VIEWS: 13 PAGES: 28 CATEGORY: Engineering POSTED ON: 9/10/2011
A very special (often tailor made) computer system put inside any Engineering product to make the final product more: Reliable Accurate/Precise Feature reach
Microprocessor Systems: – A Brief Run Down At the high end of the scale Processor: Intel Pentium 4 Frequency: 3.2GHz Power consumption: 103 W max.* Process: 90nm *Intel document no. 300561-002 At the low end of the scale Processor can consume no more than 250-300mW Embedded Devices Where are the embedded devices? Computer Technology Dramatic Change ° Processor • 2X in speed every 1.5 years; 100X performance in last decade ° Memory • DRAM capacity: 2X / 2 years; 64X size in last decade • Cost per bit: improves about 25% per year ° Disk • capacity: > 2X in size every 1.0 years • Cost per bit: improves about 100% per year • 250X size in last decade Computer Technology Dramatic Change! ° State-of-the-art PC when you graduate: (at least…) • Processor clock speed: 5000 MegaHertz (5.0 GigaHertz) • Memory capacity: 4000 MegaBytes (4.0 GigaBytes) • Disk capacity: 2000 GigaBytes (2.0 TeraBytes) • New units! Mega => Giga, Giga => Tera (Kilo, Mega, Giga, Tera, Peta, Exa, Zetta, Yotta = 1024) Kilo, Mega, etc. are incorrect Terminologies! Challenges ° Post PC Era will be driven by 2 technologies: 1) Mobile Consumer Devices • e.g., successor to cell phone, PDA, wearable computers 2) Massive I/O interfacing v/s RAW computational power Programming Levels of Representation temp = v[k]; High Level Language v[k] = v[k+1]; Program (e.g., C) v[k+1] = temp; Compiler ldr r0 , [r2, #0] Assembly Language ldr r1 , [r2, #4] Program (e.g. ARM) str r1 , [r2, #0] Assembler str r0 , [r2, #4] 1110 0101 1001 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 Machine Language 1110 0101 1001 0010 0000 0000 0000 0100 Program (ARM) 1110 0101 1000 0010 0001 0000 0000 0000 1110 0101 1000 0010 0001 0000 0000 0100 Machine Interpretation Control Signal ALUOP[0:3] <= InstReg[9:11] & MASK Specification ° ° SOC (System on a Chip) Example ° Hand Held PC 5 Classic Components of a Computer Network/Bus Processor Processor Input Input Control Control Memory Memory Datapath Output Output Datapath An Expanded View of the Memory Systems Processor Control Hard disk (Virtual Main Memory) Register Cache 2nd Cache Memory Datapath Speed: Fastest Slowest Size: Smallest Biggest Cost: Highest Lowest •Cache is handled by hardware •Virtual memory is handled by and Operating System •Programmer sees only one memory and the registers Fetch Decode Execute Cycle Instruction Obtain instruction from program storage Fetch Processor Instruction Determine required actions Input Control Decode Memory Operand Locate and obtain operand data Datapath Output Fetch Execute Compute result value or status ALU Registers Result Deposit results in storage for later use Store Next Determine successor instruction Instruction A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEM EELC2041 lec01-Intro.13 Saeid Nooshabadi TOPICS TO COVER ° DEFINITION ° KEY FEATURES ° DESIGN ISSUES/CHALLENGES ° TOOLS OF THE TRADE ° FUTURE DIRECTION EELC2041 lec01-Intro.14 Saeid Nooshabadi WHAT IS AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM ° An embedded system is an applied computer system, as distinguished from other types of computer systems ° Embedded systems are embedded within another sophisticated (electronic) system, which could be any system for any kind of application. The ES do not directly interact with the environment/users. ° An embedded system is a very special computer system designed to perform a dedicated function. ° An embedded system is a computer system with higher quality and reliability requirements than general- purpose computer systems. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.15 Saeid Nooshabadi DEFINITION (Continued) ° A very special (often tailor made) computer system put inside any Engineering product to make the final product more: • Reliable • Accurate/Precise • Feature reach EELC2041 lec01-Intro.16 Saeid Nooshabadi KEY FEATURES OF AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM ° Real Time in nature (RTOS) ° Employs very specific types of components. Specific in terms of • Quantity (Memory) • Available Feature (DVS, Watch Dog Timer) • Operating System (Application commands the OS) ° Developed in an environment which is totally different from the actual. ° Power Requirement, Size & Cost are considered with great detail along with the application. ° Highly focused on Application, Business Plan and Cost. Selects Hardware, Software components and Design Process based on A,B & C. