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ISRO HQ INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY

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ISRO HQ INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY Powered By Docstoc
					Digitization Of Intellectual Output At The Indian Space Research
Organisation Headquarters (ISRO HQ): Technical And Financial
                            Challenges

                           Ashalatha Laxminarsaiah
                            Scientist/Engineer - SF
               Indian Space Research Organisation Headquarters
                       Antariksh Bhavan, New BEL Road
                         Bangalore - 560 094 (INDIA)
                           E-Mail: asha@isro.gov.in

                                          &

                            Iqbalahmad U Rajgoli
                       Senior Scientific Assistant, Library
               Indian Space Research Organisation Headquarters
                       Antariksh Bhavan, New BEL Road
                         Bangalore - 560 094 (INDIA)
                          E-Mail: iqbal786@isro.gov.in



Abstract:

ISRO HQ., Institutional Repository was initiated in the year 2006 using Dspace open
source software. Dspace was selected looking at its features and international
acceptability. ISRO HQ., Library had the required technical infrastructure such as
Server to install Dspace and scanner to digitize the collection. ISRO
Scientists/Engineers as information creators, collectors, consumers and
communicators generated a huge amount of information in the form of research
papers/articles, lectures, speeches and internal technical reports. Hence, the ISRO
HQ., Institutional Repository basically contains the research papers/articles, lectures
and speeches by the present and former Chairmen apart from internal technical,
scientific and general reports generated by the Scientists/Engineers. The research
papers/articles dates back to 1940’s and forms a very rare and significant collection
in this repository. The repository also contains Annual Reports, Journals and E-
books published by ISRO. The 35mm documentary films generated by ISRO have
been converted into DVD video format and made available in the repository. The
repository is accessible 24/7 to the Scientists/Engineers over Intranet working in
different Centers/Units in India. It is heavily used by the Scientists/Engineers with
average hit rate of 600 to 650/day. In this paper efforts have been made to discuss
how the technical and financial issues were tackled. How the intellectual output was
collected and made accessible. This paper will be a good reading for those who are
planning to create an Institutional Repository.



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1.    Introduction:

When the world entered the digital age, a great majority of human historical
records did not make a trip from print to digital form. Literatures, films,
scientific journals, newspapers, reports (scientific and technical), corporate
documents, individual lectures and speeches delivered by eminent
personalities over centuries, needed to be adopted for computer databases.
Again it has to be arranged along with newer, born-digital materials for quick
retrieval, when it is needed and keep finding it well organised into the future.

We the librarians or information scientists act as news node/information hub
for information and interaction, as aggregator and a linker to others who have
interesting materials. With the wide-scale adoption of the Internet, the world
is flooded with enormous digital information. Individuals and institutions are
producing digital data on a massive scale. Digital preservation is emerging as
a trustworthy solution ensuring long-term access to the information. This
paper discusses how the Institutional Repository (IR) at ISRO HQ. was
initiated and developed for preserving the intellectual heritage of the
organisation.

2.    About DOS/ISRO:

Department of Space (DOS) was formed in 1969. India being a developing
country has effectively developed Space Technology and has applied it
successfully for the sustainable development of the nation and offering variety
of space services globally.

In the history of Indian Space programme, there are many milestones like
building its own satellites and launch vehicles. On April 28, 2008, the Polar
Satellite Launch Vehicle rocket put ten satellites into orbit during a single
launch. Chandrayaan-1 moon mission was successfully launched on October
22, 2008. This brought India into the elite group of countries to send a moon
orbiter into space. Beyond Chandrayaan-1, ISRO is planning to send an
orbiter, a lander and a rover to Moon to study the chemical and
meteorological content of the soil.

The Secretariat of DOS and ISRO Headquarters are located in Bangalore.
Programme offices at ISRO Headquarters coordinate the programmes like
earth observation, launch vehicle, space science, satellite communication,
disaster management support, contracts management, international
cooperation, sponsored research scheme, publications and public relations,
budget and economic analysis and others. The activities of the DOS are
carried out by various centres spread across different geographical locations
all over India.

