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YUKON RIVER PANEL

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YUKON RIVER PANEL Powered By Docstoc
					                      2002 McQuesten River
                 Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey
                           CRE 23-02




              Prepared for:
          YUKON RIVER PANEL
               Box 20036
            Whitehorse, Yukon
               Y1A 7A2


              Prepared by:
                 Patrick Tobler
   EDI ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMICS INC.
          Suite 206-4133 4th Avenue
              Whitehorse, Yukon
                   Y1A 1H8


              On behalf of:
THE FIRST NATION OF THE NACHO NYAK DUN
               P.O. Box 280
               Mayo, Yukon
                 Y0B 1M0


               March 2003
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


ABSTRACT

The McQuesten River, a tributary to the Stewart River, is an important chinook spawning stream that the
First Nation of the Nacho Nyak Dun has a keen interest in. In the last 50 years, a significant amount of
development has occurred in the watershed; however, monitoring of the chinook population has been
sporadic. This project has collected the existing data on chinook spawning in the watershed and
included two overview flights to locate spawners. The results of the project found that the McQuesten
River mainstem, below the confluence of the North and South McQuesten Rivers, is the primary
spawning area in the watershed. Several other areas were identified as spawning areas or potential
spawning areas; however, there is no evidence of annual spawning in these locations. Future works
were recommended to monitor numbers using the primary spawning location (as an index area) as well
the other locations in the watershed.




EDI Project #: 604-01                  Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                     i
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Restoration and Enhancement Fund, a salmon restoration partnership between the State of Alaska
and Yukon Territory, provided funding for this project (Project Number CRE-23-02). Pat Milligan,
Stock Assessment Biologist, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Whitehorse, provided technical expertise and
guidance. Kate Maddigan, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Whitehorse reviewed a draft version of the
report and provided editorial comments.

Staff members of the First Nation of Nacho Nyak Dun, Mayo, contributed to this project. Sue Lucas,
Lands Manager, Lands and Resources Department, provided project organization and assisted with the
management of the project. Millie Olsen, GIS Technician, Lands and Resources Department, completed
the mapping component of this project. Sam Peter and Lisa Rear participated in field components of
this project.

Robin Sharples, Biologist, EDI Environmental Dynamics Inc., participated in the field components of
this project (aerial surveys) and assisted with data compilation.




EDI Project #: 604-01                 Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                  ii
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


                                                       TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                                  Page
ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................................i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................................ ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................... iii
LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................................................. iii
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................................ iii
     1.1 Project Scope .......................................................................................................................1
     1.2 Project Objectives ...............................................................................................................1
2.0 LOCATION OF STUDY AREA ...................................................................................................1
3.0      METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................................3
     3.1 Scientific Data......................................................................................................................3
     3.2 Traditional and Local Knowledge.....................................................................................3
     3.3 Aerial Surveys .....................................................................................................................3
4.0      RESULTS ............................................................................................................................3
     4.1 Scientific Data......................................................................................................................3
     4.1 Traditional and Local Knowledge.....................................................................................5
     4.2 Aerial Flights .......................................................................................................................6
     Gravels only extend for approximately 0.5 km downstream from lake. ................................7
5.0 DISCUSSION ..................................................................................................................................8
6.0 LITERATURE CITED ...............................................................................................................10

APPENDIX A:.....................................................................................................................................12


                                                            LIST OF TABLES
                                                                                                                                        Page
Table 1. Tributary Basins in the McQuesten Watershed............................................................... 2
Table 2. Spawning data on the McQuesten River mainstem. ....................................................... 4
Table 3. Spawning data on the North McQuesten River .............................................................. 4
Table 4. Spawning data on the South McQuesten River............................................................... 4
Table 5. Traditional and local knowledge of chinook salmon in the McQuesten River
              Watershed................................................................................................................... 5
Table 6. Results of August 9, 2002 aerial survey in the McQuesten Watershed......................... 6
Table 7. Results of August 23, 2002 aerial survey in the McQuesten Watershed....................... 7

                                                           LIST OF FIGURES

                                                                                                                              Page
Figure 1. McQuesten study area map. ............................................................................................ 2
Figure 2. Distribution of chinook observed during August 4, 1990 aerial survey of the
             McQuesten River mainstem (adapted from DFO Stream files, 2002). ................. 9




EDI Project #: 604-01                                    Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                                                 iii
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1      Project Scope

The Yukon River Restoration and Enhancement (R&E) Fund was established by the Yukon River Panel
for the conservation of salmon stocks originating from the Yukon River. The purposes of the R&E
Fund are to: 1) support programs, projects and associated research and management activities on both
sides of the Alaska-Yukon border directed at the restoration, conservation and enhancement of Canadian
origin salmon stocks of the Yukon River and 2) support programs and projects that are directed at
developing stewardship of salmon habitat and resources and maintaining viable salmon fisheries in the
Yukon River in Canada.

