workshop urban mobility Vie

Document Sample
workshop urban mobility Vie Powered By Docstoc
					                        Policy Integration
               as a condition for Sustainable Cities




                                                                                               as a condition for Sustainable Cities
                                  José Manuel Viegas




                                                                                                        Policy Integration
          Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisboa, Portugal
                                   viegas@ist.utl.pt



                  Contribution to CiSTUP Workshop on Urban Mobility
                          Bangalore, India , 10th January 2011




José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011   1
            Cities as Complex and Innovative Systems

    Large cities are very complex systems, arguably among the most
       complex man-made systems ever produced
    Density of opportunities for contact and exchange provide




                                                                                               as a condition for Sustainable Cities
       marketability for a very diverse spectrum of talents and fertility for
       innovation




                                                                                                        Policy Integration
    A multitude of agents pursuing their own goals
         each agent and group of agents counting not only on the availability of
          particular types of resources, but on that availability at specific times in
          specific places
         A large part of the rules and of exchange of information are informal,
          and not even uniform across society


José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011   2
                   Poor sustainability leads to unfairness

      Sustainability problems arise because significant parts of those
         resources are common goods
           without strict access and fruition rules




                                                                                               as a condition for Sustainable Cities
      Many of the activities of the agents produce significant




                                                                                                        Policy Integration
         externalities, across space and time
           affecting the availability of some resources and the wellbeing of other
             agents

      Besides unfairness to future generations (i.e. poor sustainability),
         there also issues of unfairness within contemporary society



José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011   3
                                          The Road Safety challenge
   High levels of road crashes and fatalities represent a very strong
      blow to (social and economic) sustainability
   Indian roads with especially high levels of indiscipline, aggravated by
      the great dispersion of masses and speeds of the “objects” present




                                                                                               as a condition for Sustainable Cities
      on the road
         Even in two-way urban streets, frequent occurrence of vehicles on the




                                                                                                        Policy Integration
           wrong lane
   Very complex problem, requiring changes of behaviour

   Multiple fronts in a coordinated approach
         Education & Information about individual cases
         Driving training
         Strict Enforcement of traffic rules, even if only on a few areas each month


José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011   4
           The Congestion challenge: Basic balances
                                            required

   Two essential balances are crucial for quality in Urban
      Mobility
         Internal Balance: Capacity for Flow (Circulation) and




                                                                                               as a condition for Sustainable Cities
           for Stock (Parking) must be balanced
              Metaphor: the Oesophagus and the Stomach




                                                                                                        Policy Integration
         External Balance: Pressure for Mobility from Land Use
           must be balanced with the ability to serve it (both on
           flow and stock)
              Metaphor: The Appetite and the two former




José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011   5
           The Congestion challenge: Car ownership,
            Parking Supply, Public Transport Quality
    Several factors increase pressure on system
       Car ownership increases with economic development
          But owning a car should not mean driving it to work




                                                                                                 as a condition for Sustainable Cities
       Increasing parking supply (or making it more accessible) induces more
         traffic
          Be especially aware of employer-supplied parking (felt as free by workers), but




                                                                                                          Policy Integration
           a bigger stomach always increases the pressure on the oesophagus
    Relieving pressure is more difficult
       Good public transport may lead to favourable modal shift, but this is far
         from certain (often, more trips by previous users and pedestrians, but not
         from car drivers)
    Suggestion: Make price of parking higher in areas with good public
       transport service

José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011     6
  The Congestion Challenge: 2-wheelers vs. Cars

      In India, private vehicle ownership is already similar to that of
         many developed countries
           A large parte of those vehicles being two-wheelers




                                                                                               as a condition for Sustainable Cities
                High emissions (but can easily be electrified)
                High indiscipline in traffic, high vulnerability