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3.    DOS/ISRO Library Environment:

The Library and information services at ISRO HQ is a specialized library
among other ISRO centres libraries regarding its collection and services
catering to the needs of more than 500 patrons most of them are scientists and
top level management people and other institutions. ISRO HQ, Bangalore,
internally generates enormous amount of information in the form of
lectures/speeches delivered by eminent personalities of ISRO, documentary
films, internal reports, reprints, preprints, conference proceedings, conference
papers and etc.

ISRO/DOS libraries are of different sizes in collection, subject and budget and
located at different places in the country. In ISRO/DOS there is no nodal
agency and have decentralized management of libraries. All libraries function
independently and have access to resources to each other's collection with
Intranet connectivity among centres and Inter Library Loan facility.

4.    Institutional Repository and its Importance:

With the process of globalization in knowledge activities, the demand for
information has been growing steadily in all spheres of work. The concept of
access to information free of charge is gaining momentum (Dabholkar,
Prabhakaran and Kurahatti, 2008). Sharing enables new research to build on
earlier findings. It not only fuels the further advancement of knowledge, it
brings scientists and scholars the recognition that advances their careers. In
the digital world the ways scholarly materials are shared and used are
expanding rapidly. The digital world has brought new opportunities to
institutions such as research laboratories and centers of higher learning and
research.

Internet has changed the way research is conducted and shared, primarily by
increasing the global reach of scholarly communication (Willinsky, 2006). The
open access movement has become an increasing visible prospect for digital
collections of scholarly communications (Carpenter, 2008). The important
reasons for pursuing open access are its ability to increase the circulation of
research and strengthen the scientific claims of articles and overall quality of
research literature (Willinsky, 2006). IRs provides organisations with an
opportunity to create a central location that collects and preserves their
intellectual output in the digital format. The opportunity to share and
distribute this intellectual output is hugely significant and would serve to
benefit the repository’s contributing authors and institution itself. Hence, IRs
have emerged as the tool for successfully promoting the open access
initiatives of an organisation.


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5.    Definitions of Institutional Repository:

There are many definitions of IR available in the vast literature. Following
section discusses few important among them.

Clifford A Lynch in 2003 described IR as an essential infrastructure for
scholarship in the Digital Age. He further described it as “a set of services that
a university (institution) offers to the members of its community for the
management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution
and its community members. It is most essential an organisational
commitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long term
preservation where appropriate, as well as organisation and access or
distribution.” IRs are also the digital collections that capture and preserve the
intellectual output of a single or multi-university community (Crow, 2002).
Mark Ware Consulting Ltd (2004) in their report Pathfinder research on web-
based repositories defines IR as a web-based database (repository) of scholarly
material which is institutionally defined (as opposed to a subject-based
repository); cumulative and perpetual (a collection of record); open and
interoperable (e.g. using OAI-complaint software); and thus collects, stores
and disseminates (is part of the process of scholarly communication). In
addition, most would include long-term preservation of digital materials as a
key function of IRs.

IRs are the means of collecting and providing access to diverse, locally
produced digital materials (Bailey, Coombs and Emery, 2006). Where as
Donovan and Watson (2008) defined an IR as a means of collecting the
intellectual digital output of an organisation. Wikipedia has defined IR as an
online locus for collecting and preserving in digital – the intellectual output of
an institution, particularly a research institution.

6.    Need for Institutional Repository:

Institutional initiatives to promote open access to the research work carried
out by them has been made possible through establishing IRs. IRs provide
organisations with an opportunity to create a central location that collects and
preserves their digital content. The goal of implementing IRs is mainly to have
the intellectual output of an institution in a central source. Some IRs will
extend content beyond published materials to include others that may not
necessarily be published, such as conference presentations, working papers,
technical reports and similar material. IRs also provide access to others who
may have an interest in the output and they promote the visibility of an
organisation on the Internet (Moahi, 2009).




