owner of the
           Russian patrimony”
        4. Relationship with the Mongols – necessitated the centralization of state
        5. “Policy of cooperation and collaboration” with the Mongols”
        6. Role of the Russian Orthodox Church
           a. Religious character to the state
           b. Source of opposition to the Mongol Yoke
           c. Seat of the “metropolitan”
           d. Religious capital of Russia
           e. City of St. Alexis and St. Sergius
           f. Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Monastery – center of broad monastic movement
           g. Metropolitans favored “the gathering of the Russian lands”
           h. Skillful aggression of Muscovite princes
           i. Policy of subjugation and Muscovite despotism

X.   Appanage Russia: Economics, Society, Institutions
     A. The question of Russian “feudalism”
        1. Division of the country into independent landholdings, the seigniories
        2. Inclusion of these lands into a single system hierarchy of vassal relationships
        3. Conditional quality of possession of a fief
     B. Appanage society and institutions – social structure
        1. Princes
        2. Boyars
        3. Traders, artisans, middle classes
        4. Peasants
           a. barshchina
           b. obrok
           c. kholopy
           d. izgoi

XI.    Appanage Russia: Religion and Culture
       A. Religion: strong and weak points
       B. St. Sergius – Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Monastery – spread monasticism
       C. Intellectual life – centered on religious problems
          1. 1311 – Church council condemned heresy of Novgorodian priest who condemned
          2. strigolniki – radical sectarians – denied the authority of the Church and an extreme faction
              renounced Christ – resulted in severe repression
          3. Judaizers – 1470 –Novgorod – Jew Zechariah or Skharia – accepted Old Testament but
              rejected the New, considering Christ a prophet, not a Messiah – they also denounced the
              a. The Judaizers gained a foothold in Moscow
              b. Joseph of Volok, abbot of Volokolamsk led the attack on the heretics
              c. Church Council of 1304 under Ivan III had heretics burned at the stake
          4. Dispute between “possessors and nonpossessors”
              a. possessors – unity of autocratic ruler and rich and powerful church – Joseph of Volok –
                  formal and ritualistic approach to religion
              b. Non-possessors – “elders from beyond the Volga” – Nil Sorskii – Nilus of Sora –
                  objected to ecclesiastical wealth and monastic landholding – “monks must be poor,
                  work for their living and must remain dead to the world” – contemplation and inner
                  reflection – church and state independent – God‟s commandments totally binding
              c. Church Council of 1503 decided in favor of the “possessors”
              d. Cited Byzantine traditions
              e. Sorskii‟s chief followers declared heretics
              f. Sorskii himself was canonized

       D. Literature and the arts

XII.   The Reigns of Ivan the Terrible, 1533-1584, and of Theodore, 1584-1598
       A. Ivan the Terrible‟s childhood and first part of his rule
          1. “Tsar of all the Russians” 1547
          2. Zemskii Sobor
          3. 1551 – The Great Council
          4. Council of the Hundred Chapters
          5. Sudebnik of 1550
          6. Streltsy
       B. The second part of Ivan IV‟s rule
          1. mestnichestvo
          2. “Oprichnina”
       C. Explanations and interpretations of the Oprichnina
       D. The reign of Theodore

XIII. The Time of Troubles – Smutnoe Vremia – 1598-1613
      A. Origins
         1. Social disorganization
         2. Strife
         3. Collapse of the dynasty
         4. Civil strife
         5. Struggle between “place” nobility” and autocracy
         6. Deterioration of the peasantry – peasant flight
      B. The Reign of Boris Godunov and the Dynastic Phase of the Time of Troubles
      C. The Social Phase
      D. The National Phase
      E. The nature and results of the Time of Troubles
         1. Ended Polish intervention
         2. Marked victory of the “state” over “clan”
         3. State gained power
         4. Legacy of devastation
         5. Role of “pretenders”
         6. Immaturity of the Russian state
         7. Period of “class struggle”
         8. Victory of the “service gentry”
         9. Loss of authority of the “boyars”

XIV. The Reigns of Michael, 1613-45, Alexis, 1645-76, and Theodore, 1676-82
     A. Michael Romanov – 1613-1645
     B. Reigns of Alexis and Theodore

