Basic Skills for the TOEFL® iBT
Listening - 3
WORD PARTS DEFINITION SAMPLE SENTENCE SYNONYM ANTONYM
something that provides a link or connection London bridge connects the two sides of the Thames
bridge n cliff
between two things river.
the profession of promoting a positive image Celebrities often work with public relations companies
public relations n
of a company or person to the public to improve their public images.
the profession of presenting products in Marketing companies often look at packaging to make a
such a way as to make them desirable product look nicer.
the different companies connected with the
As oil supplies are getting lower, the oil industry
industry n making and selling of a particular product business
has to raise its prices.
or range of products
experience you have gained in a certain In order to get good job, it is helpful to have some
work experience n
field work experience.
to ask a specialist for advice or a When people are very ill, the will consult a doctor
consult v ask advice
professional for information for advice.
to combine one thing with another so as to
incorporate v All cars incorporate many different moving parts. integrate exclude
form a united whole
attend v to go to, or be present at, an event Members of your family normally attend your wedding. skip
If the crime has not been solved, the investigation
ongoing n continuing now and for some time to come continuing completed
would be ongoing .
Students should stick to the criteria of an exam to
criteria n the standard for judging things by requirements
get the best marks.
relating to industry or the people working Most cities have an industrial area where there are a
industrial n business
in it lot of factories.
Today, many of the textile used to make clothing are
textile n cloth or goods produced by weaving fabric
a room or small building used for making and
workshop n My father has a workshop where he likes to fix things. garage
fortune n a large amount of money Some people spend a fortune when they go shopping.
raw material n natural unprocessed material Coal is a type of raw material .
a complete change in ways of thinking and Some people think we are in the middle of a technology
revolution n reformation
methods of working revolution .
when many people or animals move to another
migration n Many tribes follow the migration of animal herds. voyage
the people who work in particular industry, In today's economy, it's important for businesses to
company, or country have an educated workforce .
In most countries, there are laws that restrict people
restrict v to limit or control something or someone limit allow
from owning a gun.
export v to sell goods to another country Australia exports beef to Asia. import
As a matter of fact , I left my ticket for the concert
as a matter of fact actually in fact
an identification card with astudent's When a student first goes to university, he or she identificatio
student card n
information on it will receive a student card . n
It is the job of the police to establish the truth
establish v to confirm the truth of something confirm
about what happened when a crime is committed.
Members of the public often see the celebrity
desirable adj worthy of having or doing attractive undesirable
lifestyle to be desirable.
money given as a security against possible When a rented apartment is damaged, the repairs will
deposit n down payment
damage or loss come out of the occupant's deposit .
On a world map, you can locate countries all over the
locate v to discover where something is find hide
Computer programmers have to input a lot of data into
input v to enter data into a computer enter delete
I didn't really like the movie; it was somewhat
somewhat adv to some extent or degree rather
present at the beginning of an event or The president was present at the initial meeting of
initial adj first final
process the two countries.
to oversee or organize the affairs of In an office, it is often a secretary's job to
administrate v manage delegate
something administrate office affairs.
focus v sharpness of image The camera wouldn't focus properly on the object. centre
the scenery, furniture, etc. used on a stage
set n in a play or in the place where a film is Every play needs a set designer. stage
measuring only a small distance from one
narrow adj Narrow roads were common before cars became popular. confined wide
side to the other
choppy adj rough; jerky; shifting During a storm, the waves at sea are choppy . rough stable
an unusual and artificial image or sound
special effect n Horror movies usually have a lot of special effects .
used in movies and TV shows
Most people didn't think the so-called movie of the
so-called adj usually called
year was that good.
There was widespread panic on the Titanic after it hit
widespread adj happening in many places or situations common limited
vision n the area that you can see If someone has 20/20 vision , they can see well. sight
the process of talking or working with other There is often little interaction between teachers and
people students outside of class time.