The First Nation of Nacho Nyak Dun (NND) is dedicated to natural resource stewardship within their
Traditional Territory. In and likely prior to the early 1900’s, the McQuesten River was an important
source of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to the NND people. Duncan (1997) reports that
in 1901 there were 250 First Nations people hunting, fishing and living in the vicinity of the McQuesten
Post. A First Nation fish camp was located near the mouth of the McQuesten and recorded that catches
of salmon ranged from 3,334 pounds in 1909 to 14,000 pounds in 1914 (Seigel and McEwen 1984).

In recent history, a significant amount of development associated with mining and forestry activity has
occurred within the McQuesten River Watershed. This activity has likely impacted the chinook
spawning habitat in the watershed. As there was limited collective knowledge regarding chinook
spawning locations, spawning numbers and health of the populations, this study was designed to collect
all the existing information and provide baseline data for both NND and Fisheries and Oceans Canada
(DFO). Ultimately, this study will assist resource managers with the management of the McQuesten
chinook populations and guide future land-use decisions. This project was conducted concurrently with
another project, the McQuesten River Watershed Assessment (Tobler and Sharples 2003), and as such
the spawning dynamics of chinook salmon found in this study will have a large bearing on assigning
priorities in the watershed assessment.

1.2      Project Objectives
The objectives of this project included:
      1. Determining specific chinook salmon spawning locations in the McQuesten River Watershed.
      2. Determining the numbers of the spawning population(s).
      3. Determining the suitability of the McQuesten River as an index area and if suitable, establish an
         escapement monitoring index so that the NND and Fisheries and Oceans can monitor the run size
         in future years.
      4. Providing training, employment, build technical capacity and foster stewardship for NND
         citizens.
      5. Providing critical information to guide habitat restoration and long-term sub-basin management
         planning in the McQuesten River Watershed.



2.0      LOCATION OF STUDY AREA


EDI Project #: 604-01                      Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                  1
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


The McQuesten River watershed is located approximately 330 km north of Whitehorse, YT, near Mayo,
YT (Figure 1). The McQuesten River drains an area of 4,800 km2, and flows into the Stewart River,
approximately 120 km upstream from the confluence of the Yukon and Stewart rivers. The elevation
range in this watershed varies from 1, 200 to 1,500 metres (David Hedmann and Associates, 1995). The
South McQuesten and North McQuesten rivers join approximately in the middle of the watershed to
form the McQuesten River mainstem. As many tributaries to these three rivers make up the watershed,
Tobler and Sharples (2003) divided up the McQuesten River watershed into eight tributary basins for
discussion purposes. These basins are outlined in Table 1 and are mapped on Figure 1.

Table 1. Tributary Basins in the McQuesten Watershed.
    Tributary Basin               Brief Description                           Area (square   Stream Length (km)1
                                                                                 km1)
       McQuesten River               McQuesten mainstem and                      799.9              499.6
                                          minor tributaries
      Vancouver Creek                 Tributary to McQuesten                      245.0             144.5
          Bear Creek                  Tributary to McQuesten                      216.9             127.5
    North McQuesten River          North McQuesten (excluding                    1603.3            1601.7
                                         East McQuesten)
         Haggart Creek             Tributary to South McQuesten                  343.3              358.9
     East McQuesten River          Tributary to North McQuesten                  445.7              432.7
    South McQuesten River           Lower portion of the South                   762.7              554.8
                                            McQuesten
    Upper South McQuesten           Upper portion of the South                   392.7              320.1
            River                           McQuesten
1
 As determined from digital 1:50,000 Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN) maps.


There has been major mineral and resource development in the McQuesten River area. Hard rock and
placer mining has occurred since the late 1800’s. United Keno Hill Limited, located in the Lower South
McQuesten Basin, was established as a major hard rock ore mine in 1920 by the Yukon Gold Company
and operated until 1989. Many McQuesten River tributaries have been placer mined or are presently
being placer mined. Mining of the Haggart Creek basin has occurred since 1895 (Pentz 1996); several
abandoned mine sites are scattered along Haggart Creek, consisting of exposed mine tailing piles and
effluent ponds. Placer mining has occurred on various streams in the South McQuesten and Vancouver
Creek basins, as well as, to a lesser extent in the Bear Creek and North McQuesten basins (Lipovsky et.
al. 2001).

Most forest harvesting activity in the McQuesten watershed has occurred to support mining activity
(David Hedmann and Associates 1995). Roads were constructed to support mining activities and wood
provided fuel for heat and was used in steam-fired boilers as electricity for mining. Northern Design
Consultants (1993) has documented significant forest harvesting in the McQuesten, Vancouver Creek,
Bear Creek, South McQuesten and North McQuesten basins between 1947 and 1970.




