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Theories of Aging.ppt

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					Theories of Aging
Vaunette Payton Fay, Ph.D.
“Everyman desires to live long, but
no man would be old.”
               Johnathan Swift, 1667-1745
     Theories of Aging
Biological Theories
• address the anatomic and physiologic
  changes occurring with age.

Psycho-Social Theories
• explain the thought processes and behaviors
  of aging persons.
    Biological Theories of Aging
Genetic Theories       Nongenetic Theories
•   Gene               • Immunologic /
•   Error                Autoimmune
•   Somatic mutation   • Free Radical
•   Programmed         • Wear & Tear
                       • Cross link or Collagen
                       http://prolongyouth.com/theories.ht
                          ml
    Psycho-Social Theories of
            Aging
• Disengagement
  Theory

• Activity Theory

• Continuity Theory
Disengagement Theory
• developed by Cummings and Henry in late
  1950’s.
• “aging is an inevitable, mutual withdrawal
  or disengagement, resulting in decreased
  interaction between the aging person and
  others in the social system he/she belongs
  to.”
            Activity Theory

• developed by Robert Havighurst in the 1960’s.
• supports the maintenance of regular activities,
  roles, and social pursuits.
• persons who achieve optimal age are those
  who stay active.
• as roles change, the individual finds substitute
  activities for these roles.
     Continuity Theory
• proposed by Havighurst and co-workers in
  reaction to the disengagement theory

• “basic personality, attitudes, and behaviors
  remain constant throughout the life span”
“ENJOY THE BALLET, LORETTA ….AND TRY TO SELL MY TICKET.”
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          ?????


What is the relevance of the
 biological and psychosocial
 theories of aging to nursing?
Developmental Tasks of Aging
 Developmental Task
• an activity or event that arises at a
  certain period in the life of an individual
• successful achievement leads to
  happiness, growth, and success with
  later tasks
• failure leads to unhappiness,
  disapproval by society, and difficulty
  with later tasks
                        (Havighurst, 1972)
????????????????????????
         ??????
  What are some important
  roles that older individuals
  fulfill?
      Erickson’s Developmental
               Stages
• Young Adulthood (20-30)
     - Intimacy vs. Isolation

• Middle Adulthood (30-60)
      - Generativity vs. Stagnation

• Older Adulthood (60+)
      - Integrity vs. Despair

Area of Resolution and Behavior:
                Intimacy - capacity for relationships
                                  vs.
                   Isolation - impersonal relations
 Peck’s Developmental Tasks of Aging

• Ego Differentiation vs. Work-Role
  Preoccupation

• Body Transcendence vs. Body
  Preoccupation

• Ego Transcendence vs. Ego Preoccupation
                            (Peck, 1968)
Havighurst’s Developmental Tasks of Aging

• Adjusting to decreasing physical strength
  and health
• Adjusting to retirement and reduced income
• Establishing an affilitation with one’s age
  group
• Meeting civic and social obligations
• Establishing satisfactory living arrangements
• Adjusting to death of spouse
????????????????????????
         ??????
    What are factors which influences a
    person’s success at achieving
    developmental tasks?
      Nursing Interventions
How can nurses assist elders accomplish
  developmental tasks?
• encourage clients to maintain and establish
  roles and relationships
• offer maximum opportunities for decision
  making
• build on client’s unique interests ands skills
• listen to client’s concerns
• promote reminiscence         (Eliopoulas,1995)
    Common Psychosocial Changes
•   Assume Grandparent Role
•   Adjust to Retirement
•   Increase Volunteer Activity
•   Maintain or Develop New Interests
•   Cope with Death of Spouse, or S.O.
•   Adjust to Change in Intimacy & Sexuality
•   Cope with Relocation
•   Cope with Losses
Coping with Psychosocial Changes
     & Developmental Crises

•   Support System
•   Community Resources
•   Counseling
•   Prayer/Religion
   Spirituality and Religiosity

• These concepts are frequently
  confused.

• Studies have found that nurses tend to
  avoid addressing spiritual needs of
  patients.
         Spirituality is the:
• “totality of man’s inner resources,
• the ultimate concerns around which all other
  values are focused,
• the central philosophy of life that guides conduct,
• and the meaning-giving center of human life
  which influences all individual and social
  behavior” (Moberg, 1979)


• “trust & faith in a power greater than oneself”
                                        (levin & Taylor, 1997)
             Religion is:

• only one aspect of spirituality;
• an organized practice of beliefs;
• may or may not fill an individual’s
  spiritual needs eg. spiritual needs are
  much broader & more personal than
  any particular religious persuasion
Church and Synagogue Attendance
              is:

• Lowest among those in their 30’s,

• Peaks in the late 50’s - early 60’s,

• Declines in late 60’s and early 70’s,
  however 65+ are the most likely to
  belong to church-affiliated groups
        Research Findings:
• Black women tend to be significantly more religious
  than black men and whites of both genders (Levin &
  Taylor, 1993).

• Involvement in church activities tended to increase
  self-esteem (Krause, 1995).

• Religious preference & practice were inversely
  related to depressive symptomatology (Kennedy,
  1996).
• Persons who attended religious services had lower
  mortality (Oman & Reed, 1998).
Nursing Interventions that enhances
     the spirituality of clients:

 • Presence and acceptance
 • Active Listening & Touch
 • Value clarification
 • Discuss pt’s. source of strength & instill
   hope
 • Conduct a spiritual assessment
 • Call/make referral to clergy
 • Pray, or obtain religious articles (Poncar,94;
     MacLennan & Tsai, 95)

				
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