The movie's progression was so slow that many people
progression n a gradual change, from one state to another advancement digression
found it boring.
prearrange v to arrange or plan beforehand It is less expensive to prearrange air travel. last minute
a subject or activity, often within a business or Mathematics is a hard field of study for a lot of
field n specialty
In your junior year of university, you should try to
junior n a student in the third year of university
get an internship in the field you are interested in.
Many people like to remain anonymous when they
anonymous adj unknown; nameless unknown identified
Employers have their employees fill-out a form with
fill out v to supply information usually by form their personal information so they can receive a
a program that provides practical experience It is typical for students to get an internship before
for beginners in an occupation or profession they graduate.
the gathering of people for a common Job convention usually display a number of different
convention n assembly
It is good to confirm doctor appointments before the
confirm v to verify; to validate
appointment date. ratify
a person who oversees and guides the work of To be a supervisor, you have to be able to make a lot
supervisor n manager employee
other people of decisions.
At the beginning of the semester, a professor will
estimate v to make an approximation; to make a guess often estimate how many students in the class will
If we know the genome of an organism, we can know what
genome n a map of all the genes in a cell of an organism
it will look like.
a part of a cell in a living organism that When someone is good looking, people usually say that
controls how it looks and develops they have good genes .
Chromosomes contain genes and are usually found in
chromosome n a rod-shaped structure that carries genes
fuel made from something that was once We need sustainable bio-fuels as we are running out of
bio-fuel n chemical fuel
living energy options.
If there are toxins in a lake, all life in the lake
toxin n poison poison medicine
the control or influence of someone or
manipulation n Some criminals use manipulation to steal money.
to emphasize a point; to make something easy
highlight v People often highlight key words in their textbooks. underline
to notice or understand
dispose of v to get rid of something You should dispose of your trash thoughtfully. rid of keep
Most modern buildings are fitted with a sensor that
detect v to notice or discover something discover miss
goes off when smoke is detected .
a mechanical part of a machine; the It is crucial that the brake mechanism of a car works
mechanism n device
assembled moving part(s) of a machine properly.
The professor gave the students tips on how to do
tip n a word of advice advice
better on the exam.
If you have never run in a race, your first time can
intimidating n discouraging through fear scare comfort
be intimidating .
The library is a good place to study, especially if
especially adv particularly notably
you need to study where its quiet.
If you want to get a good grade in a class, you should
prepared adj ready in advance; put together in advance ready unprepared
go to class prepared every day.
It is good to gather information before you start a
gather v to collect; to compile collect
The electric company sent a survey to all of their
survey n / v a questionnaire (n); to ask questions (v) poll
customers to learn how to better serve them.
a person who takes part in an event or All the participants in the singing competition were
participant n competitor spectator
The school needed parental consent for all students
consent n permission; agreement agree refuse
going on the class trip.
Many people are afraid to hike Mount Everest because
intense adj involving great effort or much activity fierce mild
it is so intense .
the ability to understand the meaning of The final exam will show the comprehension level of
comprehension n understanding incomprehension
something all the students.
the flesh inside your body that you use to
muscle n move; flesh that connects your bones Weight lifters have big muscles . tendon nerves
relating to the bones inside a living thing;
skeletal adj We use skeletal muscles when we move.
relating to a skeleton
striped adj having lines or bands of color A zebra looks like a striped horse.
An eye twitch is sometimes a sign that a person is
twitch n a small, sudden movement jerk
At the beach, you can find stones that are worn smooth
smooth adj having no rough parts sleek
to suggest something without saying it As its name implies , One Tree Hill only has one tree
imply v suggest
directly on it.
There is usually an interval between the first and
interval n the period of time between two events intermission
second acts of the play.
Winter is a very cold time of year. Nevertheless , it
nevertheless adv however; nonetheless; but even so
is also a very pretty time.
placed one after the other in a regular
alternating adj Zebras have alternating black and white stripes.
internal adj inside your body Lungs are an example of an internal organ. inner external
When most people go to see the doctor, they make an
appointment n an arrangement to have a meeting rendezvous
the provision of food and drink for people To serve at weddings, catering companies are often
catering adj cleaning
at a function hired.