XV.   Muscovite Russia – Economics, Society and Institutions
      A. Ulozhenie of 1649 – Serfdom and Muscovite society
         1. Fully established in the Muscovite state
         2. “Tied Russian peasants to the soil”
         3. “Krepostnoe Pravo”
         4. Era of “state service” nobility
      B. Boyar Duma
      C. Zemskii Sobor
      D. Sudebnik of 1550
      E. Namestniki and volosteli
      F. Kormlenie – appointments of feedings
      G. Gubnye officials
      H. Gorodovye prikazchiki

XVI. Muscovite Russia: Religion and Culture
     A. Religion and Church: The Great Schism
        1. Origins – Growth of Muscovite state
           a. Growth and consolidation of state power

             b. Ritualism and conservatism
             c. Parochialism
             d. Ignorant of need to reform
          2. “Raskol” – Schism
             a. Old Believers – Old Ritualists – rejected Nikon‟s reforms – starovery or starodbriadsty
                - Avvakum
             b. Reformers – Nikon – corrections consistent with original Greek teachings
             c. Cleavage of “Old Believers”
                - popovsty – had priests
                - bespopovsty – those without priests

          3. Effects of the Schism

      B. Muscovite thought and literature
         1. Glorification of autocracy
         2. “chancellery language” – official language
         3. Domonstroi – “house manager” – Sylvester – 63 didactic chapters to instruct the head of a
            Muscovite family on how to properly manage their households and lead their lives
         4. Reflect ritualism, piety, severity, patriarchical nature of Muscovite society
      C. The arts
         1. Khoromy – housing of nobility
         2. Church of St. Basil the Blessed – 1555 – 1560
         3. Moscow Kremlin
         4. Icon painters
      D. Education

XVII. Imperial Russia: 1696 – 1861 – Peter the Great: 1682-1725

      A. Russian History: 1682 – 1694
         1. Sophia – regent
         2. Ivan V and Peter I – diarchy
      B. Peter the Great: Character, Childhood and youth
      C. Peter‟s assistants
      D. First years of Peter‟s rule
      E. The Great Northern War: 1700-1721
      F. Peace of Nystadt – 1721
      G. The reforms of Peter I
         1. Kliuchevsky

          2. Miliukov
       H. The army and the navy
       I. Administrative reforms
          1. Central government
              a. Procurator
              b. Senate
              c. Collegial System
              d. Table of Ranks
          2. Local government
          3. The Church – the Holy Synod
       J. Financial and Social measures
          1. Head tax
          2. Household tax
          3. State Service
       K. Development of a National Economy
          1. Russian exports/imports
          2. 200 new manufacturing establishments
          3. Canals and merchant marine
          4. Russian ports and St. Petersburg
       L. Education and Culture
          1. 1701 – School of Mathematics and Navigation
          2. Dress, manners, etiquette and beards: veneer of the West
       M. The problem of succession
       N. Evaluations of Peter the Great
          1. “Westernizer”
          2. “Modernizer”
          3. “Great Reformer”
          4. “Anti-Christ”
          5. “Rejected traditional Russian Culture”
          6. “Backward and Barbaric”
          7. Typical Russian autocrat
          8. “Intolerant, violent and compulsive”
          9. “Human or superhuman”
          10. “Image, not substance”

XVIII. Peter I to Catherine II: 1725 – 1762
       A. Catherine I – 1725 – 1727
       B. Peter II – 1727 – 1730
       C. Anne – 1730 – 1740
       D. Ivan VI – 1740 – 1741
       E. Elizabeth – 1741 – 1761
       F. Peter III – 1761 – 1762
       G. Themes:
          1. Gains of the Russian gentry

           2.   Growth of serfdom
           3.   1731 – Cadet school for the gentry
           4.   1736 – Service limited to 25 years
           5.   March 1, 1762 –Compulsory Service abolished – marked the independence of the
                aristocracy and service nobility and gentry from the Russian state

XIX. The Reigns of Catherine II, the Great, 1762 – 1796 and Paul I, -1796- 1801
      A. The first years of Catherine II‟s reign
          1. The Legislative Commission – codify laws
          2. Secularization of church lands
          3. Nakaz or Instructions
      B. Pugachev Rebellion – 1773 – 1774
          1. Chasm between French philosophy and Russian reality
          2. Marked conclusion of Catherine II‟s “liberal” period and the beginning of her
             “conservative” period
      C. Reforms: Gentry and the Serfs
          1. Established 50 “gubernii” or provinces – 300,000
          2. Subdivided into “uedy” or districts – 30,000
          3. Governors appointed for evry province
          4. 1785 – Charter to the Nobility
          5. 1785 – Charter to the Towns
      D. Foreign Policy
          1. 1768-1774 – First Turkish War
          2. 1772 – First Partition of Poland
          3. 1787-1795 – Second Turkish War
          4. 1787-1792 – War against Sweden
          5. 1793, 1795 – Second and Thirs Partitions against Poland
      E. Evaluations of Catherine II
      F. The Reign of Paul, 1796 – 1801

