Hindu Heritage Society Logo has 6 symbols representing its aims and
Each symbol carries a special message for us.
“Om” - represents the divine universal language.
“Shri” - indicates the divine wealth and prosperity.
“Kalash” - symbolises as the carrier of the Nectar for the entire
creation and Hindu cultural values.
“The book” - symbol represents the Vedas which means wisdom and
“The light” - (Dipam) symbolizes knowledge against darkness and
“Swastika” - symbolizes the welcoming of auspiciousness and driving
The symbol also represents the changing of the universe around the
unchanging nature of God.
` Aum or Om
Source : http://www.hindubooks.org/hinduism_simplified/
Om is one of the most chanted sound symbols in Hinduism. It has a profound effect on the
body and mind of the one who chants and also on the surroundings. Most mantras and Vedic
prayers start with Om. All auspicious actions begin with Om. It is even used as a greeting -
Om, Hari Om etc. it is repeated as a mantra or meditated upon. Its form is worshipped,
contemplated upon or used as an auspicious sign.
Om is the universal name of the Lord. The sound emerging from the vocal chords starts from
the base of the throat as 'A' with the coming together of the lips, 'U' is formed and when the
lips are closed, all sound ends with 'M'. The three letters symbolize the three states (waking,
dream and deep sleep) the three Lords (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva), the three Vedas (Rig,
Yajur and Sama) the three worlds (Bhuh, Bhuvah and Suvah) etc. The Lord is all these and
beyond. The formless, attribute-less Lord is represented by the silence between two Om
chants. Om is also called pranav that means "that (symbol or sound) by which the Lord is
praised". The entire essence of the Vedas is enshrined in the word Om.
It is said that the Lord started creating the world after chanting Om and atha. Hence it sound
is considered to create an auspicious beginning for any task that we undertake.
The Om chant should have the resounding sound of a bell. It fills the mind with peace, makes
it focused and replete with subtle sound. People mediate on its meaning and attain realization.
Thus Om symbolizes everything - the means and the goal of life, the world and the Truth
behind it, the material and the sacred, all forms and the formless.
"Om" is the most sacred syllable often spoken during the practice of any Hindu rites. It is a
holy character of the Sanskrit language, the language of God. The character is a composite of
three different letters of the Sanskrit alphabet. The English equivalent of those are "a", "u",
and "m", and represent the Trinity.
The Trinity is composed of the three supreme Hindu Gods: Brahma, the creator, Vishnu, the
preserver, and Shiva, the destroyer. These three letters when pronounced properly in unison
create an invigorating effect in the body. Because of its significance this sacred syllable is
spoken before any chants to show God we remember him. This sign in Hinduism also
represents the whole universe.
Om is also known to be the sound from which this whole universe is created. It is called
'Pranavam' in sanskrit, meaning the beginning of new universe.
2001-Jun-09 1:23am firstname.lastname@example.org
The word AUM is created by the God. This is having a lot of Scenitific Significance.
Chanting AUM in a rythmic way can destroy the so many bad elements in the Body and in the
Mind. That is the reason AUM is used in the treatment of deseases using the Pranayama
Techiniques. Not only this all the Hindu Beliefs (or what ever u call) are having Scentific
Signifcance along with the Spiritual Significance.
2004-Nov-29 4:19am email@example.com
Om: Symbol of the Absolute: What You Need to Know
"The goal which all the Vedas declare, which all austerities aim at, and which men desire
when they lead the life of continence … is OM. This syllable OM is indeed Brahman.
Whosoever knows this syllable obtains all that he desires. This is the best support; this is
the highest support. Whosoever knows this support is adored in the world of Brahma."
~ Katha Upanishad I
Om or Aum is of paramount importance in Hinduism. This symbol is a sacred syllable
representing Brahman, the impersonal Absolute — omnipotent, omnipresent, and the
source of all manifest existence. Brahman, in itself, is incomprehensible; so a symbol
becomes mandatory to help us realize the Unknowable. Om, therefore, represents both
the unmanifest (nirguna) and manifest (saguna) aspects of God. That is why it is called
Pranava, to mean that it pervades life and runs through our prana or breath.
Om in Daily Life
Although Om symbolizes the most profound concepts of Hindu belief, it is in use daily.
