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					Basic Skills for the TOEFL® iBT

Listening - 3

           WORD     PARTS                   DEFINITION                                        SAMPLE SENTENCE                          SYNONYM            ANTONYM


                            something that provides a link or connection   London bridge connects the two sides of the Thames
bridge             n                                                                                                                               cliff
                            between two things                             river.
                            the profession of promoting a positive image   Celebrities often work with public relations companies
public relations   n
                            of a company or person to the public           to improve their public images.
                            the profession of presenting products in       Marketing companies often look at packaging to make a
marketing          adj
                            such a way as to make them desirable           product look nicer.
                            the different companies connected with the
                                                                           As oil supplies are getting lower, the oil industry
industry           n        making and selling of a particular product                                                         business
                                                                           has to raise its prices.
                            or range of products
                            experience you have gained in a certain        In order to get good job, it is helpful to have some
work experience    n
                            field                                          work experience.
                            to ask a specialist for advice or a            When people are very ill, the will consult a doctor
consult            v                                                                                                           ask advice
                            professional for information                   for advice.
                            to combine one thing with another so as to
incorporate        v                                                       All cars incorporate many different moving parts.        integrate      exclude
                            form a united whole
attend             v        to go to, or be present at, an event         Members of your family normally attend your wedding.                      skip
                                                                         If the crime has not been solved, the investigation
ongoing            n        continuing now and for some time to come                                                                continuing     completed
                                                                         would be ongoing .
                                                                         Students should stick to the criteria of an exam to
criteria           n        the standard for judging things by                                                                      requirements
                                                                         get the best marks.
                            relating to industry or the people working Most cities have an industrial area where there are a
industrial         n                                                                                                                business
                            in it                                        lot of factories.
                                                                         Today, many of the textile used to make clothing are
textile            n        cloth or goods produced by weaving                                                                      fabric
                                                                         not natural.
                            a room or small building used for making and
workshop           n                                                     My father has a workshop where he likes to fix things.     garage
                            repairing things
fortune            n        a large amount of money                      Some people spend a fortune when they go shopping.
raw material       n        natural unprocessed material                 Coal is a type of raw material .
                            a complete change in ways of thinking and Some people think we are in the middle of a technology
revolution         n                                                                                                                reformation
                            methods of working                           revolution .
                            when many people or animals move to another
migration          n                                                     Many tribes follow the migration of animal herds.          voyage
                            the people who work in particular industry, In today's economy, it's important for businesses to
workforce          n
                            company, or country                         have an educated workforce .
                                                                        In most countries, there are laws that restrict people
restrict           v        to limit or control something or someone                                                           limit               allow
                                                                        from owning a gun.
export             v        to sell goods to another country            Australia exports beef to Asia.                                            import
Unit 2

                                                                         As a matter of fact , I left my ticket for the concert
as a matter of fact         actually                                                                                              in fact
                                                                         at home.
                            an identification   card   with   astudent's When a student first goes to university, he or she       identificatio
student card          n
                            information on it                            will receive a student card .                            n
                                                                         It is the job of the police to establish the truth
establish             v     to confirm the truth of something                                                                     confirm
                                                                         about what happened when a crime is committed.
                                                                         Members of the public often see the celebrity
desirable             adj   worthy of having or doing                                                                             attractive      undesirable
                                                                         lifestyle to be desirable.
                            money given as a security against possible When a rented apartment is damaged, the repairs will
deposit               n                                                                                                           down payment
                            damage or loss                               come out of the occupant's deposit .
                                                                         On a world map, you can locate countries all over the
locate                v     to discover where something is                                                                        find            hide
                                                                         Computer programmers have to input a lot of data into
input                 v     to enter data into a computer                                                                         enter           delete
                                                                         I didn't really like the movie; it was somewhat
somewhat              adv   to some extent or degree                                                                              rather
                            present at the beginning of an event or The president was present at the initial meeting of
initial               adj                                                                                                         first           final
                            process                                      the two countries.
                            to oversee or organize the affairs of In an office, it is often a secretary's job to
administrate          v                                                                                                           manage          delegate
                            something                                    administrate office affairs.
focus                 v     sharpness of image                           The camera wouldn't focus properly on the object.        centre
                            the scenery, furniture, etc. used on a stage
set                   n     in a play or in the place where a film is Every play needs a set designer.                            stage
                            measuring only a small distance from one
narrow                adj                                                Narrow roads were common before cars became popular.     confined        wide
                            side to the other
choppy                adj   rough; jerky; shifting                       During a storm, the waves at sea are choppy .            rough           stable
                            an unusual and artificial image or sound
special effect        n                                                  Horror movies usually have a lot of special effects .
                            used in movies and TV shows
                                                                         Most people didn't think the so-called movie of the
so-called             adj   usually called
                                                                         year was that good.
                                                                         There was widespread panic on the Titanic after it hit
widespread            adj   happening in many places or situations                                                                common          limited
                                                                         the iceberg.
vision                n     the area that you can see                    If someone has 20/20 vision , they can see well.         sight
                            the process of talking or working with other There is often little interaction between teachers and
interaction           n
                            people                                       students outside of class time.
                                                                         The movie's progression was so slow that many people
progression           n     a gradual change, from one state to another                                                           advancement     digression
                                                                         found it boring.
Unit 3