XX. The Economic and Social Development of Russia: 1762 – 1801

       A. Agriculture
          1. New craft industries
          2. “arteli” peasant employment associations
          3. Peasants paid a “quitrent” to their lord
          4. Primitive and backward nature of Russian agriculture
       B. Industry and Labor Force
          1. Factories – 250 in 1725 to 3,000 in 1796
          2. “Possessional” factories
          3. Beginnings of entrepreneurs
          4. Types of industries – iron ore, foundries, smelters, blast furnaces, copper processing,
             textiles, sailcoth, rope, glassmaking, leather processing, shipbuilding, merchant fairs
          5. Trade

          6. Peasants, gentry and other classes
             a. 1724 – Russia was 97% rural
             b. 1796 – Russia was 95.9 % rural
          7. 1785 – Catherine granted urban self-government
          8. Finance and state revenue
             a. 1724 – state revenue 8.5 million rubles
             b. 1764 – state revenue 19.4 million rubles
             c. 1794 – state revenue 40 million rubles
             d. 1794 – expenses at 49.1 million rubles
                - 46% to army and navy
                - 20% to state economy
                - 12% to administration and justice
                - 9% to maintain imperial court
                - state debt – 4.5%

XXI. Russian Culture: 1725 – 1801

      A. Theme: break with the Muscovite past – “Westernization”
      B. Russia moved from a parochial, ecclesiastical, quasi-medieval civilization to the Age of
      C. Emphasis on learning from the West
      D. The Russian Enlightenment
      E. Education
         1. 1700 – first publication of Russian books by a Dutch press
         2. 1700 – 1725 – published 600 books
         3. 1702 – first Russian newspaper
         4. 1701-Moscow School of Mathematical & Navigational Sciences
         5. 1715 – two elementary schools
         6. 1715 – Naval Academy
         7. 1723 – 42 “cypher” schools in provincial towns
         8. 1770 – 8 Russian periodicals
         9. 1783 – First Russian Teacher‟s College opened in St. Petersburg
         10.1801    – 315 schools, 20,000 students

      F. Language
         1. Contemporary Russian over Slavonicized
         2. Nicholas Karamzin – modernized Russian language
         3. 1789-94 – Russian grammars, dictionaries
         4. Lomonosov – First Russian Grammar
      G. Literature
         1. Antioch Kantemir – 1709-44 - “originator of modern Russia „belles lettres”
         2. Michael Lomonosov – 1711 – 65 – poetry
         3. Alexander Sumarokov – 1718-77 – father of Russian drama
         4. Gabriel Derzhavin – 1743-1816 – Catherine‟s official bard

          5. Denis Fonvizin – 1745 – 92 first major Russian Dramatist – The Minor, The Adolescent,
              Nedorosi, The Brigadier
          6. Nicholas Karamzin – 1766-1826 – sentimentalism in Russian literature – Letters of a
              Russian Traveler, Poor Liza
       H. Social Criticism
          1. Influence of the Philosophes
          2. Freemasonry – mystical, ethical, social
          3. Nicholas Novikov – 1744 – 1818
          4. Alexander Radishchev – “A Journey From Petersburg to Moscow” in 1790
       I. Science and Scholarship
       J. The Arts
          1. Count Bartolomeo Rastrelli – architect – Winter Palace, Tsarskoe Selo
          2. Academy of Arts
          3. Painting – Dmitrii Levitsky – 1735 – 1822
          4. Fedot Shubin – 1740 – 1805 – first important Russian sculptor