The Hindus begin their day or any work or a journey by uttering Om. The sacred symbol
is often found at the head of letters, at the beginning of examination papers and so on.
Many Hindus, as an expression of spiritual perfection, wear the sign of Om as a pendant.
This symbol is enshrined in every Hindu temple premise or in some form or another on
It is interesting to note that a newly born child is ushered into the world with this holy
sign. After birth, the child is ritually cleansed and the sacred syllable Om is written on its
tongue with honey. Thus right at the time of birth the syllable Om is initiated into the life
of a Hindu and ever remains with him as the symbol of piety.
The Eternal Syllable
According to the Mandukya Upanishad "Om is the one eternal syllable of which all that
exists is but the development. The past, the present, and the future are all included in
this one sound, and all that exists beyond the three forms of time is also implied in it".
The Music of Om
Om is not a word but rather an intonation, which, like music, transcends the barriers of
age, race, culture and even species. It is made up of three Sanskrit letters, aa, au and
ma which, when combined together, make the sound Aum or Om. It is believed to be the
basic sound of the world and to contain all other sounds. It is a mantra or prayer in
itself. If repeated with the correct intonation, it can resonate throughout the body so
that the sound penetrates to the centre of one's being, the atman or the soul.
There is harmony, peace and bliss in this simple but deeply philosophical sound. By
vibrating the sacred syllable Om, the supreme combination of letters, if one thinks of the
Ultimate Personality of Godhead and quits his body, he will certainly reach the highest
state of "stateless" eternity, states the Bhagavad Gita.
The Vision of Om
Om provides a dualistic viewpoint. On one hand, it projects the mind beyond the
immediate to what is abstract and inexpressible. On the other hand, it makes the
absolute more tangible and comprehensive. It encompasses all potentialities and
possibilities; it is everything that was, is, or can yet be. It is omnipotent and likewise
The Power of Om
While meditating, when we chant Om, we create within ourselves a vibration that
attunes sympathy with the cosmic vibration and we start thinking universally. The
momentary silence between each chant becomes palpable. Mind moves between the
opposites of sound and silence until, at last, it ceases the sound. In the silence, the
single thought—Om—is quenched; there is no thought. This is the state of trance, where
the mind and the intellect are transcended as the individual self merges with the Infinite
Self in the pious moment of realization. It is a moment when the petty worldly affairs are
lost in the desire for the universal. Such is the immeasurable power of Om. Research for this
GuideSite by Soma Brahma
Shri or Lakshmi
Hindus worship Lakshmi the most on Diwali, the festival of lights. According to tradition people
would put small candles outside their homes on Diwali and hope Lakshmi will come to bless
The prefix Sri (also spelt as Shri, pronounced as shree) renders as 'one who takes delight in Sri'
Lakshmi, meaning wealth, wealth of any kind. Primarily eight kinds of wealth are established,
associated with goddess Lakshmi. They are —
1) अा िाद लक्ष्मी Ādi Lakṣmī [Wealth a priori]
2) ध न्य लक्ष्मी Dhānya Lakṣmī [Granary Wealth]
3) धैयय लक्ष्मी Dhairya Lakṣmī [Wealth of Courage]
4) गज लक्ष्मी Gaja Lakṣmī [Wealth of Animals]
5) सन्त न लक्ष्मी Santāna Lakṣmī [Wealth of Progeny]
6) विजय लक्ष्मी Vijaya Lakṣmī [Wealth of Victory]
7) विद्य लक्ष्मी
8) धन लक्ष्मी Dhana Lakṣmī [Monetary Wealth]
Any thing that need be affluent gets the auspicious prefix or suffix 'Lakshmi', or 'Sri' like
Rajya Lakshmi (Wealth of Empire), Shanti Sri (Wealth of Peace), etc. In modern India,
common titles standing in for the English Mr. and Mrs. are Shri (also Sri or Shree) and
Shrimati (also Srimati or Shreemati), as in "Sri Gupta" or "Srimati
Goddess Lakshmi is worshipped by those who wish to acquire or to preserve wealth. It is
believed that Lakshmi (wealth) goes only to those houses which are clean and where the people
are hard working. She leaves places which are unclean or where the people are lazy.
In Uttaranchal, after the worship of the goddess on Diwali night, the Shankh or Conch is not
blown. This is because the shank is also from the ocean like the goddess herself, so it is given a
day of rest.