I am trying to eat more healthily, but I find it hard
disciplined adj working in a controlled or systematic way undisciplined
to be disciplined .
to devote time exclusively to an interest, My brother was a lawyer that used to specialize in
skill, or field of study divorce cases.
the act of an employment office filling a Before getting a job, many students must complete an
placement n arrangement
position unpaid work placement .
to receive a degree or diploma from a Many students like to travel once they graduate from
school; to complete one's studies college.
at a later time or after an event that has If you eat a big meal, it can be dangerous to go
afterward adv later before
been mentioned previously swimming afterward.
having a keen enthusiasm or intense desire for I am passionate about model-making. I make them every
passionate adj ardent indecisive
We talked to each other on the phone before we met
face-to-face adv in the physical presence of someone
to place someone or something in a
We do not categorize milk as a vegetable because it
categorize v particular category and define or judge the classify
comes from an animal.
person or thing accordingly
The stock market can be risky; you might make a lot of
stock market n a particular market where stocks are traded
money and you might lose a lot of money.
Being a majority share holder means you own a large
share n a part into which a company is divided
percentage of a company.
trade v to buy and sell goods or services When you trade , you buy or sell stocks.
The safest kind of stocks to buy are blue chip or low
stock n a share in a company
a person whose job is to buy and sell stocks If your serious about getting into the stock market,
broker n dealer buyer
for other people you will need to get a broker .
Some people who travel to Korea are ignorant of Korean
ignorant n lacking knowledge of something uneducated educated
Historically , Australians have had close ties with
historically adv relating to the past Britain, because they are a member of the
Japan and Korea are industrialized countries, whereas
industrialized adj having a lot of companies
Cambodia is not.
a period during which business, employment, and The employment depression caused many people to lose
depression n recession
stock market values decline severely their jobs.
to record information over time, to see how A good way to see how your savings plan is working is
chart v plot
it changes or develops to chart your savings.
unhealthy, often fatty food that does not Eating junk food every day can cause damage to your
junk food n
form part of a healthy diet health.
If someone is overweight, they may suffer from
obesity n the state of being heavily overweight
Sally has a strict and old-fashioned father; she
outdated adj no longer in fashion or popular
thinks his views are outdated .
sources of nutrients that keep the body People who are concerned about nutrition eat lots of
healthy fruit and vegetables.
When it is very cold and your teeth chatter, it is
involuntary adj exacted against someone's will or wish
If you get lost, it is important to be rational and
rational adj reasonable and sensible
The workers could not advocate the closing of the
advocate v to recommend or support something recommend command
behalf n as somebody's representative My brother thanked the generous donor on my behalf .
the freedom or authority to make a decision about The decision to hire a potential employee is often at
discretion n choice
something the manager's discretion .
based on personal feelings or perception The decision to go to that Chinese restaurant in
arbitrary n logical
rather than on objective facts or reasons particular was arbitrary .
popular culture; music, films, etc. that are popular
pop culture n Britney Spears is part of today's pop culture .
in a particular society
imitation n the act of copying or imitating Comedians often do good imitations of politicians. copy
fashion invented and worn by young people, You can create your own street fashion by altering
street fashion n
not fashion designers clothes that you already have.
relating to the relationship between different races Racial discrimination remains a problem in many parts
racial adj ethnic
of people of the world.
dishonest adj not honest; deceiving Dishonest people often lie and steal. deceitful honest
more powerful, important, or noticeable than other Brown eye genes are usually dominant over blue eye
dominant n prominent minor
people or things genes.
relating to groups of people sharing culture, The US has a lot of ethnic diversity, whereas Korea
ethnic adj cultural global
religion, race, etc. has very little.
the practice of treating a member or members Gender discrimination remains a problem in many
discrimination n discernment
of a group differently and unfairly organizations today.
bias n an unfair preference for, or dislike of, something Parents usually have a bias for their own children. prejudice impartiality
to meet somebody or something, usually
encounter v People encounter new cultures when they travel.
A shop manager is in charge of all of the other shop
in charge of v having the care or supervision of something
an electronic fire alarm that senses smoke and It is important to check often that the smoke detector
smoke detector n
sounds an alarm in warning in your home works.