XXII. The Reign of Alexander I, 1801 – 1825
      A. “Enigmatic Tsar, a sphinx, the crowned Hamlet”
      B. “A Jeffersonian liberal to a reactionary”
      C. Background
      D. Era of Liberalism and Reform
          1. 1803 – “law concerning the free agriculturalists”
          2. Unofficial Committee
          3. Several new universities added to University of Moscow
      E. 1807 – 1812 – Era of Michael Speransky
          1. Rechtsstaat – Strong Russian monarchy based on law and legal procedure
          2. 1809 – proposal for a constitution
          3. “Volost – canton – dumy”
          4. Council of State
      F. Novosiltsev – Constitutional Charter of the Russian Empire
          1. Authority of the Sovereign
          2. Stress on legality and Rights
          3. Divide the Russian Empire into twelve large groups of provinces
          4. Scheme abandoned after Alexander‟s death in 1825
      G. Russian Foreign Policy: 1801 – 1812
      H. Russian Foreign Policy: 1812 – 1825
      I. Second half of Alexander‟s reign: Conservative
          1. General Alexis Arakcheev – “military settlements”
          2. Prince Alexander Golitsyn – religion and education
      J. The Decembrist Movement and Rebellion – 1825
          1. Nikita Muaviev – conservative constitutional monarchy
          2. Paul Pestel – Russian Justice – Republic along Jacobin designs
          3. Northern and Southern Societies

XXIII. The Reign of Nicholas I, 1825 – 1855

      A. Reactionary Tsar – “The barracks emperor”
         1. “Official Nationality” 1833 – Sergei Uvarov
         2. “naraodnost” people the primary support of the autocracy
      B. Nicholas‟ “System”
         1. Six sections
         2. The Committee of the 6th of December
         3. His Majesty‟s Own Chancery
         4. The Third Section – The Political Police
         5. Ministry of Education
         6. Ministry of Censorship
      C. Issue of Reform
         1. Recognized the “evils‟ of serfdom
         2. Afraid to abolish serfdom
         3. New Law Code – 1833 – Replaced Ulozhenie of 1649 – commission headed by Speransky
         4. 1837 – Paul Kiselev-head of Ministry of State Domains
             a. Shift taxation from persons to land
             b. Additional allotments for poor peasants
             c. Some peasant self-government
             d. Development of financial assistance
             e. School reform
             f. Medical care in villages
      D. Nicholas‟ I‟s Foreign Policy
         1. “Gendarme of Europe”
         2. Greek War of Independence – 1822 – 1829
         3. Treaty of Adrianople, 1829
         4. Polish Revolt – 1830
         5. Organic Statute of 1832 – made Poland “an indivible” part of the Russian Empire – brutal
             policies toward Poland
             a. Subordination of the Warsaw School region to Russian Ministry of Education in 1839
             b. Abolition of Polish State Council in 1841
             c. 1850 – Abrogation of customs barrier between Russia and Poland in 1850
             d. Russian language reigned in Polish schools
             e. “Russification” of Poland
      E. Russian hostility toward Ukrainian nationalism
         1. Destruction of the Brotherhood of Cyril and Methodius
         2. Cruel punishment of its members
      F. Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi, July 8th, 1833 between Russia and the Ottoman Turks
      G. The Crimean War – Treaty of Paris – 1856

XXIV. Economic and Social Developments: 1801 – 1855
      A. Serfdom
      B. Industry

       C. Trade and Transportation
       D. Social Composition
       E. Evaluation

XXV. Russian Culture: 1801 – 1855
     A. Education
         1. 1802 – Ministry of Education – six educational regions headed by a curator in each
         2. University in every region and improved primary school in every district
         3. 6 universities, 48 secondary state schools, 337 improved primary schools
         4. Inculcated the “Official Nationality” through the Ministry of Education
         5. Yet, there were significant improvements in education during the reign of Nicholas I
         6. University Statute of 1835
         7. Sergei Uvarov – raised educational and scholarly standards
         8. Established no new universities but did open technical and practical institutions of higher
     B. Science and Scholarship
     C. Language and Literature
         1. Alexander Pushkin
         2. Micharl Lermontov
         3. Nicholos Gogol
     D. Ideologies
         1. Alexander Radishchev- “first raznochinsty”
         2. Romanticism and idealistic philosophy
         3. Peter Chaadaev – “Apology of a Madman”
         4. Slavophiles and Westernizers
         5. Slavophiles – Ivan Kireevsky, Alexis Khomiakov
            a. “sobornost” – association of love, freedom, and truth of believers, the essence of
            b. Harmonious integration of individuals in the social life of the Slavs
         6. Westernizers- Michael Bakunin, Nicholas Stankevich, Vissarion Belinsky, Alexander
            a. Herzen “My Past and Thoughts” – ideals of Russian peasant socialism
            b. Michael Bakunin – Russian theory of anarchism – destruction of all associated with the
                Russian state and autocracy
         7. Petrashevsky Circle
     E. The Arts