prearrange     v     to arrange or plan beforehand                     It is less expensive to prearrange air travel.                       last minute
                     a subject or activity, often within a business or Mathematics is a hard field of study for a lot of
field          n                                                                                                                specialty
                     profession                                        people.
                                                                       In your junior year of university, you should try to
junior         n     a student in the third year of university
                                                                       get an internship in the field you are interested in.
                                                                       Many people like to remain anonymous when they
anonymous      adj   unknown; nameless                                                                                          unknown     identified
                                                                       complete surveys.
                                                                       Employers have their employees fill-out a form with
fill out       v     to supply information usually by form             their personal information so they can receive a
                     a program that provides practical experience It is typical for students to get an internship before
internship     n
                     for beginners in an occupation or profession they graduate.
                     the gathering of people for a common Job convention usually display a number of different
convention     n                                                                                                                assembly
                     interest                                          opportunities.
                                                                       It is good to confirm doctor appointments before the
confirm        v     to verify; to validate
                                                                       appointment date.                                        ratify
                     a person who oversees and guides the work of To be a supervisor, you have to be able to make a lot
supervisor     n                                                                                                                manager     employee
                     other people                                      of decisions.
                                                                       At the beginning of the semester, a professor will
estimate       v     to make an approximation; to make a guess         often estimate how many students in the class will
                                                                       pass it.
                                                                       If we know the genome of an organism, we can know what
genome         n     a map of all the genes in a cell of an organism
                                                                       it will look like.
                     a part of a cell in a living organism that When someone is good looking, people usually say that
gene           n
                     controls how it looks and develops                they have good genes .
                                                                       Chromosomes contain genes and are usually found in
chromosome     n     a rod-shaped structure that carries genes
                     fuel made from something that was once We need sustainable bio-fuels as we are running out of
bio-fuel       n                                                                                                                            chemical fuel
                     living                                            energy options.
                                                                       If there are toxins in a lake, all life in the lake
toxin          n     poison                                                                                                     poison      medicine
                                                                       might die.
                     the control or influence of someone or
manipulation   n                                                       Some criminals use manipulation to steal money.
                     to emphasize a point; to make something easy
highlight      v                                                  People often highlight key words in their textbooks.          underline
                     to notice or understand
dispose of     v     to get rid of something                      You should dispose of your trash thoughtfully.                rid of      keep
                                                                  Most modern buildings are fitted with a sensor that
detect         v     to notice or discover something                                                                            discover    miss
                                                                  goes off when smoke is detected .
                     a mechanical part of a machine; the It is crucial that the brake mechanism of a car works
mechanism      n                                                                                                                device
                     assembled moving part(s) of a machine        properly.
Unit 4