Laxmi is the patron goddess of Kolhapur city, Maharashtra.
Goddess of wealth. Wife of Sri Maha Vishnu. In different incarnations of Vishnu she
married Sri Rama as Sita, Sri Krishna as Rukmini and Sri Venkateshwara as Padmavati.
Devotees believe that Lakshmi resides in a place where virtue, righteous- ness, truth
and compassion prevail. Author - N.Raganatha Sharma
Lakshmi is the goddess of wealth. She is also called 'Sri' ' Money, grain, cattle, land,
gold, and silver are forms of wealth. Who does not need them? Everybody worships
Lakshmidevi because one gets wealth if Lakshmi grants it.
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are famous as Trimurtis ('The Trinity'). Of them, Brahma's
wife is Saraswati, Vishnu's wife is Lakshmi, and Shiva's wife is Parvati. Saraswati is the
goddess of education. Parvati is the goddess of might. Lakshmi, however, is the
goddess of wealth. Man needs all three - education, might and wealth. Source:
Shri and Mantra
A mantra is an embodiment in sound of a particular Devata.
It is not a mere formula. Nor is it a magic spell. It is the Devata
Himself or Herself. And so, when a mantra is repeated with
concentration of mind and the worshipper makes an effort to identify
him with the worshipped, the power of the Devata comes to his help.
Human power is thus. Supplemented by the divine power. A prayer is
different from the re petition of a mantra. It is a purely human effort.
Prayers may be offered in any language and in any form.
But a mantra, being an embodiment of a Devata in sound, has to be
repeated in that form alone in which it first revealed itself to the mind
of a Rishi. It is not to be learnt from books, but from the living voice
of a Guru who gives the Upadesa or initiation. And it has for its aim
the gradual trans- formation of the worshipper into the like ness of the
worshipped. Therefore the more worshipper advances in his/her japa
the less is he himself/ she herself and more does she/he partake of the
nature and wield the powers of the Devata.
Source : http://hindubooks.org/essence_of_hinduism/hindu_rituals_and_myths
2000-Oct-17 7:53am firstname.lastname@example.org
A kalash is a brass, mud or copper pot filled with water. Mango leaves are
placed in the mouth of the pot and a coconut is placed over it. A red or white
thread is tied around its neck or sometimes all around it in an intricate diamond-
shaped pattern. The pot may be decorated with designs. When the pot is filled
with water or rice, it is known as purnakumbha representing the inert body
which when filled with the divine life force gains power to do all the wonderful
things that makes life what it is.
A kalash is placed with due rituals on all important occasions like the
traditional house warming (griha pravesh), wedding, daily worship etc. It is
placed near the entrance as a sign of welcome. It is also used in a traditional
manner while receiving holy personages.
Before the creation came into being, Lord Vishnu was reclining on His snake
bed in the milky ocean. From His navel emerged a lotus from which appeared
Lord Brahma, the Creator, who thereafter created this world. The water in the
kalash symbolises the primodial water from which the entire creation emerged.
It is the giver of life to all and has the potential of creating innumerable names
and forms, the inert objects and the sentient beings and all that is auspicious in
the world from the energy behind the universe. The leaves and coconut
represent creation. The thread represents the love that "binds" all in creation.
The kalash is therefore considered auspicious and worshipped.
The waters from all the holy rivers, the knowledge of all the vedas and the
blessings of all the deities are invoked in the kalash and its water is thereafter
used for all the rituals, including the abhisheka. The consecration
(kumbhaabhisheka) of a temple is done in a grand manner with elaborate
rituals including the pouring of one or more kalash of holy water on the top of
When the asurs and the devas churned the milky ocean, the Lord appeared
bearing the pot of nectar which blessed one with everlasting life. Thus the
kalash also symbolises immortality.
Men of wisdom are full and complete as they identify the infinite truth
(poornatvam. They brim with joy and love and represent all that is auspicious.
We greet them with a purnakumbha ("full pot") acknowledging their greatness
and as a sign of respectful reverential welcome, with a "full heart".
The Vedas are the earliest Hindu texts, and they were composed
and performed orally for several centuries (generally believed to
be from 1500 BCE to 1200 BCE).
The word veda means knowledge or wisdom. There are four of them, and
they are collectively referred to as Sruti, which means "that which is
heard", and Samhita, which simply means "collection."