Figure 1. McQuesten study area map.


EDI Project #: 604-01                           Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                    2
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                       137°30'                                                                                                          137°00'                                                                                                           136°30'                                                                                                                         136°00'                                                                                                                135°30'                                                                                                           135°00'
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


3.0     METHODOLOGY

This study was conducted in three main steps (the collection of existing scientific data, the collection of
Traditional and local knowledge, and an aerial survey).

3.1     Scientific Data

Biologists from Environmental Dynamics Inc. (EDI) gathered and researched existing literature and data
that had been conducted by government agencies, consultants, and developers. Information pertaining
to chinook salmon and spawning documentation was recorded and mapped where applicable

3.2     Traditional and Local Knowledge

A biologist from EDI and a technician from the NND conducted informal Traditional and local
knowledge interviews with elders and other community members on August 8, 2002. During these
interviews, information pertaining to salmon in the McQuesten River was recorded and mapped.

3.3     Aerial Surveys

Two biologists from EDI and technicians from the NND conducted two aerial flights of the McQuesten
watershed on August 9 and August 23, 2002. The purpose of these flights was to conduct an overview
assessment of the watershed (as part of the McQuesten River Watershed Assessment project; Tobler and
Sharples 2003) and to pinpoint spawning locations, spawning timing and count the number of spawning
fish in each location. The locations of the spawning fish were recorded and mapped.

Both helicopter flights originated from the Mayo airport, with the first flight focusing on a
reconnaissance of the watershed (for the watershed assessment; Tobler and Sharples 2003) with a
secondary objective of looking for spawning salmon. The upper basins of the McQuesten watershed
(Upper South McQuesten, South McQuesten and North McQuesten) were flown before the McQuesten
mainstem, Vancouver and Bear basins. In the lower basins, the helicopter flew at a slower speed and at
a lower elevation to increase the likelihood of seeing spawning or spawned out salmon.

The second helicopter flight concentrated mainly on adult salmon reconnaissance and was generally
flown at a lower altitude and at slower speeds than the first flight in an attempt to increase the
effectiveness of the survey.

4.0     RESULTS

4.1     Scientific Data

Scientific data on spawning chinook is present for several years (1974, 1977, 1990, 1998) from a
number of information sources. For clarity purposes, the study area was separated to the McQuesten
mainstem, the North McQuesten, and the South McQuesten rivers. Table 2 summarizes the scientific
information, which outlines the chinook spawning locations in the mainstem McQuesten River.




EDI Project #: 604-01                   Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                      3
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


Table 2. Spawning data on the McQuesten River mainstem.
   Year            Location                           Comments                           Source
   1974         Not Specified         Forty chinook were counted during ground         Brock 1974
                                                         survey.
   1977          Lower 16 km         Thirty-one spawning chinook were observed.         Beak 1978
   1990      Mouth to Oliver Creek    Spawning survey on August 7, counted 294        Seakem Group
                (lower 60 km)           live chinook, 26 carcasses, and 62 redds.         1992
                                     Thought to be a conservative estimate due to
                                      speed and flight path (likely explanation for
                                       low count compared to August 4 survey).
   1990        Entire mainstem.      Spawning survey on August 4, found 819 live      DFO Stream
                   (100 km)                    chinook, 14 dead carcasses              Files 2002
   1998           Mainstem             94 chinook salmon and 36 carcasses were        NND 1998
                                       observed. Many Redds observed between
                                       mouth and sunshine Creek (Aug 12 or 14)

While not surveyed as often as the mainstem McQuesten, the North McQuesten also has a significant
amount of information regarding spawning chinook salmon (Table 3). All of the spawning information
present is for the lower 40 km of the North McQuesten.

Table 3. Spawning data on the North McQuesten River
   Year                  Location                         Observations                   Source
     Not      10.6 km upstream from mouth.         Observed spawning chinook            FISS 2002
  specified
    1986        North McQuesten mouth to        Fishery Officer (chinook spawning      DFO Stream
               mouth of Sprague Creek (18      surveys) noted 17 chinook. (Aug, 17)     Files 2002
                            km)
    1987        North McQuesten mouth to        Fishery Officer (chinook spawning      DFO Stream
               mouth of Sprague Creek (18      surveys) noted 50 chinook. (Aug 18)      Files 2002
                            km)
    1997     Between Ballard and Red creeks          Two carcasses observed.            NND 1998

Scientific chinook salmon data for the South McQuesten is limited; however, there is documented
information from 1997 (Table 4).

Table 4. Spawning data on the South McQuesten River.
   Year                  Location                        Observations                    Source
   1997       Near mouth of Haggart Creek,     One chinook was observed on a large      NND 1998
                  upstream of the logjam                     redd.

