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GTE Network Infrastructure Glossary

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					         Global Network Infrastructure (GNI) Glossary
                                Version 2.0 (03/26/1999)
             Term                                                 Definition
1+1 APS                           A SONET-protection method that uses two simultaneous active
                                  interfaces to a single circuit.
100Base-T                         See Fast Ethernet.
AAIS                              Assignment, Activation, and Inventory System.
ABR                               Area Border Router. A router that exchanges traffic between two
                                  OSPF areas.
AC                                Alternating Current. The form of electricity supplied from a
                                  generator or public utility. AC can be converted to DC using a
                                  rectifier.
Access                            Typically used to refer to interconnections between local telephone
                                  companies (LECs and CAPs) and the GNI.
Access Facility                   A location on the GNI other than a POP where a SONET ADM has
                                  been added to allow interconnection to local telephone companies.
ACD                               Automatic Call Distribution.
ADM                               Add-Drop Multiplexer. A SONET device used to add or remove
                                  circuits from a higher-speed SONET circuit.
AMPS                              Asset Management Property System. A system to provide a single
                                  source of property asset information with standardized access by
                                  authorized property departments.
APS                               Automatic Protection Switching. The capability of SONET
                                  equipment to detect failures and switch to alternate paths, called
                                  protect paths, in tens of milliseconds.
AR                                Aggregation Router.
ATM                               Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A standard which defines high-load,
                                  high-speed (1.544Mbps through 1.2 Gbps), fixed-size packet (cell)
                                  switching with dynamic bandwidth allocation. ATM is also known as
                                  "fast packet."
BA                                Backbone Aggregation Router. A router whose primary function is
                                  aggregating low-speed (DS-3 and OC-3c, later OC-12c) interfaces
                                  into higher-speed (OC-12c and later OC-48c or even OC-192c)
                                  interfaces.
BEIMS                             Broadband Integrated Element Management System. An integrated
                                  element manager for broadband equipment, conforming to the TMN
                                  element management model.
BOM                               Bill of Materials.
BPOP                              A GNI Layer 0 facility with fiber connections to other BPOP
                                  facilities. Typically a BPOP is a facility with 6,000 square feet (or
                                  more) of space. A Layer 0 BPOP does not necessarily correspond to
                                  a Layer 3 Backbone POP, although Backbone POPs are usually built
                                  in BPOP facilities.
BR                                Backbone Transit Router. A router whose primary function is
                                  transmission of IP packets over wide-area backbone circuits between
                                  Backbone POPs on the GNI.




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BSSC                               Building Service Support Center.
CAP                                Competitive Access Provider. A provider of circuits within a LATA
                                   that competes with the RBOC in that LATA. Typically have their
                                   own facilities. See LEC and CLEC. MFS is a typical example.
CAS                                Contractor Administration System.
Catalyst                           Cisco Catalyst 5000 Series Switch.
CIDR                               Classless Inter-Domain Routing. An IP address allocation method
                                   that allows IP addresses to be aggregated when advertised as routes.
CIL                                Client Interface Library.
CIR                                Committed Information Rate.
CLEC                               Competitive Local Exchange Carrier. A company that provides local
                                   service using a portion of the ILEC’s network.
CLLI                               Common Language Location Identifier.
CLR                                Circuit Layout Record.
CO                                 Central Office. Refers to the local telephone switching system within
                                   a LATA that connects lines to lines and lines to interoffice trunks.
COFEE                              Converged Front-End Engine.
Collocation Facility               A facility housing a BPOP, MPOP, or RPOP that is not under the
                                   control of GTE. Typically operated by a LEC or CAP.
CORBA                              Common Object Request Broker.
CORE                               Converged Ordering Engine.
CoS                                Class of Service. A differentiation of connectivity service based on
                                   packet loss and delay metrics. CoS services defined in this document
                                   are based on IP Type of Service classification of packets and on
                                   special processing in transit routers to assume the promised metrics
                                   are met for each type of service.
COTS                               Commercial off-the-shelf software.
COTTS                              Converged Trouble Tracking System.
CMR                                Change Management Request.
CP                                 Customer Provisioning.
CPMS                               Capital Program Management System. A system to control and
                                   manage the entire capital and work order expense process.
CR                                 Customer Aggregation Router. A router whose primary function is
                                   aggregation of individual customer circuits (DS-0 and above) onto
                                   higher-speed (OC-3c or OC-12c) interfaces.
CRE                                Customer Request Engineer.
CSA                                Customer Service Administrator.
CSC                                Customer Care.
CSR                                Customer Server Router. A router whose primary function is
                                   aggregating interfaces from multiple servers onto a single OC-3c
                                   interface.
CSU                                Channel Service Unit.
CTI                                Computer Telephony Integration.
CTS                                Circuit Tracking System.
DC                                 Direct Current. The form of electricity supplied from a battery (or
                                   rectifier) that is used in the GNI POPs.
                                   Also Data Center (for NCS operations).
DCO                                Data Center Operator/Operations.
DDR                                Dial-on-demand routing.