The master key of the robbery was caught by the police
master key n a key that will open a number of different locks
in a hotel.
a device that uses chemicals to produce an
Most portable stereos need to have batteries in them
battery n electric current, usually for small or fuel
The culprit of the robbery was caught by the police in
culprit n a person who is guilty of a crime or offense criminal victim
fully and clearly shown or expressed, The details in the instruction book for the stereo
explicit adj obvious vague
leaving nothing to guess were explicit.
When children misbehave, parents often forbid them
forbid v to state that something must not be done prohibit allow
from going out to play for a while.
The service at the hotel was so good it was
incredible adj very surprising amazing dull
She was genuine in her thanks for all of the gifts
genuine adj honest and open in relationships with others authentic fake
that she received.
My brother took full responsibility for his indiscretion , so I
indiscretion n a lack of tact or good judgment naiveness deceptiveness
accepted his apology.
Movie starts seem familiar because we have seen them
familiar adj well known or easy to recognize recognized unfamiliar
in movies and on TV.
a poem, usually of fourteen lines and often Man people have written sonnets , but Shakespeare's are
sonnet n poem narrative
rhyming in a particular way the most famous.
a set of words or items, usually written one Dictionaries have a listing of words and their
below the other definitions.
Most movies can be classified as comedy, drama,
classify v to arrange by category type categorize
thriller, horror, or romance.
a point or set of reasons used to try to convince There are many good points in that argument , but I
argument n reason
someone of something still disagree.
a part of the end of a book containing There is a useful list of verbs in the appendix of the
appendix n supplementary
additional information book.
a difference between two statements, beliefs, or It would be a contradiction to say that soccer is your favorite
contradiction n inconsistency
ideas that means they both cannot be true sport and then argue that basketball is the best sport.
An interior designer is concerned with the aesthetic
aesthetic adj how something looks; physical appearance appearance
of the inside of a building.
easy to understand because it is clear, connected, It is important to relate ideas together so that your
coherent n consistent incoherent
or linked together well work is coherent .
clarity n clearness; better or simpler understanding Instructions are sometimes repeated for clarity . clearness obscurity
value that deserves respect and Most of the new programs on TV don't have much merit
merit n value demerit
acknowledgment as far as I'm concerned.
The article on the front page of the newspaper was all
article n a newspaper or reference piece feature
about the new president.
Although the artist died over a century ago, her
something that is handed down from a
legacy n legacy of paintings and sculptures continue to be inheritance
previous generation or time
Professional athletes strive to be the best at their
strive v to try hard to achieve or get something try
one version of a publication issued serially or The first edition of the book was worth a lot of money
edition n version
periodically because so few were left.
to bring people or things together to form a
unify v One role of government is to unify its people. confederate divide
single unit or entity
tolerant of different views and standards of Politicians can appear to have liberal views when
behavior in others actually they do not.
a group of people, within a society, that have In large cities, people from the same minorities often
minority n majority
different characteristics from the rest of the society live close to one another.
The man's instructions were ambiguous , so I did not
ambiguous adj having more than one meaning obscure clear
know what to do.
the describing or reporting of something in a way
distortion n The movie was a distortion of the true story. falsification
that is inaccurate or misleading
gravity n the force that causes something to fall to the The force of gravity is weaker on the moon.
ground Hydroelectricity is more environmentally friendly than
hydroelectricity n electricity produced by using water
electricity made from coal.
drought n a long period of dry weather A drought is a long period with no rain. aridity flood
a wall built across a river to stop water A dam is something built across a river to stop the
from flowing flow of water.
proven adj tested and shown to be true or good Hydroelectricity has been proven to work. confirmed unproven
Large companies publish annual reports for their stock
annual adj based on or calculated over a period of one year yearly daily
If you travel to another country, you will need to
convert v to change something into a different form change
convert your money to its currency.