In addition to the data listed above, David Hedmann and Associates (1995) describe DFO helicopter
surveys (38 chinook) in 1982, 275 in 1984, and an estimate of 200 chinook in 1985; however, no
locations are listed.




EDI Project #: 604-01                 Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                   4
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


4.1 Traditional and Local Knowledge

Traditional and local knowledge on chinook salmon collected during this study is presented in Table 5.
Knowledge of adult salmon is also mapped in Appendix A.

Table 5. Traditional and local knowledge of chinook salmon in the McQuesten River Watershed.
  Stream Name                               Comments                               Source
 McQuesten River People camped at the mouth of the McQuesten and             Buyck pers. comm.
                     built rock fences to capture salmon.                           2002.
 McQuesten River Sam Peter, Jimmy Lucas and David Mosses all                    Duncan 1997.
                     remember fish traps being used on the McQuesten
                     River to catch chinook (these traps could capture 50
                     salmon in one night).
 McQuesten River People camped at the mouth of Forty Mile Creek and          Buyck pers. comm.
                     caught salmon.                                                 2002.
 Vancouver Creek Salmon used to migrate up Vancouver Creek;                  Buyck pers. comm.
                     juveniles may still be using the creek.                        2002.
 North McQuesten Miners would fish for salmon in North McQuesten.           Klippert pers. comm.
       River                                                                        2002.
     Haggart         Found chinook above Dublin Gulch.                       Buyck pers. comm.
                                                                                    2002.
 South McQuesten Thought to be a natural spawning area just above            Buyck pers. comm.
       River         where Crystal Creek comes into McQuesten.                      2002.
 South McQuesten Elders have mentioned Chinook at lower end of               Buyck pers. comm.
       River         Haldane Creek.                                                 2002.
 South McQuesten What appears to be old spawning dunes have been DFO Stream Files 2002,
       River         reported at the outlet of McQuesten Lake.                 and NND 1998.
 South McQuesten       Anonymous report of sighting of 20 to 30 adult DFO Stream Files 2002.
       River         chinook above the South McQuesten Bridge (around
                     1991 or 1992).
 South McQuesten Used to gaff salmon near Proctor Lake (sounded like it Germaine pers. comm.
       River         may be Flat Creek) in the 1950’s.                              2002.




EDI Project #: 604-01                 Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                   5
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


4.2 Aerial Flights

During both helicopter flights of the McQuesten Watershed, only a total of 11 chinook salmon were
spotted. All chinook were observed in the McQuesten River mainstem (i.e. below the confluence of the
North and South McQuesten rivers). During the first flight (August 9/02), all of the chinook were
observed between the Klondike Highway bridge crossing and the McQuesten River confluence with
Vancouver Creek (Table 6). During the second flight, all of the chinook were observed between the
mouth and the McQuesten River confluence with Bear Creek (Table 7). Water clarity/visibility was not
optimal for spotting chinook during the aerial surveys (Table 6).

Table 6. Results of August 9, 2002 aerial survey in the McQuesten Watershed.
  Stream          Area                 Visibility           Chinook                Comments
               Surveyed       (poor/fair/moderate/good) Sightings




McQuesten          From                Moderate                       8      3 live, 5 dead; all fish
  River        McQuesten                                                  observed in the lower 13 km.
                 mouth to
                Vancouver
                  Creek
McQuesten       Vancouver                 Fair                        0
  River          Creek to
                Bear Creek
McQuesten       Bear Creek                Fair                        0
  River          to North
               McQuesten
Vancouver         Mouth         Fair to Moderate – water              0
  Creek        upstream for   clear; however small stream,
                   5 km           view often obstructed
Bear Creek     Lower 5 km          Poor – turbid water                0
  North          Mouth to                 Good                        0   Low intensity survey due to
McQuesten          East                                                     limited time/ budget.
  River        McQuesten
  South           Crystal        Fair – deep sections.                0   Low intensity survey due to
McQuesten        Creek to                                                 fair visibility, few sections
  River        McQuesten                                                   with appropriately sized
                   Lake                                                              gravels.
                                       TOTAL                          8        5 live, 3 carcasses



EDI Project #: 604-01                   Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                       6
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