The oldest is called the Rig Veda, with the other three being the Yajur
Veda, the Sama Veda, and the Atharva Veda. The Rig Veda is the most
important, with the others having come later and are based upon it.
They are considered by Hindus to be revealed literature, having originated
with the gods whose praise they sing. Important later Hindu scriptures
such as the Brahmanas and the Upanishads, which are ascribed to
humans, are commentaries on the original Vedas.
In almost every Indian home a lamp is lit daily before the altar of the
Lord. In some houses it is lit at dawn, in some, twice a day at dawn
and dusk- and in a few it is maintained continuously (akhanda
deepa). All auspicious functions and moments like daily worship,
rituals and festivals and even many social occasions like
inaugurations commence with the lighting of the lamp, which is often
maintained right through the occasion.
Light symbolizes knowledge, and darkness ignorance. The Lord is
the "Knowledge Principle" (Chaitanya) who is the source, the
enlivener and the illuminator of all knowledge. Hence light is
worshiped as the Lord Himself.
Knowledge removes ignorance just as light removes darkness. Also
knowledge is a lasting inner wealth by which all outer achievements
can be accomplished. Hence we light the lamp to bow down to
knowledge as the greatest of all forms of wealth. Knowledge backs all
our actions whether good or bad. We therefore keep a lamp lit during
all auspicious occasion as a witness to our thoughts and actions.
Why not light a bulb or tube light? That too would remove darkness.
But the traditional oil lamp has a further spiritual significance. The oil
or ghee in the lamp symbolizes our "vaasnas" or negative tendencies
and the wick, the ego. When lit by spiritual knowledge, the "vaasnas"
get slowly exhausted and the ego too finally perishes. The flame of a
lamp always burns upwards. Similarly, we should acquire such
knowledge as to take us towards higher ideals.
A single lamp can light hundreds more just as a man of knowledge
can give it to many more. The brilliance of the light does not diminish
despite its repeated use to light many more lamps. So too knowledge
does not lessen when shared with or imparted to others. On the
contrary it increases in clarity and conviction on giving. It benefits
both the receiver and the giver. A Saint has said
Which else shall beautify a home
But the flame of a lovely lamp?
Which else shall adorn the mind
But the light of wisdom deep?
Why do we use the Diya in Pooja?
One of the important form of worship is prayer to a lamp, to the flame
or Jyothi, instead of a Vigraha or a picture, worshipping it as a form
of the Deity of their choice [Ishta Devatha]. As we believe, God as
Nirguna Brahman, comes to take the forms of various Avatharas as
Saguna Brahman and also manifests Himself in the phenomenal
Universe as its five elements -"Pancha Bootham." Vedas say that God
exists in the five elements. Aagama Sasthra and Bhootha Suddhi
Manthra say that God manifests in Sky [Space] as Sound, in Air as
Sound and Sense of Touch, in Fire as Sound, Sense and Shape of
things, in Water as Sound, Sense, Shape and Taste of objects, in Earth
as Sound, Sense, Shape, Taste and Smell. "Thvam, Bhoomi, Aapo,
Anilo, Analo Napaha" a verse from Ganapathy Adharva Sheerisha
Upanishad, which means that God is in Earth, Water, Air, Fire and
Sky. Hence, people worship the Lord as the various elements and
receive the Divine blessings. As light or fire, the Deepa Jyothi
represent one of the five elements as a manifestation of God.
Many people perform prayer rituals to the lamp, "Deepa Jyothi" as an
alternative to the traditional Vigraha worship of the devotional path.
There is a practice of offering prayers to Sri Ganesha, Durga, Devi,
Lakshmi, Saraswathi, Ayyappan and many other forms of Deities in
the form of Jyothi in a Deepa pooja. Most often Deepa Pooja is
performed by Devotees not initiated in proper Vigraha Pooja, either
alone or in groups at home or in a temple. Traditionally, women do
not take up or get initiated into the pooja for Siva Linga or Sakthi
Yanthra and Deepa Pooja is the most important alternative for them.