                                                                     The professor gave the students tips on how to do
tip             n       a word of advice                                                                                      advice
                                                                     better on the exam.
                                                                     If you have never run in a race, your first time can
intimidating    n       discouraging through fear                                                                             scare          comfort
                                                                     be intimidating .
                                                                     The library is a good place to study, especially if
especially      adv     particularly                                                                                          notably
                                                                     you need to study where its quiet.
                                                                     If you want to get a good grade in a class, you should
prepared        adj     ready in advance; put together in advance                                                             ready          unprepared
                                                                     go to class prepared every day.
                                                                     It is good to gather information before you start a
gather          v       to collect; to compile                                                                                collect
                                                                     The electric company sent a survey to all of their
survey          n / v   a questionnaire (n); to ask questions (v)                                                             poll
                                                                     customers to learn how to better serve them.
                        a person who takes part in an event or All the participants in the singing competition were
participant     n                                                                                                             competitor     spectator
                        activity                                     talented.
                                                                     The school needed parental consent for all students
consent         n       permission; agreement                                                                                 agree          refuse
                                                                     going on the class trip.
                                                                     Many people are afraid to hike Mount Everest because
intense         adj     involving great effort or much activity                                                               fierce         mild
                                                                     it is so intense .
                        the ability to understand the meaning of The final exam will show the comprehension level of
comprehension   n                                                                                                             understanding incomprehension
                        something                                    all the students.
                        the flesh inside your body that you use to
muscle          n       move; flesh that connects your bones Weight lifters have big muscles .                                tendon         nerves
                        relating to the bones inside a living thing;
skeletal        adj                                                  We use skeletal muscles when we move.
                        relating to a skeleton
striped         adj     having lines or bands of color               A zebra looks like a striped horse.
                                                                     An eye twitch is sometimes a sign that a person is
twitch          n       a small, sudden movement                                                                              jerk
                                                                     At the beach, you can find stones that are worn smooth
smooth          adj     having no rough parts                                                                                 sleek
                                                                     by sand.
                        to suggest something without saying it As its name implies , One Tree Hill only has one tree
imply           v                                                                                                             suggest
                        directly                                     on it.
                                                                     There is usually an interval between the first and
interval        n       the period of time between two events                                                                 intermission
                                                                     second acts of the play.
                                                                     Winter is a very cold time of year. Nevertheless , it
nevertheless    adv     however; nonetheless; but                                                                             even so
                                                                     is also a very pretty time.
                        placed one after the other in a regular
alternating     adj                                                  Zebras have alternating black and white stripes.
internal        adj     inside your body                             Lungs are an example of an internal organ.               inner          external
Unit 5

                                                                       When most people go to see the doctor, they make an
appointment      n     an arrangement to have a meeting                                                                         rendezvous
                                                                       appointment first.
                       the provision of food and drink for people To serve at weddings, catering companies are often
catering         adj                                                                                                                          cleaning
                       at a function                                   hired.
                                                                       I am trying to eat more healthily, but I find it hard
disciplined      adj   working in a controlled or systematic way                                                                              undisciplined
                                                                       to be disciplined .
                       to devote time exclusively to an interest, My brother was a lawyer that used to specialize in
specialize       v
                       skill, or field of study                        divorce cases.
                       the act of an employment office filling a Before getting a job, many students must complete an
placement        n                                                                                                              arrangement
                       position                                        unpaid work placement .
                       to receive a degree or diploma from a Many students like to travel once they graduate from
graduate         v
                       school; to complete one's studies               college.
                       at a later time or after an event that has If you eat a big meal, it can be dangerous to go
afterward        adv                                                                                                            later         before
                       been mentioned previously                       swimming afterward.
                       having a keen enthusiasm or intense desire for I am passionate about model-making. I make them every
passionate       adj                                                                                                            ardent        indecisive
                       something                                       day.
                                                                       We talked to each other on the phone before we met
face-to-face     adv   in the physical presence of someone
                                                                       face-to-face .
                       to place someone or something in a
                                                                       We do not categorize milk as a vegetable because it
categorize       v     particular category and define or judge the                                                              classify
                                                                       comes from an animal.
                       person or thing accordingly
                                                                       The stock market can be risky; you might make a lot of
stock market     n     a particular market where stocks are traded
                                                                       money and you might lose a lot of money.
                                                                       Being a majority share holder means you own a large
share            n     a part into which a company is divided
                                                                       percentage of a company.
trade            v     to buy and sell goods or services               When you trade , you buy or sell stocks.
                                                                       The safest kind of stocks to buy are blue chip or low
stock            n     a share in a company
                       a person whose job is to buy and sell stocks If your serious about getting into the stock market,
broker           n                                                                                                              dealer        buyer
                       for other people                                you will need to get a broker .
                                                                       Some people who travel to Korea are ignorant of Korean
ignorant         n     lacking knowledge of something                                                                           uneducated    educated
                                                                       Historically , Australians have had close ties with
historically     adv   relating to the past                            Britain,   because    they   are  a   member  of   the
                                                                       Japan and Korea are industrialized countries, whereas
industrialized   adj   having a lot of companies
                                                                       Cambodia is not.
                       a period during which business, employment, and The employment depression caused many people to lose
depression       n                                                                                                              recession
                       stock market values decline severely            their jobs.
                       to record information over time, to see how A good way to see how your savings plan is working is
chart            v                                                                                                              plot
                       it changes or develops                          to chart your savings.
Unit 6