Table 7. Results of August 23, 2002 aerial survey in the McQuesten Watershed.
   Stream            Area                    Visibility          Chinook            Comments
                   Surveyed       (poor/fair/moderate/good) Sightings
 McQuesten         Mouth to          Fair to poor, high water        0
    River          Klondike        levels, deep pools present.
                   Highway
                    Bridge
 McQuesten From mouth to             Fair, high water levels.        1         Two bears were seen
    River         Vancouver                                                    crossing McQuesten
                     Creek                                                  River. Bald eagles were
                                                                                 seen adjacent to
                                                                                McQuesten River.
 McQuesten        Vancouver             Fair to moderate             1         Bald eagle observed.
    River        Creek to Bear                                   (carcass)
                     Creek
 McQuesten       Bear Creek to       Lower section - fair to         1        Several eagles spotted.
    River            North                   moderate
                  McQuesten        Upper – poor water turbid
  Vancouver     From mouth to Poor –water turbid (appeared           0
    Creek       5 km upstream to be from natural source in
                                    alpine, likely permafrost
                                             melting)
    South          Mouth to            Poor – very turbid            0
 McQuesten       Seattle Creek
    River
    South            From                    Moderate                0      Gravels only extend for
 McQuesten        McQuesten                                                   approximately 0.5 km
    River       Lake extending                                               downstream from lake.
                      1 km
                  downstream
   Haggart       Swede Creek                 Moderate                0            Did not survey
    Creek        upstream for                                                 downstream of Swede
                     10 km                                                      Creek as water was
                                                                                      turbid.
    North        Mouth to East          Moderate to good             0        Two eagles observed.
 McQuesten        McQuesten                                                     Spawning gravels
    River                                                                     appeared to be present
                                                                             throughout this section.
     East        Lower 2 km             Moderate to good             0
 McQuesten
    River
                                             TOTAL                   3           2 live; 1 carcass




EDI Project #: 604-01                 Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                   7
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


5.0 DISCUSSION

The results of the 2002 aerial survey were severely limited due to high flow conditions in the
McQuesten Watershed during the time of survey. The Mayo area experienced a very wet summer, and
there were reports from local residents of rainfall everyday in the month of August. This high rainfall
contributed to higher water levels and appeared to contribute to higher turbidity levels as well. These
combined affects made the effectiveness of the 2002 surveys poor; therefore, it is likely that chinook
numbers and spawning locations were significantly underestimated. Evidence of this includes the
results of Yukon River radio telemetry study, which found seven radio-tagged chinook in the
McQuesten River mainstem (Osborne pers. comm. 2003). As only a small percentage of chinook were
radio tagged, many more untagged chinook were likely present in the McQuesten Watershed.

The review of scientific, local and traditional information indicates that the McQuesten mainstem, the
lower portions of the North McQuesten and unspecified portions of the South McQuesten appear to be
the main spawning areas in the watershed. Of these, the lower sections of the McQuesten mainstem
appear to be the most significant spawning areas, as large numbers of chinook have been documented in
1990 (294 live chinook on Aug 7 and 819 live chinook on Aug 4; see Table 2) and in 1998 (94 live
chinook), in addition to lower numbers in 1974, 1977 and 2002. The lower portion of the North
McQuesten also appears to be a significant spawning location, as adults have been documented in this
section in three separate years (1986, 1987 and 1997; Table 3).          The information for the South
McQuesten is less specific, and although a number of sightings have been made, specific spawning
locations and densities are not as clear. Possibly the most compelling evidence of regular chinook
spawning within the South McQuesten may be local knowledge of chinook in several locations as well
as the repeated captures of juvenile chinook in the Haggart Creek Watershed. Juvenile chinook have
been documented in the Haggart Creek watershed in 1995 (Hallam Knight Piesold Ltd. 1996) and in
2002 (Tobler and Sharples, 2003).

From the data present, it is apparent that chinook runs in the McQuesten River, especially in the
mainstem in recent times, are quite significant in size. While it is difficult to determine if the size of the
chinook runs have decreased over time, there are definitely changes occurring in the watershed. The
McQuesten River Watershed has undergone a significant amount of development in the past 100 years
and forestry, hard rock and placer mining all have likely impacted habitat quality (both rearing and
spawning) within the watershed. For example, water quality has been influenced by the United Keno
Hills Mine (elevated metal levels) and placer mining (elevated turbidity levels) throughout the
watershed. In addition, channel assessments conducted during the concurrent McQuesten River
Watershed Assessment have shown significant changes in channel morphology and thus fish habitat in a
number of streams throughout the watershed (Tobler and Sharples 2003). These changes may not only
impact the success of spawning and incubation but also the success of chinook rearing.

In terms of the North McQuesten, the lower 18 km (below Sprague Creek) is potentially an important
spawning location; however, evidence of repeated annual use does not exist. While significant numbers
were present in 1986 and 1987, it is odd that no fish were observed in the 1998 and 2002 surveys. There
could be a number of possible reasons for this, including that this area is typically used by low densities
of fish that were not detected in 1998 and 2002, the area is only used during years of high escapement,
or there has been change in the habitat that has made the area unsuitable to successful spawning or
incubation. According to a preliminary review of 1995 air photo versus historic photos there appears to


EDI Project #: 604-01                    Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                        8
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


be significant morphologic changes that have occurred to the North McQuesten stream channel (Miles
pers. comm. 2002), which may be the result of forestry activities (harvesting occurred in the North
McQuesten area in 1954 to 1964; Northern Design Consultants 1993) and fire activity in the watershed.
This area should be monitored in the future for chinook spawning and habitat changes.