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.17 Saeid Nooshabadi Embedded Systems and their Markets Market Embedded Device Automotive Ignition System, Engine Control, Brake System Consumer Electronics Digital Televisions, Set-Top Boxes, Kitchen Appliances, Toys/Games, Telephones/Cell Phones/Pagers, Cameras Industrial Control Robotics, Process and Manufacturing Controls Medical Equipment ECG Machine, Dialysis Machines, Cardiac Monitors Office Automation Fax Machine, Photocopier, Printers, Scanners, UPS Networking ( Spl. Application) Routers, Hubs EELC2041 lec01-Intro.18 Saeid Nooshabadi A Very Special Application A FOOTBALL EELC2041 lec01-Intro.19 Saeid Nooshabadi DESIGN ISSUES/CHALLENGES ° CRYSTAL CLEAR PRODUCT SPECIFICATION TO BE DECIDED/GIVEN AND BE ADHERED TO. THIS INCLUDES H/W AS WELL AS S/W COMPONENTS (PROCESS TIME). ° SELECTION OF THE PROCESSOR: • GENERAL PURPOSE ; MICRO PROCESSORS • APP. SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION SET (ASIP); DSP,N/W PROCESSORS, MICRO CONTROLLER • APP. SPECIFIC INTERATED CIRCUIT (ASIC) ° CODE SIZE (COMPACT CODE) – IN RELATION WITH THE PROCESSOR USED. ° LANGUAGE USED: • ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE ( USEFUL BUT TIME CONSUMING & ERROR PRONE) • HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE (REQUIRES COMPLICATED AND COSTLY TOOLS AND COMPILER) • BALANCED DECISSION TO BE TAKEN LOOKING INTO DEVELOPMENT COST, AVAILABLE DEVELOPMENT TEAM AND TIME TO MARKET ° DIVISION BETWEEN HARDWARE & SOFTWARE COMPONENTS EELC2041 lec01-Intro.20 Saeid Nooshabadi DESIGN ISSUES/CHALLENGES (CONT..) ° POWER REQUIREMENT – ONE MAJOR ISSUE IN THIS WORLD OF MOBILE DEVICES. ° SIZE SPECIFICATION – THIS MAY BE VERY IMPORTANT IN SOME CRITICAL APPLICATION. ° RELIABILITY – AND COST TO BE INCURRED FOR THAT (REDUNDANT SYSTEM). VERY APPLICATION SPECIFIC ISSUE. ° BUSINESS PLAN ° DESIGN ENVIRONMENT • (HOST PROCESSOR / TARGET PROCESSOR) EELC2041 lec01-Intro.21 Saeid Nooshabadi TOOLS OF THE TRADE Embedded System Life Cycle Requirement Analysis Specification S/W Architecture Architectural Design H/W Architecture Component Design Integration Top Down Model Testing Saeid Nooshabadi EELC2041 lec01-Intro.22 TOOLS OF THE TRADE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TOOL CHAIN FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEM PRE PROCESSOR SOURCE DEVELOPER EDITOR OR PROG. MACRO PROCESSOR CODE TARGET EXPANDED FOR PROGRAMMER OUTPUT SOURCE CODE TARGET OBJECT COMPILER LOADER EXE FILE LINKER FILE OR ASSEMBLER ALL THE COMPONENTS MENTIONED IN RECTANGULAR BOXES – ARE SYSTEM SOFTWARE Saeid Nooshabadi EELC2041 lec01-Intro.23 TOOLS OF THE TRADE DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT ; HOST & TARGET C /C++ ASSEMBLY LANG CROSS COMPILER CROSS ASSEMBLER OBJ 1 OBJ n LOCATOR THE ENLARGED CODE COMPONENTS ARE PARTS OF THE HOST TARGET PROGRAMMER OUT PUT SYSTEM EELC2041 lec01-Intro.24 Saeid Nooshabadi FUTURE DIRECTIONS ° More and more embedded systems will be full systems on a single chip (SoC). This implies that the software and hardware designs will merge. ° As systems on chip become more complex, software distributed over multiple processors and running over different memory spaces will become common EELC2041 lec01-Intro.25 Saeid Nooshabadi FUTURE DIRECTIONS…. ° Embedded systems will be developed in unusual applications. Products will be powered and accessed by RF beams. This will lead to convergence in our real life.. ° Existing applications will become far more sophisticated with standardized user interfaces – such as web interfaces with XML. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.26 Saeid Nooshabadi FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR DEVELOPERS ° More and more multi-disciplinary expertise will be required. For example – biology-chemistry-electronics and VLSI for bio-sensors. ° Fields of micro-processors, VLSI, communications etc. would merge for developing embedded systems. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.27 Saeid Nooshabadi °GOOD LUCK WITH THIS COURSE EELC2041 lec01-Intro.28 Saeid Nooshabadi
"Intro To Embedded Systems"