                       unhealthy, often fatty food that does not Eating junk food every day can cause damage to your
junk food        n
                       form part of a healthy diet                          health.
                                                                            If someone is overweight, they may suffer from
obesity          n     the state of being heavily overweight
                                                                            obesity .
                                                                            Sally has a strict and old-fashioned father; she
outdated         adj   no longer in fashion or popular
                                                                            thinks his views are outdated .
                       sources of nutrients that keep the body People who are concerned about nutrition eat lots of
nutrition        n
                       healthy                                              fruit and vegetables.
                                                                            When it is very cold and your teeth chatter, it is
involuntary      adj   exacted against someone's will or wish
                                                                            involuntary .
                                                                            If you get lost, it is important to be rational and
rational         adj   reasonable and sensible
                                                                            not panic.
                                                                            The workers could not advocate the closing of the
advocate         v     to recommend or support something                                                                            recommend     command
behalf           n     as somebody's representative                         My brother thanked the generous donor on my behalf .
                       the freedom or authority to make a decision about The decision to hire a potential employee is often at
discretion       n                                                                                                                  choice
                       something                                            the manager's discretion .
                       based on personal feelings or perception The decision to go to that Chinese restaurant in
arbitrary        n                                                                                                                                logical
                       rather than on objective facts or reasons            particular was arbitrary .
                       popular culture; music, films, etc. that are popular
pop culture      n                                                          Britney Spears is part of today's pop culture .
                       in a particular society
imitation        n     the act of copying or imitating                      Comedians often do good imitations of politicians.      copy
                       fashion invented and worn by young people, You can create your own street fashion by altering
street fashion   n
                       not fashion designers                                clothes that you already have.
                       relating to the relationship between different races Racial discrimination remains a problem in many parts
racial           adj                                                                                                                ethnic
                       of people                                            of the world.
dishonest        adj   not honest; deceiving                                Dishonest people often lie and steal.                   deceitful     honest
                       more powerful, important, or noticeable than other Brown eye genes are usually dominant over blue eye
dominant         n                                                                                                                  prominent     minor
                       people or things                                     genes.
                       relating to groups of people sharing culture, The US has a lot of ethnic diversity, whereas Korea
ethnic           adj                                                                                                                cultural      global
                       religion, race, etc.                                 has very little.
                       the practice of treating a member or members Gender discrimination remains a problem in many
discrimination   n                                                                                                                  discernment
                       of a group differently and unfairly                  organizations today.
bias             n     an unfair preference for, or dislike of, something   Parents usually have a bias for their own children.     prejudice     impartiality
                       to meet somebody or something, usually
encounter        v                                                          People encounter new cultures when they travel.
Unit 7