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The potential of IRs to help foster change within the organisation is
significant. As Clifford A Lynch (2003) notes the most important potential pay
off of IRs is opening up entirely new forms of scholarly communication that
will need to be legitimized and nurtured with guarantees of both short and
long-term accessibility. IRs are the visible manifestation of the emerging
importance of knowledge management within an institution. The long-term
impact of IRs is likely to change many of the basic assumptions about how
intellectual output is managed by individuals, their colleagues and the
institution; and how research itself is conducted.

7.       Advantages of Institutional Repository:

Following are the major advantages of establishing IRs.

       IRs enhances the professional visibility of the individual and raises the
        prestige of an institution.
       IRs lower access barriers and offer the widest possible dissemination of
        scholarly communication.
       IRs helps in increasing the citation rates of a particular article by
        providing open access.
       Centralization and storage of all types of institutional output including
        unpublished literature.
       Storage and access to wide range of materials.
       A central archive of a researcher’s work.
       Benefits to researchers and their institutions in terms of prestige, prizes
        and grant revenues.
       IRs helps in wider circulation of grey literature like technical reports,
        theses/dissertations and in-house publications which are not published
        for wider circulation.

8.       Technical Issues:

8.1      Digital Preservation:

Preservation is the conservation of knowledge. Digital Preservation refers to
the management of digital information. Digital Preservation is defined as
long-term, error-free storage of digital information, with means for retrieval
and interpretation, for all the time span that the information is required for
(Chattopadhyay, 2006). Digital Preservation is a process by which data is
preserved in digital form in order to ensure usability, durability and
intellectual integrity of the information contained therein.

Singh, Sagolshem and Purnima Devi (2006) felt that there is no viable long
term strategy to ensure that digital information will be readable in the future.

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Not only are digital documents vulnerable to loss via media decay and
obsolescence, but they become equally inaccessible and unreadable if the
software needed to interpret them or the hardware on which that software
runs is lost or become obsolete. Digital preservation can, therefore, be seen as
the set of processes and activities that ensure the continued access to
information and all kinds of records, scientific and cultural heritage of an
institution existing in digital formats. Therefore, depending on the criteria like
open standards, ubiquity, stability, metadata support, viability,
interoperability, authenticity, processability and presentation the following
file formats are selected for uploading records to the ISRO HQ., IR.

         PDF
         GIF
         JPEG
         TIFF
         HTML
         MHTML
         VOB (for DVD-video media)
         MPEG
         Flash Videos

8.2       Hardware and Software Availability:

A sound technological infrastructure is required for creating and managing
IRs. Basic requirement for IR is well established and planned network
environment in an organization. At ISRO HQ nearly 600 terminals are
connected with local area network with high-speed multiprocessor servers
and powerful workstations for high data transfer rate over Intranet. Fifteen
centers are connected through Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL)
broadband connection for accessing the resources of different centers libraries.

Following technological infrastructure was available when the IR was
initiated at ISRO HQ.

       Intel Xeon x-series 335 processor (3.6 GHz) based IU rack mounted
        server system with 1GB RAM and RAID storage system
       Everyday incremental backup. Asset store is done NFS to storage box of
        100 GB capacity. Sunday full backup on tapes
       HP Scanjet 5590 flatbed scanner
       Adobe Acrobat 7.0 professional for scanned image processing and
        watermarking
       ABBYY PDF Transform for converting documents to PDF format
       Red Hat Linux 9.0
       Java 1.5.0

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       Jakarta Tomcat 5.5
       Maven 2.2.1
       Apache ant 1.8.0

8.3     Selection of Software:

There are many open source softwares available for creating and maintaining
IRs. Software such as ARNO, CDSware, Dspace, Greenstone, EPrints, Fedora,
i-TOR and MyCoRe to name a few. While developing IR at ISRO HQ., Dspace
is selected. Dspace is advanced digital repository software crated as a joint
project of MIT libraries and the Hewlett-Packard Company. Dspace digital
repository software is freely available as open source software under the
terms of the BSD distribution license. A list of important feature of Dspace is
given below:

       Dspace accepts all kinds of digital formats for submission.
       Customize the metadata as per the requirements.
       Statistics for administrator usage and usage statistics reports can be
        generated. The reports can also be made public or restricted to
        administrator access only.
       Authority control for metadata fields.
       RSS feeds of new items available for collections and communities.
       Subscribe to collections in order to be altered when items appear in a
        particular collection.
       Web application is available in over twenty languages.
       Dspace has a very good web interface and the ability to manage various
        file formats which helps in developing a blended repository.
       Allows import and export for Communities, Collections and Items.
       Hierarchy to manage contents (i.e., Communities, Collections and
        Items)
       By default, Dspace stores item Metadata in the Dublin Core Metadata
        Schema. This ensures data can be exchanged with other standards
        compliant system, such as MARC21.

8.4     Manpower:

The success of any organisation depends upon the effective functioning of
the personnel. Implementing sophisticated projects like IR requires very
skilled, creative and technologically sound manpower. The IR at ISRO
HQ is initiated by two professionals (who are also the authors of this
paper) without any training in functioning and technicalities of Dspace.
Efforts were made to collect and read the literature related to Dspace in
order to understand its functioning. With trial and errors methods we
could successfully implement the IR and today its collection is totaling to

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13,000 items. It is also important to utilise the non-professional staff in
building the IR. We took one such step and taught our attender (sub-staff)
scanning and saving the files in different file format being incorporated in
the IR.

8.5   Collaboration with different divisions of ISRO HQ:

In an organisation different sections/divisions play important role in
successfully carrying out any project or initiative. These divisions/sections
may not be directly involved in implementing the project but even
constructive opinions, suggestions and guidance is very valuable. In
building the IR at ISRO HQ, library collaborated with group of persons
who have expertise to evolve policies related to computers and software for
implementing in DOS/ISRO and software engineering, support for mission
software validation, inter-centre and intra-centre connectivity through
computer network.

Engineers have helped in installing the Dspace software and its customization
of metadata form, software maintenance, configuration, and taking database
backup regularly are also being carried out.

9.    Major Challenges:

9.1   Financial Challenges:

Implementing IR and its maintenance requires good collaborative efforts of
librarians, IT specialists, employees and administrators. Start-up maintenance
cost of IRs differs from institute to institute. Most of the institutions’ start-up
and maintenance costs include staffing and infrastructure that may be around
Rupees 300,000 to 400,000 (i.e. US $ 8900) per year. Particularly ISRO has a
very good collaboration between IT specialists, employees and administrators.
Since the technological infrastructure (hardware and software) was very much
available at ISRO HQ, the same was used for implementing the IR and that
brought the start-up cost literally to nil. The software selected for
implementing the IR was Dspace, which is free open source software was also
a cost saving option.          Since the library professionals themselves got
acquainted with the functioning of Dspace by trial and error methods that also
saved the initial training costs. Hence, by utilizing the existing technological
infrastructure, manpower and collaborating with other divisions at ISRO HQ,
it is clear that an effective IR can be developed with zero start-up cost.




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9.2   Collection Building:

The IR at ISRO HQ (Fig.1) is started with uploading the Newspaper clippings.
Today there are more than 10,100 newspaper clips available on different
subjects which are of interest to the personnel of ISRO (Fig.2). Office orders,
office memorandums, circulars and the monthly highlights are accommodated
by creating a different Community called Digital Library of Government
Documents. Annual reports from the year 1972 to 2009 are made available and
can be accessed by the entire ISRO community. The 35mm documentary films
generated by ISRO have been converted into DVD video format and made
available in the repository. E-books available with the print edition and those
which have got permission to host on the Intranet are also uploaded to the IR.
There are also few E-books brought out by ISRO which are also
accommodated in the IR. Seminar and conferences which are video captured
are made available in the MPEG format. Space India an in-house publication
is also scanned and uploaded for reference. There are number of scientific,
technical and general reports brought out by ISRO HQ. These reports are
being scanned and uploaded in PDF format (Fig.3). An hyperlinking facility
has been given in the Library Management Software Libsys using the
multimedia linking facility for search and its retrieval which gives additional
access point to internal reports when users carry out search using Web OPAC.
The rare photographs of Former and Present Chairmen of ISRO are collected
and converted to a Flash Movie format and archived under their respective
collections.