XXVI. The Reign of Alexander II, 1855-1881
      A. 1861 – The Emancipation of the Serfs
         1. Arguments in favor of the Emancipation – economic
         2. Peasant rebellions – 1801 – 1825 – 281 Peasant rebellions; 1826-1854 – 712 rebellions;
            1855-1861 – 474 rebellions
         3. Third Section – warned of the dangers of serfdom
         4. Moral sentiments against serfdom: Decembrists, Slavophiles, Westernizers

          5.Ivan Turgenev – Sportsman‟s Sketches – serfs as human beings
          6.Crimean War – deficiencies of serfdom
          7.Main Committee and Editing Commission
          8.Great Emancipation – 1861
            a. “Great Reform”
            b. Critique – “Private serfs to state-owned serfs”
      B. Other “Great Reforms
         1. 1864 – Zemstvo Assemblies
         2. 1870 – Municipal Reform
         3. 1864 – Legal system reforms
         4. 1870 – Reform of the Judiciary
         5. 1874 – Reorganization of the Military Service
      C. The Revolutionary movement of the 1860‟s
         1. Revolutionary “circles – kruzhok, kruzhki
         2. New radicals – “Fathers and Sons” – nihilism
         3. Raznochinsty
         4. Narodnichestvo
         5. “Land and Freedom” – “Zemlia I Volia”
         6. “Peoples‟ Will” – Narodnaia Volia
         7. March 13, 1881 – Assassination of Alexander II
         8. End of the Great Reform
         9. Conservative Russification of Alexander III
         10.Rise of Russian Socialism

XXVII. The Reign of Alexander III, 1881-1894 and the Reign of Nicholas II, 1894 1905

      A. 1881 – 1905 – Period of continuous “Reaction”
         1. Alexander III and Nicholas II were narrow-minded and convinced reactionaries
         2. Both rejected further reform
         3. They instituted what have come to be known in Russian historiography as
         4. Continued to rely on the gentry, although it was a class in decline
         5. Held high the banner of “Orthodoxy-autocracy-nationality”, the conservative credo of
            Nicholas I
         6. Naionalism came to include “Russification” and would split the multinational state
         7. Confusion and indecision complicated further the reactionary policies of the government
         8. Alexander III‟s reactionary policies:
            a. Reaction to assassination of his father
            b. Appointed Constantine Pobedonostsev – theoretician and practitioner of reaction –
                Ober-Procurator of the Holy Synod
            c. Dmitry Tolstoy- 1882-Minister of the Interior
            d. Ivan Delianov – Ministry of Education
            e. 1881 – Alexander issued the “temporary regulations” against all subversives and

   9. Alexander III‟S “counterreforms”
      a. Press regulations censored radical journals
      b. University Statute of 1884 virtually abolished university autonomy – students were
          “individual visitors” who had no right to form organizations
      c. 1885 – created the State Gentry Land Bank
      d. 1889 – created the office of “zemskii nachalnik” or zenstvo chief or land captain –
          effectively managing the Russian peasantry – independent of the zemstvo and
          responsible to the Minister of the Interior
      e. Controlled all aspects of the peasants‟ life – could fine, arrest or imprison them
      f. 1890 – members of the gentry became a distinct group – increased their membership in
          the zemstvo system
      g. 1892 – town government –“counterreform” – raised property requirement for the right
          to vot
          - St. Petersburg electorate reduced from 21,000 to 8,000
          - Moscow electorate reduced from 20,000 to 7,000
      h. Increased pressure on non-Orthodox denominations and a growth in the policy of
      i. Russification went hand in hand with militant Orthodoxy
      j. “Pogroms” and antisemetic policies
   10.Progressive legislation – Nicholas Bunge – headed Ministry of Finance from 1881 to 1887
      a. Established the Peasant Land Bank
      b. Abolished head tax
      c. Introduced the inheritance tax
      d. Began labor legislation
      e. Factory Laws – limited workday to 8 hours for children 12 to 15, prohibition of night
          work for women and children in textile industries
      f. Ivan Vyshnegradsky 1887-92 and Serge Witte 1892 to 1903 strove to develop state
          railways, heavy industry through high tariffs, state contracts and subsidies

