The Igbo People by yaoyufang

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									    The Igbo People
James Allen          Chris Clark

Jose Gutierrez       Jose Lopez

Victor Ramirez   Brendan Walsh
               Population
 Thirty million Igbo
  People
 They are surrounded
  by the Ibibio, Ijo,
  Ekoi, Igala, Idoma,
  and Nupe Tribes
 The Igbo people are
  primarily farming
             Government
 Governed by village councils
 The councils are made up of the Elders of
  the tribes
 The Elders’ power is held in balance by
  secret societies
 There are title holders but they do not
  really have any extra power
                    Masks
 The Igbo are well
  known throughout
  history for their
  masks
 Used for initiation
  ceremonies and
  entertainment
 Most masks have a
  central crest and
  elongated faces
                   Work
 Most people within the Igbo territory are
  farmers
 The swampy areas help to grow many
  things
 They are also given credit for the
  beginning of the Iron Age
 groundnuts, palm oil, cocoa, coconut,
  citrus fruits, maize, millet, cassava, yams
  and sugar cane
                 Location
 The Igbo People live
  in southeastern
  Nigeria
 Located near the
  Niger River Delta
 Forested and swampy
  area
 They also live near
  the river which is
  good for fishing
Origin
            The Supreme Deity
   Chukwu is the supreme deity of the Igbo people.
   He is also referred to as the “great spirit”.
   His symbol is the sun.
   He is associated with nature and all its parts, like
    rain and plants.
   Chukwu created the whole world and other
    gods, or deities.
   Many people name their children after this
    Overlord.
            Supreme Deity
 The rains he brings upon the world are
  used to help the Igbo people be
  prosperous when planting.
 All good that happens in the lives of the
  Igbo is directly related to Chukwu.
 Ala is the daughter/wife of Chukwu that is
  responsible for fertility as well as death.
 She is the god that rules both at the
  beginning and at the end of life.
                    Deities
 Chukwu created all
  earth, so in turn, all
  the deities of the Igbo
  originate from earth.
 Deities can be made
  of wood and
  worshiped as gods.
 There are many
  deities in the Igbo
  religion.
                 Deities
 Deities are said to be messengers of god
  to the people.
 The Igbo people know and immediately
  fear the deities.
 Although Chukwu is supreme, deities are
  feared because they can immediately
  affect the lives of the Igbo people.
                 Deities
 Chukwu appoints these messengers
  because His work is too much for him
  alone.
 The gods, Ofo and Ogu, are responsible
  for compensating innocent people accused
  of crimes.
 If not prayed to, people will be subject to
  punishment by Amadioha.
          The Personal God
 All Igbo people believe they have an inner
  god within them called Chi.
 Their Chi is the person’s fate.
 A person’s luck and misfortune come from
  their Chi.
 The name of a person can affect their Chi,
  this is why Igbo males are usually given
  the names of deities.
        Establishment of Death
   It is said that Chukwu sent a dog to lay
    the dead bodies of people on the earth
    and cover them with ashes so that they
    can be revived. The dog was tired behind
    in his work, so Chukwu sent a sheep to do
    the job. The sheep forgot what he was
    supposed to do, so he told the people to
    bury their dead. When the dog returned,
    he was not believed and so death became
    permanent.
Economy, Tribal System,
     and Family
               Economy
 The majority of the Igbo people are
  farmers.
 Yam is their staple crop and the
  harvesting season is a time for great
  celebration.
 With the surplus amount of yam, they are
  able to export some to their neighbors.
 They also produce palm-oil which is
  exported to Europe in large quantities.
             Tribal System
 There are various subgroups according to
  clan, lineage, and village affiliations.
 Neither the Igbo nor any of their
  neighbors have a centralized chieftaincy,
  hereditary aristocracy, or kingship
  customs.
 They usually have the village council take
  the responsibility of leading the tribe.
           Tribal System Cont.
   The village council
    consists of the heads
    of lineages, elders,
    titled men, and men
    who have established
    themselves
    economically within
    the community
                 Family Life
 In the Igbo tribe it is
  normal to have more
  than one wife.
 Depending on the
  wealth a man has, he
  can have more wives
  if he is richer.
 A rich, successful man
  can have as many
  wives as he can
  support.
             Family Life Cont.
 The polygynous
  family is made up of a
  man and his wives
  and all their children.
 Aside from that, there
  are other family
  members which
  eventually add up to
  and anywhere from
  five to thirty people in
  a family.
Colonialism
                Colonialism
 Mid-fifteenth century
 Portuguese (1434-
  1807)
 Dutch
 England
                 People
 Fear
 “But I am greatly afraid. We had heard
  stories about white men who made the
  powerful guns and the strong drinks and
  took slaves away across the seas, but no
  one thought the stories were true”
  (Achebe,117.)
Differences
         Culture
         Religion
         Life style
         Authority
         “They had built a court
          where the District
          Commissioner judged
          cases in ignorance”
          (Achebe,142)
                  Conversions
   Preach in the ilo
   Christianity
   One God
   Reading
   Writing
   Churches
   Schools
           Conversions/Conflict