The major challenge was to collect the research articles and lectures/speeches
of all the Chairmen i.e., Present and Former (Fig.4). Eminent personalities
such as Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, Prof. M G K Menon, Prof. Satish Dhawan, Prof.
U R Rao, Dr. K Kasturirangan and Dr. G Madhavan Nair (former chairman of
the organization) and Dr. K Radhakrishnan, the present Chairman of ISRO
have done tremendous research in the field of space science, remote sensing,
astronomy and astrophysics. It was challenging to collect the research output
both published and grey literature in the form of articles, technical reports,
lecture notes and lectures/speeches brought out by these eminent
personalities over a period of time. The research papers/articles have been
published in the reputed national and international peer reviewed journals,
conferences, seminars and symposia. People like Prof. U R Rao, Dr. K
Kasturirangan, Dr. G Madhavan Nair and Dr. K Radhakrishnan have
preserved their intellectual output in hard copy. Print copy of the same was
scanned, edited and uploaded in the PDF format. Some of the research
articles/papers and lectures/speeches were available in the MS Word format,
those are converted to PDF format using ABBYY PDF Transform software so
as to maintain the uniformity in file formats.


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The intellectual output of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, Prof. M G K Menon and Prof.
Satish Dhawan has been extensively published in the foreign journals dating
back to 1940’s and 1950’s. It was very difficult to collect the research articles
which have been published in the 1940’s and 1950’s and which are normally
not available in the electronic format. Moreover, many of the journals where
the articles were published are discontinued by the publishers. Some of the
intellectual output of these personalities is preserved in the ISRO HQ Library.
This collection is converted to electronic format and uploaded in their
respective Communities in the IR. Efforts were made to visit some of the
important libraries in Bangalore with whom these eminent personalities were
associated for their research. The articles available in the databases subscribed
by these libraries are downloaded and articles available in the bound volumes
of journals are photocopied and scanned at ISRO HQ Library. Each document
uploaded to the IR is watermarked as “Archived by ISRO HQ. Library” using
Adobe Acrobat 7.0 Professional software.

The ISRO HQ., IR also contains a special collection called Photo Gallery. The
rare photographs of all former Chairmen of ISRO are collected and a photo
gallery is developed using Adobe Flash CS3 Professional software (Fig.5).

9.3   Staff Hours:

There were only two library professionals when IR was initiated. In addition
to routine library duties, the building of IR and collection of the intellectual
output of the organization was carried out. In the beginning, everyday around
3 to 4 hours were invested in developing the IR. After few months of working
experience with DSpace, the time spent on working on IR has come down to 2
hours per day and sufficient to build the collection and monitoring the IR
effectively. In the beginning newspaper clippings were uploaded as HTML
files. The HTML file contains multiple files embedded and the image has to
be uploaded as a separate bit stream to the IR. To avoid this cumbersome job,
it was decided to upload the newspaper clippings in the MHTML web archive
format as single file. This decision helped in saving time in uploading the
items. Earlier the Dspace was installed in the stand alone PC and recently it
has been migrated to an independent IBM server with RAID facility, to access
the IR by 24/7 with good performance. This has considerably reduced the
time taken for uploading the collection to the IR.