B. Nicholas II 1894 – 1905
   1. Reactionary Ministers of the Interior – Dmitri Sipiagin and Viacheslav Plehve
   2. Extended “Temporary Regulations”
   3. Disallowed stockpiling of food by the zemstvos
   4. Religious persecution grew
   5. Nationality discrimination grew – folly of Russification in Finland
C. Witte and the Ministry of Finance
   1. Stabilization of finance
   2. Promotion of heavy industry
   3. Building of railroads
D. Russian Foreign Policy – 1878 – 1904
   1. Triple Alliance, 1882
   2. Reinsurance Treaty, 1887
   3. Triple Entente, 1907
   4. Hague Peace Conference, 1899

       E. Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05
          1. Tsushima Straits, Mukden
          2. Treaty of Portsmouth
          3. Humiliation for Russia
          4. End of the “Far Eastern” policy of Nicholas II

XXIX. The Reign of Nicholas II, 1905 to 1917: “Constitutional Period”
      A. Background of the Revolution of 1905
         1. Causes
         2. Soviets
         3. Social Democratic Labor Party
         4. Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
      B. The Revolution of 1905
      C. The “Fundamental Laws”
      D. The First Two Dumas
      E. Change in electoral laws
      F. The last two Dumas
      G. Failure of the Stolypin Reforms
      H. Russian Foreign Policy – 1905 – 1914
         1. Pan-Germanism and Pan-Slavism
         2. “Willy-Nicky” correspondences
         3. Treaty of Bjorko
         4. Franco-Russian Entente
         5. Anglo-Russian Entente
         6. Triple Entente
         7. Alexander Izvolsky, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1906-1910
         8. Serge Sazanov, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1910-1916
      I. Russia and the First World War, 1914-1919

XXX. Economics and Society: 1861 – 1917
      A. Industrialization of Russia
      B. Labor
      C. The Peasant Question

XXXI. Russian Culture; 1861 – 1917
      A. 1861-1917: “Silver and Golden Age” in the history of Russian culture
         1. Unprecedented growth in education
         2. In spite of “counterreforms”, Russian literature flourished
         3. Turgenev, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Chekov, Gorky
      B. Education
      C. Science and Scholarship
      D. Literature
         1. Chernyshevsky – What Is To Be Done?

          2. Ivan Turgenev – 1818-1883 – Sportsman‟s Sketches, Fathers and Sons, Virgin Soil,
          3. Feodor Dostoyevsky – 1821 – 1881 – Notes From the House of The Dead, Crime and
              Punishment, The Idiot, The Possessed, The Brothers Karamazov
          4. Leo Tolstoy – 1828-1891 – Childhood, Boyhood and Youth, Anna Karenina, War and
       E. The Arts
          1. Age of “realism”
          2. Ivan Kramskoy – “itinerants” or “the wanderers”
          3. Content more important than form
          4. Basil Vereshchiagin – “Apotheoisis of War”
          5. Ilijah Repin – 1844-1930 – “The Dnieper Cossacks”
       F. Music
          1, “The Mighty Bunch” – Peter Tchaikovsky, Modest Musorgsky, Nicholas Rimsky-Korsakov,
          Alexander Borodin, Caesar Cui
          3. Igor Stravinsky – The Firebird, Petrouchka
       G. Ideologies
          1. Dmitri Pisarev – “Nihilism”
          2. Turgenev – Fathers and Sons – Bazarov –“nihilist”
          3. “narodnichestvo” or populism
          4. Nicholas Chernyshevsky – The Contemporary
          5. Peter Lavrov – Historical Letters
          6. Victor Chernov – “populism”
          7. “Signposts” or “Vekhi” 1909 – converts from Marxism
              a. Peter Struve – 1870-1944 – moderate conservatives
              b.Sergei Bulgakov – 1871-1944 – priesthood, Orthodox theologian
              b. Nicholas Berdiaev 1874 – 1948 – “creative freedom”

XXXII. The Russian Revolutions of 1917: February to October
     A. Causation
         1. Failures of the Great Emancipation
         2. Failure of “land reform”
         3. Russian Revolutionary movement
         4. “Backwardness”
         5. Reactionary policies such as “russification”
         6. Failure of the autocracy to reform
         7. Reform followed by “reactionary” policies
         8. Inadequate land supplies
         9. Political violence and terrorism
         10.Failure to heed the message of “peasant revolts”
         11.Revolutionary theories “from below and from above”
         12.Failed leadership of Nicholas II
         13.Failure to enact the October Manifesto and the Duma
         Failures of political parties during the “Constitutional” Period from 1970 to 1914

14. Lack of “freedom and spontaneity” among the Russian people
15. World War I – human losses
16. “Sham constitutionalism”

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