Most men also have not had proper training in prayer methods or
received the proper initiation of offering the necessary prayers to their
Ishta Devatha according to the rules of Agama. Many of them are
very religious and want to get the benefits for prayers. It is widely
believed that God accepts the prayers through this Deepa Pooja very
easily and very soon. There are no major restrictions or rules of the
doctrine of Adhikara for this deepa pooja. The Deepa Pooja can be
performed every evening. Those women who are unable to perform
pooja with lamps every evening, may try to do it once a week,
preferably on Friday evenings.
Lighting a Lamp
In Hindu practice, according to Swami Chinmayananda:
The oil or ghee [clarified butter] in the lamp symbolizes our
vaasanas or negative tendencies and the wick, the ego. When lit
by spiritual knowledge, the negativities get slowly exhausted and
the ego too finally perishes.
The flame of a lamp always burns upwards. Similarly we should
acquire such knowledge as to take us towards higher ideals.
While lighting the lamp, the Hindu prayer is:
Deepa sarva tamopahaha
Deepena saadhyate saram
Sandhyaa deepo namo-stute
I prostrate to the dawn/dusk lamp whose light is Supreme Knowledge
which removes the darkness of ignorance and by which all can be
In almost every Indian home a lamp is lit daily before the altar of the Lord. In
some houses it is lit at dawn, in some, twice a day – at dawn and dusk – and in a
few it is maintained continuously (akhanda deepa). All auspicious functions
commence with the lighting of the lamp, which is often maintained right through
Light symbolizes knowledge, and darkness, ignorance. The Lord is the
"Knowledge Principle" (chaitanya) who is the source, the enlivener and
the illuminator of all knowledge. Hence light is worshiped as the Lord
himself. Knowledge removes ignorance just as light removes darkness.
Also knowledge is a lasting inner wealth by which all outer achievement
can be accomplished. Hence we light the lamp to bow down to knowledge
as the greatest of all forms of wealth Why not light a bulb or tube light?
That too would remove darkness. But the traditional oil lamp has a further
spiritual significance. The oil or ghee in the lamp symbolizes our vaasanas
or negative tendencies and the wick, the ego. When lit by spiritual
knowledge, the vaasanas get slowly exhausted and the ego too finally
perishes. The flame of a lamp always burns upwards. Similarly we should
acquire such knowledge as to take us towards higher ideals. Whilst
lighting the lamp we thus pray:
Swastika 'let good-prevail'
Swastika is regarded as a divine sign by Hindus. The word swastika means
auspicious in the Sanskrit language and hence is used to symbolize the
welcoming of auspiciousness and driving away evils. The symbol also
represents the changing of the universe around the unchanging nature of
Source : http://www.hindubooks.org/hinduism_simplified/
2000-Oct-13 7:25pm email@example.com
The various ways in which the
Swatika is depicted.
is also revered by Hindu and ranks
second only to OM is the Swastika.
Today, the Swastika is know the
world over not as a religious
symbolism of the Hindus but as the
Nazi emblem. Hitler's use of the
Swastika on the flag of National-
socialist Germany has besmirched
the Swastika. But the Swastika
continues to hold a religious
significance for the Hindus. Like
OM, the origins of Swastika are lost
in the misty realms of the past and
they can only be guessed by piecing
together of the surviving clues.
Unlike OM, the Swastika is not a syllable or a letter. It appears to be decorative
character which could have originated in a hieroglyphic (pictorial) script.
The word Swastika is normally believed to be an amalgam of the words Su and Asati.
Su means 'good' and Asati meant 'to exist'.
As per Sanskrit grammar the words Su and Asati when amalgamated into one word
become Swasti (as in the case of Su and Aaatam becoming Swagatam meaning
welcome). If this derivation of the word Swastika is true, then the literal meaning of the
term Swastika would be 'let good-prevail'.
There exist many types of signs which stand for the Swastika. Even the standard version
has two forms the one facing the right also called the symbol of- the right hand path and
the one facing the left called the symbol of the left hand path. These two Swastikas are
also considered to represent the male and female. There is also a Swastika which is an
amalgam of these two types.
Did the Swastika originate as blueprint for a fort
called Su Vastu?
In the conventional type of a fort, the fall of one of
the gates to the attacking army would lead to the
Enemy's pouring into the fort and lead to massacre
or capture of all or most of its inhabitants. But
under the Swastika grids fall of one of the four gates
could still keep, at least three-fourths of the fort safe.
The understanding of the Swastika as a blueprint
for a fort can also be etymologically corroborated.