9.4   Metadata Customization:

Dspace uses Dublin Core metadata schema which is available by default
when the Dspace software is installed and configured. Dublin Core is an
internationally recognized metadata standard used to describe a resource.
Metadata (data about data) describes each resource so it can be discovered

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and evaluated by the user. It also supplies elements that aid in the
administration of the repository; and maintains the structure of the
repository by providing linkages among related objects. Dublin Core has 15
base elements. Title and Date of issue are the minimum mandatory elements
required for a resource and the rest of the elements are optional. The ISRO
HQ., IR has developed a core set of metadata elements for the project-related
documents and other documents to accommodate them in the repository. The
summaries of the various ongoing projects and initiatives are prepared and
sent to the various departments of the Government. ISRO issues office orders
pertaining to its policies and procedures from time to time. Since these
documents carry very less data which can be used for metadata, it was
felt that the Metadata form may be customized so that only the minimum
available data regarding the document can be accommodated. With the
help of computer experts the metadata form is customized for the
collections available under the Digital Library of Government Documents
Community (Fig.6). File formats such as MHTML, VOB and FLA (Flash
Videos) were not available in the Bitstream Format Registry are included.
Small modifications to the IR homepage are made by including the
emblem of ISRO and a combined photo of different sections of Library.

9.5   Employee Participation:

Right from the inception of IR at ISRO HQ, Library professionals are working
in collecting, scanning, converting and uploading the documents. There are
plans to move IR from the Intranet to the Internet to have wider accessibility
and publicity to the general public to this valuable treasure. So far the
repository contains only the intellectual output of the former and present
chairmen of ISRO and the technical reports generated at ISRO HQ. To widen
the scope of IR it was felt to accommodate the intellectual output of brilliant
and intelligent Scientists/Engineers working in the ISRO HQ by giving them
access to upload their works to IR (self-archive).

This can be done by educating the personnel in how to upload the documents
to Dspace and by monitoring the submissions for maintaining the metadata
standards. Other method could be by developing a submission form outside
of Dspace and asking the personnel to enter minimal metadata and uploading
the article/paper/report in PDF format. Rest of the editing part can be carried
out by the library staff i.e. entering the complete metadata form and archiving
to the IR.

10.   Copyright Issues and RoMEO:

The issue of copyright materials and the fact that authors who publish in
journals usually sign copyright transfer forms that transfer copyright from the

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author to the publisher is challenging. Although publishers will allow
depositing pre-prints or even the final print, many authors are never really
aware of their rights and check what rights they have with regard to their
published papers. Author’s rights and interpreting publishers’ copyright
policies in respect of IRs are current areas of deep discussion. RoMEO (Rights
MEtadata for Open Archiving), a UK project, produced an important survey
of publisher copyright policies and self-archiving in 2003 which has now been
converted to a database is actively managed. As of April 2011, RoMEO has a
database of around 960 publishers’ copyright and self-archiving policies.
Publisher policies are given as below:
    No archiving allowed
    Allow pre-refereed version only
    Allow post-refereed version only
    Allow pre- and post – refereed versions
    Allow publisher’s version
    Allow all versions
    Not specified

Library staff is in the process of getting the copyright clearance from the
publishers, so that there should not be any issues when the IR moves from
Intranet to Internet. Wherever it is not possible to get the copyright clearance
or the archiving policies are not exclusively defined, such articles/papers will
be restricted from viewing and downloading. But an option will be given to
the users to request a copy.

11.      Usage:

The repository is accessible 24/7 to the Scientists/Engineers over Intranet
working in different Centers/Units in India through broadband connection. It
is heavily used by the Scientists/Engineers with average hit rate of 600 to
650/day.

12.      Future Plans:

       It has been initiated to replace the existing scanner with advanced HP
        Scanjet 8270 flatbed scanner capable of text editing with OCR
        embedded software.
       It is also planned to migrate to the latest version of Dspace.
       There are also plans to evolve a suitable license to deposit items to IR.
       It is planned to install the PKP Open Harvester software to have
        federated search of databases of IRs of all ISRO centres.
       Space Applications Center (SAC), Ahmedabad has developed software
        called “Vedansh” which has been incorporated with the COWAA
        (COmputerised Working in Administrative Area) software for

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      administrative works. Both the softwares are in-house developed.
      Vedansh has been tested for applicability in all the ISRO centers with
      integrated approach with COWAA. It is bilingual (Hindi and English)
      software with IEEE standard for Learning Object Metadata. It is also
      planned to incorporate Dublin Core metadata in due course of time in
      addition to IEEE standards. This software is basically developed to
      create a repository of classified project related reports and office orders.
      Since majority of DOS/ISRO libraries have developed IRs with various
      in-house publications, reprints, preprints, articles etc. Vedansh will give
      restricted/unrestricted access to documents.