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DLR                               Design Layout Record.
DNS                               Domain Name System. A protocol used to convert human-friendly
                                  names to Internet IP addresses. Also used to refer to the servers that
                                  implement this protocol.
DS-0                              Digital Service 0. A telecommunications service using 56 Kbps
                                  circuits (often over a 64 Kbps channel).
DS-1                              Digital Service 1. A telecommunications service using 1.544 Mbps
                                  circuits.
DS-3                              Digital Service 3. A telecommunications service using 45 Mbps
                                  circuits.
DSU                               Data Service Unit.
DWDM                              Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. See WDM.
EAPI                              Enterprise Architecture, Planning, and Integration.
EIP                               Enhanced IP Services. Marketing term for IP services beyond those
                                  of basic packet forwarding, such as Voice over IP (VoIP).
Fast Ethernet                     A LAN technology for 100 Mbps shared-media (or dedicated point-
                                  to-point) connections. Fast Ethernet can use either category 5
                                  twisted-pair wiring or multimode fiber-optics. The GNI uses only the
                                  twisted-pair form.
FATE                              Facilities and Transmission Engineering. The group within the GNI
                                  organization responsible for Layers 0 and 1 equipment and services.
FBR                               Facility Build-Out Request.
FORMS                             Fiber Optic Record Management System. A system for tracking fiber
                                  optic cable inventory and associated assignments. It provides a
                                  standard format for tracking inventory and assignment of fiber optic
                                  facilities both in the interoffice and local loop fiber facilities.
FR                                Frame Relay. A packet-mode bearer service, transmitting data in
                                  frames, which is related to High Level Data Link Control (HDLC).
GDB                               Gateway Database.
GISP                              GTE Integrated Systems Plan.
GNI                               GTE Global Network Infrastructure. The name of the network being
                                  built atop the fiber acquired by GTE. Also the name of the
                                  organization within GTE Internetworking that is building the
                                  network.
GRID                              GNI Resource Integration Director. A centralized system for
                                  management of GNI process data, accessible by multiple inter-
                                  process areas.
GRS                               GNI Repository Services. A repository of information pertaining to
                                  equipment, facilities, connectivity between network devices,
                                  services, customers, and their inter-relationships.
GSR                               Giga Switch Router. Cisco router formerly known as the BFR.
                                  Comes in 4-slot, 8-slot, and 12-slot versions; up to two slots may be
                                  used for processor cards. Also has multiple switching fabric cards in
                                  a separate set of slots.
GTECC                             GTE Communications Corporation.
GTEI                              GTE Internetworking.
GTENS                             GTE Network Service.s
HSSI                              High Speed Serial Interface. Serial cable standard used for
                                  connecting DS-3 interfaces to external DSUs. Is also used on Axis
                                  boxes for direct connection to DS-3 interfaces on routers.
IC                                Implementation Coordinator.