The volume of dirt taken out of the hole filled three
volume n the total amount of something amount
the difference between two things being I like the contrast between light and dark colors in
contrast n difference
compared the painting.
when someone or something is replaced by During a sports game, if a player gets injured,
someone or something else coaches will make a substitution .
a response to something, intended to provide When a student writes a thesis, he will often receive
help for future development feedback from a teacher to improve his writing.
admit v to acknowledge that something is true The criminal would not admit having robbed the store. confess excuse
The man was relieved when he found his car keys under
relieved adj feeling that a burden has been removed comforted burdened
In the meeting, the manager did not address the new
address v to say something to somebody
occasionally adv sometimes Occasionally , I like to eat pizza. sometimes constantly
In order to graduate from college, students often have
thesis n a lengthy academic paper essay summary
to write a thesis .
It is often better to demonstrate how to do something
demonstrate v to show by doing show
rather than just explaining it.
When writing a short article, journalists must be
concise n short and clearly written or stated clear unclear
concise with their writing.
Other students may have different insights that they can bring
insight n understanding; wisdom perception
to the class discussion.
a method of looking at student performance, Most courses have some kind of assessment to test how
assessment n evaluation
like an exam the students are performing.
a method of psychology that tries to explain
Psychoanalysis explains human behavior by examining
psychoanalysis n behavior as a result of thoughts we are not
thoughts that the person may not be aware of.
a school of psychology that explains behavior as a Behaviorism explains human behavior by examining
result of rewards and punishment rewards and punishment.
the process of thinking carefully about
reasoning n Philosophers use reasoning skills to solve problems.
something in order to make a judgment
an opinion or way of thinking about
school n There are four schools of psychology.
something shared my many people
an idea about what is right and wrong, or what is
value n Most people share the value that it is wrong to lie. principles
a set of beliefs that influence the way The ideology of our modern culture is very different
people behave today than it was just 100 years ago.
The time that Bush and Blair were both heads of state overlap
overlap v to include some but not all of the same things
by several years.
Depression is a mental illness that makes people feel
depression n a mental condition of being unhappy misery happiness
the ability to learn, understand, and think
intelligence n An IQ test is a test of someone's intelligence . knowledge stupidity
related to the process of knowing, Someone with brain injury may lose cognitive
understanding, and learning something abilities.
The child was not tall enough to go on the fairground
slight adv small in size, degree, amount, or importance minor major
ride by a slight amount.
distracted adj showing a lack of concentration He was trying to study, but the music distracted him. agitated
As the race went on, the slow runners began to lag
lag v to progress more slowly so as to fall behind slow down accelerate
behind the leaders.
A visit to the doctor's office was warranted because
warranted n deserving; worthy to receive called for uncalled for
his son had a high fever.
The deficit in the charity fund was caused by people
deficit n the amount by which a total is less than it should be shortage abundance
paying their donations.
practitioner n someone who practices a profession Another name for a doctor is a medical practitioner .
The football team lost because their best players were
passive adj tending not to participate actively in something submissive active
too passive on the field.
You've done extensive research, but most of it is
scope n range in which something operates range
beyond the scope of the essay topic.
based on observation and experiment instead A scientific fact is a theory that has been proven in
empirical adj first-hand hypothetical
of theory empirical experiments.
lying or occurring between two different The students were grouped into three skill levels;
intermediate adj middle
points, forms, or extremes low, intermediate, and high.
drum n a large round container Sometimes, water or oil is stored in a barrel or drum . barrel cup
magnetic adj having the power of a magnet A compass points to magnetic north. repelling
ceramic n made from baked clay Many cups and plates are ceramic . clay
no longer useful, because something better The invention of the automobile made horse and buggies
obsolete adj out-dated up to date
now exists obsolete .
a substance that allows electric currents to My cell phone, digital camera, and computer all have a
pass through it semiconductor in them.
similar to another situation or thing so that a The Technology Revolution of today is analogous to the
analogous adj homologous
comparison can be made Industrial Revolution.
involving working with one's hands or physical
manual adj Construction is a form of manual labor. physical
arranged according to when things happened
chronological adj Timelines are arranged in chronological order. time order
or were made
If you see a movie out of sequence , it is hard to
sequence n the order that something happens series
In America, it is the norm to begin school when you
norm n the usual or normal situation common uncommon
are five years old.
to take something that someone else has
The university encourages students not to plagiarize
plagiarize v written or though and try to pass it off as copy
by giving them resources to help them.
original work of your own
To a certain degree, the students liked working on the
degree n an amount of something amount
spoken or written information on how to do An instruction sheet is passed out to the students
instruction n directions
something before the research project is assigned.