In Sanskrit, Vasa means to inhabit and Vastu means
habitation. While Su means good. The word
Swastika might be an amalgam of the terms 'Su' and
'Vastu' pronounced as as 'Swastu') meaning 'a good
All these forms present the Swastika to us as if it were only a symbol. But it is quite
possible that Swastika was an object which played an important role in the real lives of
people. Some scholars have said that in ancient times forst were builtin the shape of a
grid resembling the Swastika, for defensive purposes. Under such an arrangement it
was difficult for an enemy to storm into all parts of the fort simultaneously.
Did the Swastika originate as blueprint for a fort called Su Vastu?
In the conventional type of a fort, the fall of one of the gates to the attacking army
would lead to the Enemy's pouring into the fort and lead to massacre or capture of all
or most of its inhabitants. But under the Swastika grids fall of one of the four gates
could still keep, at least three-fourths of the fort safe.
The understanding of the Swastika as a blueprint for a fort can also be etymologically
corroborated. In Sanskrit, Vasa means to inhabit and Vastu means habitation. While Su
means good. The word Swastika might be an amalgam of the terms 'Su' and 'Vastu'
pronounced as as 'Swastu') meaning 'a good habitation'.
Incidentally in Sanskrit the term Swasta means calm or peaceful. Thus the term and
concept of Swastika might as well be a derivation of the name of a defensive structure
which due to its impregnable character was looked upon as a good habitation.
That this form of a defensive arrangement was a fact is also corroborated by the
military practice of Chakra-vyuha used during ancient times. In the Chakra-vyuha, the
army was arranged in the form of a circular grid which an enemy army was supposed
to break. This was one of the techniques used during the Mahabharata war in which
Arjuna's son Abhimanyu was killed. That the Chakra-vyuha was an effective form of
defense and it was very diffciult to break it is corroborated by the episode of
Abhimanyu in the Mahabharata. Briefly, this episode is as follows:
The clue that the Grid like the
Swastika as a defensive arrangement
was a fact is also corroborated by the
military practice of Chakra-vyuha
used during ancient times. In the
Chakra-vyuha, the army was
arranged in the form of a circular grid
which an enemy army was supposed to
break. This was one of the techniques
used during the Mahabharata war in
which Arjuna's son Abhimanyu was
killed. That the Chakra-vyuha was an
effective form of defense and it was
very diffciult to break it is
corroborated by the episode of
Abhimanyu in the Mahabharata.
When Abhimanyu was on the family way, Sri Krishna used to take Subhadra
(Abhimanyu's mother) on excursions. To humour her, Krishna used to relate many of
his adventures to the pregnant Subhadra. On one such excursion Krishna was narrating
his experience with the technique of Chakra-vyuha and how step by step the various
circles could be penerated. It seems that Subhadra did not find this topic interesting
enough for she soon went into a slumber. But someone else was interested in Sri
Krishna's narration and that was the yet to be born Abhimanyu.
While Subhadra dozed off, Abhimanyu continued to carefully follow Srl Krishna's
narrative of the Chakra-vyuha. But after talking for sometime and not receiving any
response from Subhadra, Sri Krishna turned back and saw that Subhadra was
savouring a sweet nap. Sri Krishna who had at that time come upto the seventh step of
the Chakra-vyuha, gave up his narration and returned with Subhadra to the palace.
The unfortunate Abimanyu could never obtain the technique of breaking all the circles
in the chakra-vyuha, but whatever he had heard Sri Krishna say, he carefully preserved
in his memory. He grew up to be a brave handsome young man. Many years later when
during the Mahabharata war the Kavravas set up a Chakar-vyuha and challenged the
Pandavas to come forward and break it, none of the Pandavas knew the technique of
doing so. At that Juncture to save the honour of the Pandavas, Abhimanyu came
forward and offerred his services for the task of breaking the chakra-vyuha. Despite his
incomplete knowledge of the technique he entered tne grid and overcame one circle
after another till he come to the seventh one for the breaking of which he had no
knowledge. Brave and ambitious es he was he fought valiantly in the unequal struggle
but in vain. His strength and bravery proved no match against the skillfully laid out
maze on warriors fighting whom, he met his end.
Similarly the Swastika could also have originated as a defensive structure which due to
its vast practical utility was considered powerful and was sanctified.