As there is even less information available for the South McQuesten, this area should be monitored in
future years for chinook salmon spawning, especially in light of recent restoration works that were
completed in 2002. These works involved the construction of a channel to bypass a large logjam on
the South McQuesten River (upstream of the Haggart Creek confluence; developed as a result of forest
harvesting activities), which was thought to restrict fish passage (DFO Stream Files, 2002). Additional
work should be conducted to determine if chinook are using the South McQuesten on an annual basis,
and efforts should be made to locate specific spawning locations. Now that the logjam has been
removed, there may be increased salmon use of this portion of the watershed.

The results of the this study were consistent with past records in concluding that the lower portion of the
McQuesten mainstem is the most significant chinook spawning location in the watershed. More
specifically the area between 10 km and 50 km (as measured upstream of the mouth) appears to be the
most productive as measured in 1990, when 55% (453) of the live chinook counted in the McQuesten
mainstem were observed in this area (DFO Stream Files 2002; Figure 2).


                         140

                         120

                         100
      chinook observed
       Number of live




                         80

                         60

                         40

                         20

                          0
                                                                                                                100-101
                                                                                                       90-100
                                      10-20

                                              20-30

                                                       30-40

                                                               40-50

                                                                       50-60

                                                                               60-70

                                                                                       70-80

                                                                                               80-90
                               0-10




                                                       Distance from mouth (km)
Figure 2. Distribution of chinook observed during August 4, 1990 aerial survey of the McQuesten River
mainstem (adapted from DFO Stream files, 2002).

Despite the poor survey results in 2002, the McQuesten River could be a suitable candidate for an index
area to determine relative escapement in this watershed. The most suitable location would be the lower

EDI Project #: 604-01                                 Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                         9
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


sections of the McQuesten mainstem as it appears that there is a significant annual run in this area and
with the exception of 2002 the visibility appears to be adequate. However, before setting up a specific
index area, it would be beneficial to survey the majority of the watershed again (in a low flow year) to
confirm the patterns found in 1990. This will ensure that accurate escapement numbers are generated.

Another option may be to operate a weir/fish fence on the McQuesten mainstem near the Klondike
Highway. This option, if feasible, would give a more reliable and accurate indication of escapement
each year and could provide excellent stewardship, training and employment opportunities for NND
people. Both these options should be considered as a means to provide an indication of escapement
within the Stewart River system.

6.0 LITERATURE CITED

Beak Consultants Ltd. 1978. Fisheries Investigations Along the Klondike Highway Section of the
      Prospective Dempster Lateral Pipeline Route, Yukon Territory, Summer and Fall, 1977.
      Prepared for Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd.

Brock, D.N. 1974. Distribution and Abundance of chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum
      (Oncorhynchus keta) in the Upper Yukon River System in 1974 as Determined by a Tagging
      Program. Prepared by Canada Fisheries and Marine Service and Environment Canada. 56 pp.

Buyck, S. 2002. Personal Communications - August 8, 2002. Game Guardian, Lands and Resources
      Department, First Nation of the Nacho Nyak Dun, Mayo, Yukon Territory.

David Hedmann and Associates. 1995. Compilation of Environmental Information Pertaining to the
      McQuesten River Watershed - DRAFT. Prepared for Water Resources Division, Northern
      Affairs Program, DIAND, Whitehorse, Yukon.

DFO Stream Files 2002. Fisheries and Oceans Canada Habitat Stream Files. Located at Fisheries and
     Oceans Canada, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory. Miscellaneous Memos and letters pertaining to
     the McQuesten River, Reviewed in 2002.

Duncan, J. 1997. Summary of Streams in the Tr’on dek Hwech’in Traditional Territory: A search for
     Candidate Streams to Support a Program based on a Klondike Area Central
     Incubation/Outplanting Facility. Prepared by Duncan Contracting.

FISS 2002. FISS (Fisheries Information Summary System) Database Search Engine Webpage:
      http://habitat.rhq.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/cfdocs/fiss/dcf01.cfm Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
      Viewed December 11, 2002.

Germaine, C. 2002. Personal Communications - August 8, 2002. Member of First Nation of Nacho
     Nyak Dun, Mayo, Yukon Territory.

Hallam Knight Piesold Ltd. 1996. Dublin Gulch project: Initial Environmental Evaluation. Prepared
      for First Dynasty Mines Ltd.



EDI Project #: 604-01                  Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                   10
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey


Klippert, D. 2002 Personal Communications - August 8, 2002. Mayo Renewable Resource Council,
      Mayo, Yukon Territory.