A handbook is given to every new employee to teach the
handbook n a reference book manual
The students were asked to read a certain passage and
passage n a section of a piece of writing paragraph
write a summary of what they read.
something that results from an action, The repercussion of not completing the final project
repercussion n influence
usually a consequence is a failing grade in the class.
Next month, the school will put out a publication
publication n an item that has been published issue
about all the sports teams.
to copy the exact words, spoken or written,
It is a good idea to quote other authors as a way of
quote v of a person while giving him or her credit cite plagiarize
supporting your argument.
The student used many resources to write his paper and
cite v to acknowledge the use of somebody's work quote
had to cite all of their names at the end.
a temporary leave from a team, organization, The consequence of missing five of the ten meetings is
suspension n deferment
or school especially as a punishment suspension from the speech club..
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; a military
The US, Canada, and most of Western Europe formed a
NATO n alliance formed by countries in North America and
military alliance called NATO .
Europe as a pact to defend each other
an arrangement in which two or more countries, During the World War II the US and USSR formed an
alliance n union division
groups, etc. agree to work together alliance to defeat Germany.
My friend likes to read newspapers on the Internet,
conventional adj used for a long time and considered usual conservative unconventional
but I prefer the conventional paper edition.
assure v to make something certain to happen I can assure you that flying is safe. ensure
The word "surfing" has been redefined from something
redefine v to give a new or different definition you do on the ocean to do something you do on the
seek v to try to achieve or get something Columbus sought to find a trade route to Asia. look for lose
participation n the act of taking part in an activity or event One third of my grade is based on class participation . involvement
It is only the first half of the game. The outcome is
outcome n the final result result
mutual adj shared; common Mutual consent means that both people agree. joint
albeit conj though The movie was quite funny, albeit not very realistic. even though
The student arranged a meeting with his professor in
in regards to v relating to
regards to the final project.
We can meet at the library and have lunch in the
adjoining adv attached to connecting
adjoining coffee shop.
only involving the members of a single
intramural adj school instead of members from various The intramural volleyball games are held in the evening.
to put something forward; to suggest a course of Students often propose different due dates for their
propose v put forward stay quiet
action final projects to be due.
Lunch time is usually the peak hours of operation for
peak n the highest point of activity, intensity, or strength climactic
the local sandwich shop.
something built or established to serve a Behind the dorms is where the recreation facility is
facility n amenity
particular purpose located.
The professor requires valid reasons if a student
valid adj having a solid justification logical invalid
wants to miss class.
site n an area of land; a location The site of the new library is located downtown. location
a group of people chosen to represent a The main responsibility of a donation committee is to raise
larger group money for the school.
After lunch, the meeting will commence in the main
commence v to begin start end
approach n a method of doing something Method acting is one approach to teaching acting.
a part of a play during which there is no In the movie Harry Potter , many of the scenes take
change in time or place place at Hogwarts.
Many people accused of crimes try to prove their
innocence n the state of not being guilty of a crime naiveness worldliness
an acting technique where actors draw on
method acting n Method acting is a popular way to teach acting.
their own emotions and reactions
the occurrences and the conditions at a
situation n Having no money is a difficult situation . position
particular time and place
strength of feelings or opinions;
intensity n The intensity of light made it difficult to see. force
display v to show Art galleries have paintings on display . show conceal
The goal scored in the last second of the game made a
dramatic adj exciting or impressive climactic
dramatic end to the game.
a feeling of shyness or embarrassment that
inhibition n Your inhibitions can keep you from trying new things. restriction
prevents one from doing something
transformation n a complete change in someone or something A caterpillar makes a transformation into a butterfly. change