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ICGS/ICGS+                         Interactive Computer Graphics System.
IE                                 Implementation Engineer.
IDS                                Intrusion Detection System.
InfraEng                           Network Infrastructure Engineering.
INM                                Integrated Network Management, a software application developed
                                   by NORTEL to provide a single point of access to OAM&P
                                   functions in a network. It runs on an HP-UX platform and uses
                                   TCP/IP to communicate with operations controllers (OPCs) that are
                                   located in the network.
IP                                 Internet Protocol. The protocol that allows for the delivery of
                                   information between two stations on the Internet.
                                   Also, Infrastructure Provisioning.
Island                             A collection of contiguous cabinets serving the same function within
                                   a GNI POP.
IXC                                Inter-Exchange Carrier. A provider of circuits between telephone
                                   company central offices in separate LATAs. Examples include MCI,
                                   Sprint, AT&T, and WorldCom.
Jitter                             A change in the delay of a packet transiting a network as perceived
                                   by the receiver.
LATA                               Local Access and Transport Area. A geographic area within a former
                                   Bell Operations Company’s franchised territory that has been
                                   established in accordance with the Modification of Final Judgement
                                   (MFJ) for the purpose of defining the area in which it may offer
                                   telecommunications services. In simpler words, an area in which the
                                   Incumbent LEC (ILEC) may offer calling services. To call outside
                                   the area, the call must be carried by an IXC.
Leased Line                        A data-grade WAN circuit leased from a telephone company for
                                   continuous use. Typical leased lines include DS-0 (56Kbps), DS-1
                                   (1.544 Mbps), and DS-3 (45 Mbps).
LEC                                Local Exchange Carrier. A provider of telecommunications services
                                   within a LATA, typically one of the former Regional Bell Operating
                                   Companies (RBOC). Also see CAP. Examples include Ameritech,
                                   Bell Atlantic, and Pacific Bell.
LOB                                Line of Business.
LTE                                Light Terminating Equipment. The equipment on the end of a fiber-
                                   optic cable that transmits or receives signals over the fiber. See also
                                   WDM.
MOR                                Multiple-Wavelength Optical Repeater. A device that amplifies
                                   optical signals along a SONET cable segment.
MPOP                               A Layer 0 facility on GNI fiber serving a metropolitan area. Layer 0
                                   MPOP facilities may be used to build Layer 3 Metro POP facilities,
                                   but there is not a one-to-one relationship between the two.
MSA                                Metropolitan Serving Area. A telephone company term describing
                                   the region around a city that is treated as an extension of that city for
                                   services.
N+1 SONET                          A SONET-protection method where one interface protects multiple
                                   other interfaces. A priority system defines which is protected if more
                                   than one fail simultaneously.
NCS                                Network Centric Systems.
NE                                 Network Engineer.




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NEMA                              National Electrical Manufacturers Association. A standards body that
                                  standardizes electrical equipment such as plugs and receptacles.
NetEng                            Network Engineering.
NMC                               Network Monitoring Center. The NOC (or NOCs) that provide real-
                                  time monitoring and first-line trouble resolution to the network.
NOC                               The Network Operation Center for GTE Internetworking, located in
                                  Burlington, MA.
NTP                               Network Time Protocol. A protocol used to synchronize clocks on
                                  distributed systems (routers and computers) with tens of milliseconds
                                  of accuracy over a packet network with variable delays. Also used to
                                  refer to the servers that implement this protocol.
NxDS-1                            N times DS-1. Shorthand for the use of multiple parallel DS-1
                                  circuits using load leveling of traffic to provide bandwidths above
                                  1.5 Mbps (typically in the 3 Mbps to 9 Mbps range).
OAM&P                             Operations, Administration, Monitoring, and Provisioning Network.
                                  A network of Frame Relay DS-0 or faster connections parallel to and
                                  separate from the transit network used for management and
                                  operational support of routers and associated devices. The OAM&P
                                  network serves Layer 2 equipment and is separate from the Layer 3
                                  OOB network.
OC-1                              Optical Carrier 1. A 52 Mbps SONET circuit. Used to carry a single
                                  DS-3 circuit.
OC-3                              Optical Carrier 3. A 155 Mbps SONET circuit. Equivalent to 3 DS-3
                                  circuits.
OC-3c                             Optical Carrier 3 Combined. An OC-3 used to carry a single 155
                                  Mbps link rather than a collection of slower-speed circuits.
OC-12                             Optical Carrier 12. A 622 Mbps SONET circuit. Equivalent to 12
                                  DS-3 circuits or four OC-3 circuits.
OC-12c                            Optical Carrier 12 Combined. An OC-12 used to carry a single 622
                                  Mbps link rather than a collection of slower-speed circuits.
OC-48                             Optical Carrier 48. A 2.4 Gbps SONET circuit. Equivalent to 48 DS-
                                  3 circuits or four OC-12 circuits.
OC-48c                            Optical Carrier 48 Combined. An OC-48 used to carry a single 2.4
                                  Gbps link rather than a collection of slower-speed circuits.
OC-192                            Optical Carrier 192. A 10 Gbps SONET circuit. Equivalent to 192
                                  DS-3 circuits or four OC-48 circuits.
OC-192c                           Optical Carrier 192 Combined. An OC-192 used to carry a single 10
                                  Gbps link rather than a collection of slower-speed circuits.
OCN                               Operation Center Networks.
OOB                               Out-of-Band Access System. A network of Frame Relay DS-0 or
                                  faster connections parallel to and separate from the transit network
                                  used for management and operational support of routers and
                                  associated devices. The OOB network serves Layer 3 equipment and
                                  is separate from the Layer 2 OAM&P network.
OPC                               Operations Controller.
OPIE                              One-Time Password In Everything. A method for system security
                                  and user authentication.
OPOP                              A Layer 0 designation for an access facility.