13.   Conclusion:

Much of the knowledge that is produced is in digital form as a result of the
ubiquity of information and communication technologies in many research
institutions. However, the challenge for the IR manager is that the information
and knowledge thus produced are not usually captured, recorded, archived,
and organized for easy access and its retrieval by the user community. The
application and use of information and knowledge can only become a reality
where what information is collected, processed, and made visible for
dissemination and use. This can only occur if developments in information
and communication technology are leveraged to develop Institutional
Repositories that can make institution’s intellectual output visible to the
world. Institutional repositories are now being recognised as a significant way
of valuing and showcasing an institution’s intellectual output – a major tool in
opening access to research. Moreover, Institutional Repository management
will provide library professionals an opportunity to remain at the forefront of
their institution’s scholarly communication ventures. In this paper efforts
were made to share the experiences in implementing the Institutional
Repository at ISRO HQ. This paper also discusses how best the available
infrastructure can be used to minimize the initial start-up and maintenance
costs.




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12. Wikipedia: www.wikipedia.com/en/
13. Willinsky, John: Why open access to research and scholarship? The Journal
    of Neuroscience, Vol.26, No.36, Sept.06, 2006, pp.280-285.




                                                                             14
Other Works Consulted:

1. Ashalatha Laxminarsaiah and Rajgoli, Iqbalahmad U: Building
   institutional repository: an overview. OCLC Systems and Services:
   International Digital Library Perspectives, Vol.23, No.3, 2007, pp.278-286.
2. Kaul, H K: Organising digital collections: problems and issues. Sri Lankan
   Journal of Librarianship and Information Management, Vol.2, No.1, 2006,
   pp.11-21.
3. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of Asian Digital Libraries
   held at Bangalore during Dec.10-12, 2001
4. Proceedings of the National Conference on Digitisation and Digital
   Preservation held at DESIDOC, New Delhi during Dec.11-12, 2008.
5. Starkman, Abbie: Institutional repositories: benefits and challenges for
   libraries. Open and Libraries Class Journal, Vol.1, No.1, 2008, pp.1-10.




                                                                           15
Fig.1 Home page of ISRO HQ IR showing different Communities




            Fig.2 Newspaper Clippings Collection




                                                              16
         Fig.3 Internal Reports Collection




Fig.4 Lectures/Speeches Collection of Prof. U R Rao




                                                      17
Fig.5 Photo Gallery of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai




    Fig.6 Customized metadata form




                                             18
                                  Author Bio-Data


                 Smt. Ashalatha Laxminarsaiah (B.Sc., M.Lib.Sc.) is working as
                 Scientist/Engineer-SF at Indian Space Research Organisation
                 Headquarters, Bengaluru since 1990. Initially she worked as
                 Librarian at INSAT-1 Space Segment Project Office for 12 years and
                 is in the profession for the past 33 years. She has contributed 6
                 articles in national, international journals and conference. Her
                 areas of specialization are library management, organisation
knowledge, webpage designing, library automation, digital libraries and
Institutional Repositories.

                   Dr. Iqbalahmad U. Rajgoli (B.Sc., M.L.I.Sc., PG Dip. In Library
                   Automation and Networking, and Ph.D.) started his professional
                   career at Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru, India and
                   worked for two years, where he was involved in the “Digital
                   Library of India” project. Since from 2005 he is involved in
                   cataloguing and classification of various documents and working
                   for the building of ISRO HQ Institutional Repository. His areas of
interest include information literacy, digital libraries and Institutional Repositories.
He has contributed 28 articles in national, international journals and conferences.




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