                                                                          A shop manager is in charge of all of the other shop
in charge of     v     having the care or supervision of something
                       an electronic fire alarm that senses smoke and It is important to check often that the smoke detector
smoke detector   n
                       sounds an alarm in warning                         in your home works.
                                                                          The master key of the robbery was caught by the police
master key       n     a key that will open a number of different locks
                                                                          in a hotel.
                       a device that uses chemicals to produce an
                                                                          Most portable stereos need to have batteries in them
battery          n     electric current, usually for small or                                                                               fuel
                                                                          to work.
                       portable devices
                                                                          The culprit of the robbery was caught by the police in
culprit          n     a person who is guilty of a crime or offense                                                                         criminal        victim
                                                                          the act.
                       fully and clearly shown or expressed, The details in the instruction book for the stereo
explicit         adj                                                                                                                        obvious         vague
                       leaving nothing to guess                           were explicit.
                                                                          When children misbehave, parents often forbid them
forbid           v     to state that something must not be done                                                                             prohibit        allow
                                                                          from going out to play for a while.
                                                                          The service at the hotel was so good it was
incredible       adj   very surprising                                                                                                      amazing         dull
                                                                          incredible .
                                                                          She was genuine in her thanks for all of the gifts
genuine          adj   honest and open in relationships with others                                                                         authentic       fake
                                                                          that she received.
                                                                          My brother took full responsibility for his indiscretion , so I
indiscretion     n     a lack of tact or good judgment                                                                                      naiveness       deceptiveness
                                                                          accepted his apology.
                                                                          Movie starts seem familiar because we have seen them
familiar         adj   well known or easy to recognize                                                                                      recognized      unfamiliar
                                                                          in movies and on TV.
                       a poem, usually of fourteen lines and often Man people have written sonnets , but Shakespeare's are
sonnet           n                                                                                                                          poem            narrative
                       rhyming in a particular way                        the most famous.
                       a set of words or items, usually written one Dictionaries have a listing of words and their
listing          n
                       below the other                                    definitions.
                                                                          Most movies can be classified as comedy, drama,
classify         v     to arrange by category type                                                                                          categorize
                                                                          thriller, horror, or romance.
                       a point or set of reasons used to try to convince There are many good points in that argument , but I
argument         n                                                                                                                          reason
                       someone of something                               still disagree.
                       a part of the end of a book containing There is a useful list of verbs in the appendix of the
appendix         n                                                                                                                          supplementary
                       additional information                             book.
                       a difference between two statements, beliefs, or It would be a contradiction to say that soccer is your favorite
contradiction    n                                                                                                                          inconsistency
                       ideas that means they both cannot be true          sport and then argue that basketball is the best sport.
                                                                          An interior designer is concerned with the aesthetic
aesthetic        adj   how something looks; physical appearance                                                                             appearance
                                                                          of the inside of a building.
                       easy to understand because it is clear, connected, It is important to relate ideas together so that your
coherent         n                                                                                                                          consistent      incoherent
                       or linked together well                            work is coherent .
clarity          n     clearness; better or simpler understanding         Instructions are sometimes repeated for clarity .                 clearness       obscurity
Unit 8