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OSPF                               Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for IP
                                   networks. OSPF is a link state routing protocol, that calls for the
                                   sending of link state advertisements (LSAs) to all other routers
                                   within the same hierarchical area. Information on attached interfaces,
                                   metrics used, and other variables is included in OSPF LSAs. As
                                   OSPF routers accumulate link state information, they use the SPF
                                   algorithm to calculate the shortest path to each node. See RFC 1247.
OSS                                Operation Support Systems.
Packet Jitter.                     See Jitter.
PDN                                Power Distribution Network.
PDU                                Power Distribution Unit.
Peer                               Another Internet Service Provider with whom the GNI exchanges
                                   traffic on a roughly equal basis.
Planet Network                     The existing Internet network operated by GTE Internetworking,
                                   which was originally built by BBN Planet.
PMO                                GNI Project management Organization.
POET                               Packet Over E3/DS-3. Cisco technology for integrating DSU
                                   functionality onto a router IP card for 7500 series routers. Uses
                                   coaxial circuit connection.
POP                                Point of Presence. A facility where equipment that provides network
                                   services is located. Typically a facility where customer connections
                                   can be sold, but sometimes used in a more general sense. Can also be
                                   used to mean a pricing point where no equipment is located, such as
                                   a point on another company's Frame Relay network.
POS                                Packet Over SONET. A Cisco Marketing term for a clear-channel
                                   SONET circuit used for Layer 3 WAN connections (that is, a circuit
                                   without ATM or other Layer 2 protocols).
POTS                               Plain Old Telephone Service. An ordinary analog voice telephone
                                   line, suitable for a modem or telephone set.
Pre-wire                           The act of connecting all planned interfaces on a patch panel within a
                                   functional unit cabinet to some external device or patch panel at the
                                   time the functional unit is installed in order to simplify later
                                   activation of services to equipment within that cabinet.
PSTN                               Public Switched Telephone Network. The network that provides
                                   traditional voice-switched telephone services.
PTRS                               Property Tax Reporting System.
PVC                                Permanent Virtual Circuit. A virtual circuit that is statically
                                   configured rather than dynamically created and destroyed. See VC.
RBOC                               Regional Bell Operating Company. Companies formerly part of
                                   AT&T prior to its breakup by the U.S. Government in the 1980's.
                                   See LEC.
RDBMS                              Relational Database Management System.
RPC                                Remote Power Cycling.
RPCG                               Remote Power Cycling Gear.
RPOP                               A Layer 0 facility on GNI fiber serving a region. An RPOP may be
                                   used to build a Layer 3 Backbone or Metro POP.
RR                                 Route Reflector. A router that reduces internal BGP complexity by
                                   providing BGP routing information to downstream clients.
SA                                 Service Assurance.




