Theories of Aging.ppt by handongqp

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									Theories of Aging
Vaunette Payton Fay, Ph.D.
“Everyman desires to live long, but
no man would be old.”
               Johnathan Swift, 1667-1745
     Theories of Aging
Biological Theories
• address the anatomic and physiologic
  changes occurring with age.

Psycho-Social Theories
• explain the thought processes and behaviors
  of aging persons.
    Biological Theories of Aging
Genetic Theories       Nongenetic Theories
•   Gene               • Immunologic /
•   Error                Autoimmune
•   Somatic mutation   • Free Radical
•   Programmed         • Wear & Tear
                       • Cross link or Collagen
    Psycho-Social Theories of
• Disengagement

• Activity Theory

• Continuity Theory
Disengagement Theory
• developed by Cummings and Henry in late
• “aging is an inevitable, mutual withdrawal
  or disengagement, resulting in decreased
  interaction between the aging person and
  others in the social system he/she belongs
            Activity Theory

• developed by Robert Havighurst in the 1960’s.
• supports the maintenance of regular activities,
  roles, and social pursuits.
• persons who achieve optimal age are those
  who stay active.
• as roles change, the individual finds substitute
  activities for these roles.
     Continuity Theory
• proposed by Havighurst and co-workers in
  reaction to the disengagement theory

• “basic personality, attitudes, and behaviors
  remain constant throughout the life span”

What is the relevance of the
 biological and psychosocial
 theories of aging to nursing?
Developmental Tasks of Aging
 Developmental Task
• an activity or event that arises at a
  certain period in the life of an individual
• successful achievement leads to
  happiness, growth, and success with
  later tasks
• failure leads to unhappiness,
  disapproval by society, and difficulty
  with later tasks
                        (Havighurst, 1972)
  What are some important
  roles that older individuals
      Erickson’s Developmental
• Young Adulthood (20-30)
     - Intimacy vs. Isolation

• Middle Adulthood (30-60)
      - Generativity vs. Stagnation

• Older Adulthood (60+)
      - Integrity vs. Despair

Area of Resolution and Behavior:
                Intimacy - capacity for relationships
                   Isolation - impersonal relations
 Peck’s Developmental Tasks of Aging

• Ego Differentiation vs. Work-Role

• Body Transcendence vs. Body

• Ego Transcendence vs. Ego Preoccupation
                            (Peck, 1968)
Havighurst’s Developmental Tasks of Aging

• Adjusting to decreasing physical strength
  and health
• Adjusting to retirement and reduced income
• Establishing an affilitation with one’s age
• Meeting civic and social obligations
• Establishing satisfactory living arrangements
• Adjusting to death of spouse
    What are factors which influences a
    person’s success at achieving
    developmental tasks?
      Nursing Interventions
How can nurses assist elders accomplish
  developmental tasks?
• encourage clients to maintain and establish
  roles and relationships
• offer maximum opportunities for decision
• build on client’s unique interests ands skills
• listen to client’s concerns
• promote reminiscence         (Eliopoulas,1995)
    Common Psychosocial Changes
•   Assume Grandparent Role
•   Adjust to Retirement
•   Increase Volunteer Activity
•   Maintain or Develop New Interests
•   Cope with Death of Spouse, or S.O.
•   Adjust to Change in Intimacy & Sexuality
•   Cope with Relocation
•   Cope with Losses
Coping with Psychosocial Changes
     & Developmental Crises

•   Support System
•   Community Resources
•   Counseling
•   Prayer/Religion
   Spirituality and Religiosity

• These concepts are frequently

• Studies have found that nurses tend to
  avoid addressing spiritual needs of
         Spirituality is the:
• “totality of man’s inner resources,
• the ultimate concerns around which all other
  values are focused,
• the central philosophy of life that guides conduct,
• and the meaning-giving center of human life
  which influences all individual and social
  behavior” (Moberg, 1979)

• “trust & faith in a power greater than oneself”
                                        (levin & Taylor, 1997)
             Religion is:

• only one aspect of spirituality;
• an organized practice of beliefs;
• may or may not fill an individual’s
  spiritual needs eg. spiritual needs are
  much broader & more personal than
  any particular religious persuasion
Church and Synagogue Attendance

• Lowest among those in their 30’s,

• Peaks in the late 50’s - early 60’s,

• Declines in late 60’s and early 70’s,
  however 65+ are the most likely to
  belong to church-affiliated groups
        Research Findings:
• Black women tend to be significantly more religious
  than black men and whites of both genders (Levin &
  Taylor, 1993).

• Involvement in church activities tended to increase
  self-esteem (Krause, 1995).

• Religious preference & practice were inversely
  related to depressive symptomatology (Kennedy,
• Persons who attended religious services had lower
  mortality (Oman & Reed, 1998).
Nursing Interventions that enhances
     the spirituality of clients:

 • Presence and acceptance
 • Active Listening & Touch
 • Value clarification
 • Discuss pt’s. source of strength & instill
 • Conduct a spiritual assessment
 • Call/make referral to clergy
 • Pray, or obtain religious articles (Poncar,94;
     MacLennan & Tsai, 95)

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