                         value    that      deserves      respect            and Most of the new programs on TV don't have much merit
merit              n                                                                                                                      value           demerit
                         acknowledgment                                          as far as I'm concerned.
                                                                                 The article on the front page of the newspaper was all
article            n     a newspaper or reference piece                                                                                   feature
                                                                                 about the new president.
                                                                                 Although the artist died over a century ago, her
                         something that is handed down from a
legacy             n                                                             legacy of paintings and sculptures continue to be        inheritance
                         previous generation or time
                                                                                 Professional athletes strive to be the best at their
strive             v     to try hard to achieve or get something                                                                          try
                         one version of a publication issued serially or The first edition of the book was worth a lot of money
edition            n                                                                                                                      version
                         periodically                                            because so few were left.
                         to bring people or things together to form a
unify              v                                                             One role of government is to unify its people.           confederate     divide
                         single unit or entity
                         tolerant of different views and standards of Politicians can appear to have liberal views when
liberal            adj
                         behavior in others                                      actually they do not.
                         a group of people, within a society, that have In large cities, people from the same minorities often
minority           n                                                                                                                                      majority
                         different characteristics from the rest of the society live close to one another.
                                                                                 The man's instructions were ambiguous , so I did not
ambiguous          adj   having more than one meaning                                                                                     obscure         clear
                                                                                 know what to do.
                         the describing or reporting of something in a way
distortion         n                                                             The movie was a distortion of the true story.            falsification
                         that is inaccurate or misleading
gravity            n     the force that causes something to fall to the The force of gravity is weaker on the moon.
                         ground                                                  Hydroelectricity is more environmentally friendly than
hydroelectricity   n     electricity produced by using water
                                                                                 electricity made from coal.
drought            n     a long period of dry weather                            A drought is a long period with no rain.                 aridity         flood
                         a wall built across a river to stop water A dam is something built across a river to stop the
dam                n
                         from flowing                                            flow of water.
proven             adj   tested and shown to be true or good                     Hydroelectricity has been proven to work.                confirmed       unproven
                                                                                 Large companies publish annual reports for their stock
annual             adj   based on or calculated over a period of one year                                                                 yearly          daily
                                                                                 If you travel to another country, you will need to
convert            v     to change something into a different form                                                                        change
                                                                                 convert your money to its currency.
                                                                                 The volume of dirt taken out of the hole filled three
volume             n     the total amount of something                                                                                    amount
                         the difference between two things being I like the contrast between light and dark colors in
contrast           n                                                                                                                      difference
                         compared                                                the painting.
                         when someone or something is replaced by During a sports game, if a player gets injured,
substitution       n
                         someone or something else                               coaches will make a substitution .
Unit 9

                       a response to something, intended to provide When a student writes a thesis, he will often receive
feedback         n
                       help for future development                  feedback from a teacher to improve his writing.
admit            v     to acknowledge that something is true        The criminal would not admit having robbed the store.                 confess      excuse
                                                                    The man was relieved when he found his car keys under
relieved         adj   feeling that a burden has been removed                                                                             comforted    burdened
                                                                    the table.
                                                                    In the meeting, the manager did not address the new
address          v     to say something to somebody
occasionally     adv   sometimes                                    Occasionally , I like to eat pizza.                                   sometimes    constantly
                                                                    In order to graduate from college, students often have
thesis           n     a lengthy academic paper                                                                                           essay        summary
                                                                    to write a thesis .
                                                                    It is often better to demonstrate how to do something
demonstrate      v     to show by doing                                                                                                   show
                                                                    rather than just explaining it.
                                                                    When writing a short article, journalists must be
concise          n     short and clearly written or stated                                                                                clear        unclear
                                                                    concise with their writing.
                                                                    Other students may have different insights that they can bring
insight          n     understanding; wisdom                                                                                              perception
                                                                    to the class discussion.
                       a method of looking at student performance, Most courses have some kind of assessment to test how
assessment       n                                                                                                                        evaluation
                       like an exam                                 the students are performing.
                       a method of psychology that tries to explain
                                                                    Psychoanalysis explains human behavior by examining
psychoanalysis   n     behavior as a result of thoughts we are not
                                                                    thoughts that the person may not be aware of.
                       aware of
                       a school of psychology that explains behavior as a   Behaviorism   explains human      behavior   by   examining
behaviorism      n
                       result of rewards and punishment                     rewards and punishment.
                       the process of thinking carefully about
reasoning        n                                                          Philosophers use reasoning skills to solve problems.
                       something in order to make a judgment
                       an opinion or way of thinking about
school           n                                                          There are four schools of psychology.
                       something shared my many people
                       an idea about what is right and wrong, or what is
value            n                                                          Most people share the value that it is wrong to lie.          principles
                       a set of beliefs that influence the way              The ideology of our modern culture is very different
ideology         n
                       people behave                                        today than it was just 100 years ago.
                                                                            The time that Bush and Blair were both heads of state overlap
overlap          v     to include some but not all of the same things
                                                                            by several years.
                                                                            Depression is a mental illness that makes people feel
depression       n     a mental condition of being unhappy                                                                                misery       happiness
                                                                            very sad.
                       the ability to learn, understand, and think
intelligence     n                                                   An IQ test is a test of someone's intelligence . knowledge                        stupidity
                       about things
                       related   to   the   process   of    knowing, Someone with brain injury may lose cognitive
cognitive        adj
                       understanding, and learning something         abilities.
Unit 10