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SDF                               Service Delivery Facility. A location where equipment exists to
                                  provide services to customers (a Backbone or Metro POP for Layer 3
                                  services).
SDP                               Service Delivery Point. A location from which service is delivered to
                                  a customer (a Backbone, Metro, or Virtual POP for Layer 3
                                  services).
SIGS                              Secure Information Gateway System.
SIL                               GTE System Interface Library.
SONET                             Synchronous Optical Network. A Layer 1 (physical) set of standards
                                  for telecommunications over optical fiber using lasers. SONET
                                  systems are identified by the number of DS-3 equivalent circuits they
                                  can carry. An OC-3 (optical carrier 3) circuit can contain three DS-3
                                  circuits or can provide a raw data rate of 155 Mbps. Other common
                                  sizes are OC-12 (622 Mbps), OC-48 (2.4 Gbps), and OC-192 (10
                                  Gbps).
Spectrum                          Cabletron System's Network Management System software.
SPT                               Cylink Secure Pocket Traveler. An encryption device for connecting
                                  modems by secure means.
SRA                               GNI Site Risk Analysis.
SRP                               Spatial Reuse Protocol. A Cisco protocol for using SONET point-to-
                                  point connections as a multi-access LAN.
SSK3                              Secure Socket Layer.
SSL                               Software Systems Laboratory.
TACACS                            Terminal Access Controller Access Control System.
TBS                               Telecom Business Solution, A COTS product from MetaSolv
                                  Software.
TCP                               Transmission Control Protocol. The protocol used over IP to provide
                                  for reliable delivery of data. Also adds characteristics for identifying
                                  type-of-service handling required and specific applications on an
                                  end-station.
TDBA                              TONICS Database Administrator.
TDM                               Time Division Multiplexing. The technique of combining several
                                  circuits onto one larger one by reserving fixed bandwidth allocations
                                  for each smaller circuit. No re-use of unused bandwidth occurs with
                                  TDM.
Tivoli                            Server Management System.
TMN                               Telecommunications Management Network.
TONICS                            Telephone Operations Network Integrated Control System. A
                                  network management system that has the ability to monitor events in
                                  the network, including alarms and news.
TOM                               TONICS Mediation Device.
TS                                Terminal Server. A router that provides low-speed asynchronous
                                  connections (56 Kbps and below) to management and console ports.
                                  A TS is part of the OOB network.
TSA                               TONICS System Administration tools.
UDP                               User Datagram Protocol. The protocol used over IP to provide for
                                  non-reliable delivery of data. Also adds characteristics for
                                  identifying type-of-service handling required and specific
                                  applications on an end-station.




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UPS                                       Uninterruptible Power Supply.
Usenet News                               A network protocol and mesh of servers supporting that protocol that
                                          provides for the efficient distribution of messages to multiple
                                          recipients using a store-and-forward mechanism. Also used to refer
                                          to the news groups that are based on this protocol and used for
                                          discussions on the Internet.
Vantive                                   Trouble Ticket system.
VC                                        Virtual Circuit. A circuit on a Frame Relay or ATM network that
                                          exists within the FR or ATM network.
VoIP                                      Voice Over IP. The Analog/Digital converter and IP encapsulation
                                          equipment used to provide “Internet Dialtone” (access to the Public
                                          Switched Telephone Network from the Internet, or vice versa).
VPN                                       Virtual Private Network.
WAN/IP                                    Another term for the Layer 3 aspect of the GNI network.
WDM                                       Wavelength Division Multiplexing. A technique by which several
                                          optical signals of different wavelengths share a single optical fiber.
                                          All SONET equipment in the GNI uses Dense WDM supporting
                                          (presently) up to eight separate signals on a single fiber.
WHOC                                      Web Hosting Operations Center.
Web Hosting                               The business of providing a server at a NASC (or other hosting
                                          center) that serves World Wide Web documents on behalf of a
                                          customer. Web Hosting as a business depends on, but is separate
                                          from, GTE Internetworking's Internet Managed Connectivity
                                          business.


Note:     The definitions in this glossary are derived from the following sources:
         GTE Internetworking Global Network Infrastructure Layer 3 Architecture documents (by Jack Nowicki)
         Global Network Infrastructure Operations Support Systems Infrastructure Technical Feasibility Assessment and An
          Outline of a Solution report (by the GTE - Business Development and Integration Information Technology group)
         RFC1983: Internet Users' Glossary (by Gary Malkin)
         GRID Software Requirements Document (NCS) v 2.2 (Walter Oneschuk)




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