Lipovsky, P., W. LeBarge, J. Bond, and G. Lowey. 2001. Yukon Placer Activity Map. Indian and
      Northern Affairs Canada, Exploration and Geological Services Division, Yukon Region.

Miles, M. 2002. Personal Communications – December 3, 2002. Principal, M. Miles and Associates
       Ltd. Victoria, BC.

Nacho Nyak Dun First Nation. 1998. Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Stock and
      Habitat Assessment in the McQuesten River Drainage Basin and Recommendations for a Stock
      Restoration Plan. Prepared for the Yukon River Panel.

Northern Design Consultants 1993. A History of Logging in the Yukon 1896-1970. Prepared by
      Northern Design Consultants, March 30, 1993.

Osborne, C. 2003. Personal Communications. Email to P. Tobler dated January 7, 2003. Principal,
      Haldane Environmental Services, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory.

Pentz, S.B. 1996. Flow and Suspended Sediment Transport in a Drainage Basin Affected by Placer
       Mining, Central Yukon, Canada. Master of Science Thesis, University of Guelph.

Seakem Group Ltd. 1992. Yukon Placer Mining Study. Prepared for Yukon Placer Implementation
      Review Committee. Prepared by Seakem Group Ltd., Sidney, BC.

Seigel, N. and C. McEwen. 1984. A Historical Overview of Fishing in the Yukon. Prepared for
        Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Pacific Rim Division. Prepared by Northern Biomes Ltd.,
        Whitehorse, Yukon Territory.

Tobler, P. and R.J. Sharples 2003 (in prep). McQuesten River Watershed Assessment. Prepared for
      the Yukon River Panel. Prepared by Environmental Dynamics Inc., Whitehorse, Yukon
      Territory, in association with the First Nation of the Nacho Nyak Dun First Nation, Mayo,
      Yukon                                                                            Territory.




EDI Project #: 604-01                Environmental Dynamics Inc.                                11
2002 McQuesten River Chinook Salmon Spawner Survey




                                      APPENDIX A:

                        CHINOOK SPAWNING INFORMATION MAP




EDI Project #: 604-01             Environmental Dynamics Inc.   12
                                  137°30'                                                                                                          137°00'                                                                                                136°30'                                                                                                                                136°00'                                                                                                               135°30'                                                                                                       135°00'                                                                  Chinook Spawning Information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              McQuesten River Watershed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Creek                                                                                                      Bra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       n
                                                                     One Eighty L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 McLea

                                                                                                                                                   se
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Scale 1:500,000
                                                                                                                                              Mou                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            OGILVIE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               5              0            5        10               15 Kilometers




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Williams Ck
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       McKayHorseshoe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hill   Hill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sullivan




                                                               Offi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Hill                                                                                                                     Beave                                    Albers Equal Area projection (standard parallels: 61°40'N & 68°00'N)



                                                                    cer




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Creek
                                                                                                                                                                              Davidson                                                                             rth                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          r
                                                                                                                                                                              Pass

                                                                                                                                                                                  Bald
    Ham




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Falls
                                                                                                                                                                        k
                                                                                        Cree                                                                     Cree                          Cre
         ilton




                                                                                            k                                                                                                       ek                                                                                                                                                                                                      Fis
                                                                                                                                                                 Nell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ck             Ck her
                                                                                                                         avi  dson                                     o                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                MOUNTAINS
                                                                                                                        D                                                                                                                                                                                                Mc                                            ishe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            r
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Qu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       est
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     F                                                                                                                   Steamboat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mountain                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  McQuesten River Watershed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             en
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Spawning Areas
                                                                      Wo




                                                                                                Gnat Ck
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               er
                                                                        lf




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Cree
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           k                                                                                                Riv




                                                                                                                                                                                         Cre
                                                         Swamp Ck
                            Creek




                                                                                                                                                                                              ek
                                                                                Creek




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Steamboat Eagle Lake                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Primary spawning




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Creek




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sluic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Eagle                                           Lake
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sluic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            eC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               k                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Secondary spawni




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Riv
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lar                                                                                                                                    k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Eagle C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Transportation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ten
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             sen




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         er




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    McQ
                                                                                               Creek                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     East
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lake
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Clark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lakes                                   Scouga                                 LIMITED-USE ROAD
                                                                                                                                       Riv

                                                                     Clum




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ck
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         East
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Chr                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Creek           Lakes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              en                                                                                                                                                    ROAD
                                                                                                                                          er


                             e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         uest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    McQuesten R
                  Klo   ndik                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      istie




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ram




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           gale
                                                                     STEWA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Creek                                                                                                                                    McQ




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Lim
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Creek




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scou
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       bler
                                                                                         RT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         TRAIL




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Haggart
                                                                                    (Y U K O                                                                    PLATEAU                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Dome