                                                                              The child was not tall enough to go on the fairground
slight          adv   small in size, degree, amount, or importance                                                                      minor        major
                                                                              ride by a slight amount.
distracted      adj   showing a lack of concentration                         He was trying to study, but the music distracted him.     agitated
                                                                              As the race went on, the slow runners began to lag
lag             v     to progress more slowly so as to fall behind                                                                      slow down    accelerate
                                                                              behind the leaders.
                                                                              A visit to the doctor's office was warranted because
warranted       n     deserving; worthy to receive                                                                                      called for   uncalled for
                                                                              his son had a high fever.
                                                                              The deficit in the charity fund was caused by people
deficit         n     the amount by which a total is less than it should be                                                             shortage     abundance
                                                                              paying their donations.
practitioner    n     someone who practices a profession                      Another name for a doctor is a medical practitioner .
                                                                              The football team lost because their best players were
passive         adj   tending not to participate actively in something                                                                  submissive   active
                                                                              too passive on the field.
                                                                              You've done extensive research, but most of it is
scope           n     range in which something operates                                                                                 range
                                                                              beyond the scope of the essay topic.
                      based on observation and experiment instead             A scientific fact is a theory that has been proven in
empirical       adj                                                                                                                     first-hand   hypothetical
                      of theory                                               empirical experiments.
                      lying or occurring between two different                The students were grouped into three skill levels;
intermediate    adj                                                                                                                     middle
                      points, forms, or extremes                              low, intermediate, and high.
drum            n     a large round container                                 Sometimes, water or oil is stored in a barrel or drum .   barrel       cup
magnetic        adj   having the power of a magnet                            A compass points to magnetic north.                                    repelling
ceramic         n     made from baked clay                                    Many cups and plates are ceramic .                        clay
                      no longer useful, because something better              The invention of the automobile made horse and buggies
obsolete        adj                                                                                                                     out-dated    up to date
                      now exists                                              obsolete .
                      a substance that allows electric currents to            My cell phone, digital camera, and computer all have a
semiconductor   n
                      pass through it                                         semiconductor in them.
                      similar to another situation or thing so that a         The Technology Revolution of today is analogous to the
analogous       adj                                                                                                                     homologous
                      comparison can be made                                  Industrial Revolution.
                      involving working with one's hands or physical
manual          adj                                                   Construction is a form of manual labor.                           physical
                      arranged according to when things happened
chronological   adj                                                   Timelines are arranged in chronological order.                    time order
                      or were made
                                                                      If you see a movie out of sequence , it is hard to
sequence        n     the order that something happens                                                                                  series
                                                                      In America, it is the norm to begin school when you
norm            n     the usual or normal situation                                                                                     common       uncommon
                                                                      are five years old.
Unit 11