                                                                                                        Policy Integration
                Much higher level of space efficiency than cars
      Economic growth naturally leads to replacement of 2-wheelers by
         cars  much tougher congestion for same number of vehicles
           This can be resisted / delayed by policy measures
                Taxation of clean 2-wheelers much lower than for cars
                Traffic management with priority measures for 2-wheelers
                Parking supply oriented for 2-wheelers in design and in price


José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011   7
    The congestion challenge: Manage space.time

   No moral superiority of any transport mode over the others
   Allocation of road space by modes based on higher performance and
      on safety




                                                                                               as a condition for Sustainable Cities
         Ex:Bus lanes or 2-wheel lanes
         ICT makes timeshare allocation relatively easy (intermittent status




                                                                                                        Policy Integration
          lanes)
         Great efficiency (and also safety) gains
   More sophisticated space allocation systems require not only
      technology but also discipline (respect for rules)
         Evolution is possible, but takes time and requires multi-pronged
           approach
              Clear strategy, persistent (and adaptive) implementation


José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011   8
         The “right to mobility” challenge: Access to
                                     Public Transport
   In spite of high vehicle ownership, Urban Public Transport has strong
      patronage, largely due to rural migration / urban population growth
        Client “refresh” from the (economic) bottom




                                                                                               as a condition for Sustainable Cities
   Attracting (and maintaining) clients with an option (who own and could
      use their private vehicle) requires a market segmentation approach




                                                                                                        Policy Integration
        Higher quality segment with higher prices
        Basic quality segment must be the backbone of the system, providing good
         accessibility overall (“right to mobility”)
        Spot migration between two segments made easy (urgency, experimentation),
         pay only the “upgrade”
   Prices of higher segment Public Transport defined in conjunction with
      parking prices
        Cross-subsidization from parking to PT possible


José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011   9
     The Integration challenge: Key components of
                           any successful approach

      Two recommendations towards any effective solution of this very
         severe problem can be made:




                                                                                                as a condition for Sustainable Cities
           Sustainability has to be pursued in all its three dimensions:
             economic, environmental and social




                                                                                                         Policy Integration
                None dominates the other two

           Policies arising in any Department, Ministry or agency should
             always (hopefully) be designed but at least be checked for
             integration with other policies
                So as to obtain the maximum benefit without endangering any of the
                  dimensions of sustainability.


José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011   10
                                           The Integration challenge: The need for a
                                                                      holistic vision
   Not only there are three dimensions of sustainability to consider,
    there as also four different levels of possible policy intervention
   The main challenge is to be consistent across the board
         Multi-instrumentality is not only a condition for effectiveness, but also for




                                                                                                                                                     as a condition for Sustainable Cities
           acceptance
                                                                                           Policy Intervention Levels




                                                                                                                                                              Policy Integration
                                                                                    Hard interventions                   Soft interventions



                                                                 Technology (inc.                                       Education / Example /
                                                                  infrastructure)      Regulation              Prices      Moral Suasion
            Dimensions of Sustainability




                                                    Economic



                                                        Social



                                                Environmental


José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011                                                        11
                   The integration challenge: Appropriate
                                      Institutional Design
   An unsolved question: What is the most adequate institutional
    design to tackle this challenge?
   Two different solutions have been adopted in other areas needing
    the global picture




                                                                                                as a condition for Sustainable Cities
         In monetary issues: previous approval of a Budget (and respect for it) ensures
          that all departments play in a consistent game




                                                                                                         Policy Integration
         In (purely) environmental issues: all significant projects submitted to
          Environmental Assessment Study ensures that no serious aggression is
          possible
   First example is uni-dimensional, second is too defensive
   Besides complexity of the problem, a bi-dimensional institutional
      split: by administration level (national / state / local) and by sector
         How to promote effective integration?

   Innovative solutions needed !
José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011   12
  Thank You for your attention!




                                                                                                as a condition for Sustainable Cities
                                                                                                         Policy Integration
José M Viegas - Contribution to Workshop on Urban Mobility, CiSTUP, Bangalore – Jan 2011   13

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:9/10/2011
language:English
pages:13