   “… he decided to go         Religion conflict
    to Umuofia where the        Spread of religion
    white missionary had        Take over of land
    set up a school to
    teach young                 Killings
    Christians to read and      War
    write” (Achebe, 127.)       The destruction of
                                 villages.
Ja Ja of Opobo
    Past Leader
              Ja Ja of Opobo
   Born 1820
   Political and military
    strategist
   Led revolution against
    British influence in
    Southern Nigeria
   Original name: Mbanaso
   Named Jubo Juboghaa
    after becoming a slave
            Ja Ja of Opobo
 Exact information about his parents or childhood
  is unknown, widely available in oral tradition
  though
 Most common claim is he was born in the
  lineage of Umuduruoha of Amaigbo village
  group in the center of, as it was called,
  Igoboland
 Sold into slavery in the Niger Delta
 Bought by Chief Iganipughuma Allison of Bonny
              Ja Ja of Opobo
   Chief Allison gave Ja Ja to Chief Madu of the
    Anna Pepple House as a gift
   Anna Pepple House was one of the royal family
    houses
   Madu’s son, Alali, died in 1863, leaving behind a
    huge debt to European supercargoes.
   None of the eligible chiefs offered to head the
    Anna Pepple House
   Ja Ja took over the empty position and within
    two years had paid off the debt completely
          Ja Ja of Opobo
 Christianity was introduced in 1864
 Ja Ja’s house was against it, whereas the
  other royal family house was for it
 In 1865, King Pepple died, meaning an
  heir was needed from either the Anna
  Pepple House or the Manila Pepple House
          Ja Ja of Opobo
 September 13, 1869 fighting commenced
  between the houses
 Ja Ja was outnumbered and decided to
  retreat, accept his defeat, and sue for
  peace
 Peace carried on for weeks, giving Ja Ja
  much needed time
 Ja Ja moved to the Andoni country at the
  head of the Imo river
          Ja Ja of Opobo
 Named his new settlement Opobo
 In 1873, was recognized as the king of the
  independent nation Opobo by Britain
 Ja Ja actually helped Britain in their war
  against the Ashanti kingdom in the Gold
  Coast
 Ruled over his kingdom for 18 years
           Ja Ja of Opobo
 Died 1891
 Died at Teneriffe Island
 Died returning to his country after being
  allowed to return from exile
 A statue of Ja Ja stands in the center of
  Opobo and reads “A king in title and in
  deed. Always just and generous.”
                     Conclusion
   This presentation helps us better understand the Igbo
    culture and traditions, such as: Obierika’s marriage
    arrangement, the significance of Akueke’s waist beads
    and the importance of the titles given to the people of
    the village.
   This can also help you understand the lack of cultural
    understanding between the whites and Nigerians; this is
    demonstrated when Okonkwo is discussing the dispute
    over Aneto’s land when he says: ““Does the white man
    understand our customs about land?” “How can he
    when he does not even speak our tongue?”” (Achebe,
    144)
                Bibliography
 "What is Things Fall Apart?" 30 Oct. 2006
  <http://www.stfrancis.edu/en/student/achebe/c
  hinua/tfa.htm>.
 "Igbo Information." Art and Life in Africa Online.
  3 Nov. 1998. 30 Oct. 2006
  <http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/toc/people/Ig
  bo.html>.
 Gale, Thomas. "Igbo." Ed. Timothy L. Gale and
  Gall S. Bevan. 2006. Thomson Corporation. 30
  Oct. 2006
  <http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Mauritania-
  to-Nigeria/Igbo.html>.

								
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