                       to take something that someone else has
                                                                         The university encourages students not to plagiarize
plagiarize      v      written or though and try to pass it off as                                                                copy
                                                                         by giving them resources to help them.
                       original work of your own
                                                                         To a certain degree, the students liked working on the
degree          n      an amount of something                                                                                     amount
                                                                         final project.
                       spoken or written information on how to do An instruction sheet is passed out to the students
instruction     n                                                                                                                 directions
                       something                                         before the research project is assigned.
                                                                         A handbook is given to every new employee to teach the
handbook        n      a reference book                                                                                           manual
                                                                         The students were asked to read a certain passage and
passage         n      a section of a piece of writing                                                                            paragraph
                                                                         write a summary of what they read.
                       something that results from an action, The repercussion of not completing the final project
repercussion    n                                                                                                                 influence
                       usually a consequence                             is a failing grade in the class.
                                                                         Next month, the school will put out a publication
publication     n      an item that has been published                                                                            issue
                                                                         about all the sports teams.
                       to copy the exact words, spoken or written,
                                                                         It is a good idea to quote other authors as a way of
quote           v      of a person while giving him or her credit                                                                 cite           plagiarize
                                                                         supporting your argument.
                       for it
                                                                         The student used many resources to write his paper and
cite            v      to acknowledge the use of somebody's work                                                                  quote
                                                                         had to cite all of their names at the end.
                       a temporary leave from a team, organization, The consequence of missing five of the ten meetings is
suspension      n                                                                                                                 deferment
                       or school especially as a punishment              suspension from the speech club..
                       North Atlantic Treaty Organization; a military
                                                                         The US, Canada, and most of Western Europe formed a
NATO            n      alliance formed by countries in North America and
                                                                         military alliance called NATO .
                       Europe as a pact to defend each other
                       an arrangement in which two or more countries, During the World War II the US and USSR formed an
alliance        n                                                                                                                 union          division
                       groups, etc. agree to work together            alliance to defeat Germany.
                                                                      My friend likes to read newspapers on the Internet,
conventional    adj    used for a long time and considered usual                                                                  conservative   unconventional
                                                                      but I prefer the conventional paper edition.
assure          v      to make something certain to happen            I can assure you that flying is safe.                       ensure
                                                                      The word "surfing" has been redefined from something
redefine        v      to give a new or different definition          you do on the ocean to do something you do on the
seek            v      to try to achieve or get something             Columbus sought to find a trade route to Asia.              look for       lose
participation   n      the act of taking part in an activity or event One third of my grade is based on class participation .     involvement
                                                                      It is only the first half of the game. The outcome is
outcome         n      the final result                                                                                           result
                                                                      still unknown.
mutual          adj    shared; common                                 Mutual consent means that both people agree.                joint
albeit          conj   though                                         The movie was quite funny, albeit not very realistic.       even though
Unit 12

                                                                        The student arranged a meeting with his professor in
in regards to    v     relating to
                                                                        regards to the final project.
                                                                        We can meet at the library and have lunch in the
adjoining        adv   attached to                                                                                           connecting
                                                                        adjoining coffee shop.
                       only involving the members of a single
intramural       adj   school instead of members from various The intramural volleyball games are held in the evening.
                       to put something forward; to suggest a course of Students often propose different due dates for their
propose          v                                                                                                                      put forward   stay quiet
                       action                                                   final projects to be due.
                                                                                Lunch time is usually the peak hours of operation for
peak             n     the highest point of activity, intensity, or strength                                                            climactic
                                                                                the local sandwich shop.
                       something built or established to serve a Behind the dorms is where the recreation facility is
facility         n                                                                                                                      amenity
                       particular purpose                                       located.
                                                                                The professor requires valid reasons if a student
valid            adj   having a solid justification                                                                                     logical       invalid
                                                                                wants to miss class.
site             n     an area of land; a location                              The site of the new library is located downtown.        location
                       a group of people chosen to represent a The main responsibility of a donation committee is to raise
committee        n
                       larger group                                             money for the school.
                                                                                After lunch, the meeting will commence in the main
commence         v     to begin                                                                                                         start         end
                                                                                meeting hall.
approach         n     a method of doing something                              Method acting is one approach to teaching acting.
                       a part of a play during which there is no In the movie Harry Potter , many of the scenes take
scene            n
                       change in time or place                                  place at Hogwarts.
                                                                                Many people accused of crimes try to prove their
innocence        n     the state of not being guilty of a crime                                                                         naiveness     worldliness
                                                                                innocence .
                       an acting technique where actors draw on
method acting    n                                                              Method acting is a popular way to teach acting.
                       their own emotions and reactions
                       the occurrences and the conditions at a
situation        n                                                              Having no money is a difficult situation .              position
                       particular time and place
                       strength       of      feelings        or      opinions;
intensity        n                                                              The intensity of light made it difficult to see.        force
display          v     to show                                                  Art galleries have paintings on display .               show          conceal
                                                                                The goal scored in the last second of the game made a
dramatic         adj   exciting or impressive                                                                                           climactic
                                                                                dramatic end to the game.
                       a feeling of shyness or embarrassment that
inhibition       n                                                              Your inhibitions can keep you from trying new things.   restriction
                       prevents one from doing something
transformation   n     a complete change in someone or something        A caterpillar makes a transformation into a butterfly. change

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