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Cree
                                                                                                 N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Lynx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dome                                                                                                Rambler       DAVIDSON                                                                                           PA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ê - refer to Traditional Knowledge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ú Local andtable 5 for more details of adult chinook
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ck




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             k
                                                                                                       k
                                           Ross                                                 Cree                                                      P L A T E A U)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  st Ck
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ironru
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ê
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ú
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mount
64°00'




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Creek                                                                                                                       Cache        Creek                                             Cameron
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             reek




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Rankin
         R                                    SYENITE RA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Cree
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Red                                                                                                           Potato




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ballard
                                                         NGE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Gulch          Hills              C                                                                                                            RANGE                                                                       k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Dublin




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 n R
                                                                                                            Lost Horses Ck                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Forbes




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Haggart
                                                                                                                                                                             Hobo Ck                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Zahn




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               cQueste
                                                                                                                                                               Creek                          Hob                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Lynx                                                                                                                           Hill
                                                                                                                       Ck




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ck
                                                                                                                                                                        Drapeau                  oC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hanson
                                                                                                                                                                                  Ck                     r.                                                                       Flet C                                                                                                                                                                                             Skate Creek                                                                      Lakes        Ladue Lake




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            th M
                            South




                                                                                                                       es




                                                               S Y E N I T E Canyon                                                                                                                                                                                                      k
                                                                                                                  Hors




                                                    Creek                  Black                                                                                                   Ck                           Red                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ladue Riv




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sou
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Keno
                                                                                                                                                        Hobo




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ballard
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   k                                                                                                                                                                                                   er
                                                                                                                 Lost                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lynx C




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     64°00'
                                                e                                                                                                                                                             Mountain                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hanson
                                         Syenit                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Red
                                                                                                                                                                            Gem




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      River
                                                                                                   Ck




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Creek                                                                                                                                                                                          Gambler Keno




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Secr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Lakes
                                                                    RANGE                                                                                                                 Sprag                                                                                                                                                                       Swede                                           Cree
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             r                                                     Lake                     Ladue

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cr.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               aggart




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 et Ck
                                                                                                            River                                                                                   ue                                                                                                                        Creek                                                                         H                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cobalt

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ê
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ú
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Christa
                                                                                                                                     Creek




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ck                                                                                                                                                                                                          l                                                    Beauvette
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ek




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     rt Ck




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ck
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hill

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ê Ê
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ú Ú
                                                                       e                                                                                                                                                 Creek                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Cre
                                                         Klondik                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        McQuesten




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           North




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hagga




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Allen Creek
                                                                                                                                                                                   EAST




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             odm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          South                                                                                                                                                        Keno Hill




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Faith
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cre
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ê
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ú

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Go
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               McQu




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ek
                                                                                                                              Josephine                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     esten                                                                                                                            k




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     im
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Cree                                                                                     Creek
                                                                                                                  WES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   McK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Rodin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Flat                                                                                     Lightning
                                                                                                                                          STEWART                                                                                                                   McQ                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Keno
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ê
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ú ten
                                                     Bell
                                                                                                                       T




              Barlow




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Galena Ck
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ues




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TRAIL




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ros




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      aH
              Dome                                          Ck                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                th
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sou




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        s
                                                                                Clear C                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sourdough



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ck
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bunker




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sea




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    len
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Creek
                                                                                        reek
                                  Creek




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     River                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hill




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ttle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hill




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ga
                                                                    Left




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Cre
                                                65 Pup




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ross
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mount                                                                                                                                                                 Mount
                                                                           Barney Pup                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ck                        Haldane                          Corke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ry Creek                                                                                                                      Hinton
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sun




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Williams                                                              GUSTAVUS
         Ck




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Cas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 shin




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Dun
                         Squaw




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               tnor                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ck
                                                                                                                                                                  Forty




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Cree                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Creek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  e




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ck
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Bou




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         k                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Granite




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ane
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ck
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Field                                                                 Parent Creek




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Creek
                                                                                                                                             RID




                                                                                                                                                                                                              lder




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ck




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hald
                          Creek                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Laska Gulch



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Van Cleaves                                                                                RANGE
                                                                                                                                                                                         RIDGE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Morrison
                                                                                                                                              GE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Strike Glch


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Halfway                                                       Hill                                            Mount
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Johnso




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ck
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Lakes                                                                                                        Beliveau                                                         Mount
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Cre




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ong                                           Albert




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      tone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scheelite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ingp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ek




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Sabbath
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           n
                                                                                                                                                                 Mile




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              permission of Natural Resources Canada.
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                                                  RIVER
63°30'




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                                                                    Bend            New
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                                                                                     Crossing
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  IL                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Watson                                                                                                       Mayo, Yukon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              05 December 2002




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Buttes
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posted:9/11/2011
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