Intro To Embedded Systems by akii06

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A very special (often tailor made) computer system put inside any Engineering product to make the final product more:
Reliable
Accurate/Precise
Feature reach

More Info
									Microprocessor Systems: –
     A Brief Run Down
           At the high end of the scale


Processor: Intel Pentium 4
   Frequency: 3.2GHz
Power consumption: 103 W
         max.*
     Process: 90nm
      *Intel document no. 300561-002
At the low end of the scale


      Processor can consume no more
             than 250-300mW

          Embedded Devices
Where are the embedded devices?
Computer Technology  Dramatic Change
° Processor
   • 2X in speed every 1.5 years;
     100X performance in last decade
° Memory
   • DRAM capacity: 2X / 2 years; 64X size in last
     decade
   • Cost per bit: improves about 25% per year
° Disk
   • capacity: > 2X in size every 1.0 years
   • Cost per bit: improves about 100% per year
   • 250X size in last decade
 Computer Technology  Dramatic Change!

 ° State-of-the-art PC when you graduate:
   (at least…)
    • Processor clock speed:               5000 MegaHertz
                                           (5.0 GigaHertz)
    • Memory capacity:                     4000 MegaBytes
                                           (4.0 GigaBytes)
    • Disk capacity:                 2000 GigaBytes
                                     (2.0 TeraBytes)
    • New units! Mega => Giga, Giga => Tera



(Kilo, Mega, Giga, Tera, Peta, Exa, Zetta, Yotta = 1024)
          Kilo, Mega, etc. are incorrect Terminologies!
                 Challenges

° Post PC Era will be driven
  by 2 technologies:
1) Mobile Consumer Devices
   • e.g., successor to
     cell phone, PDA,
     wearable computers

2) Massive I/O interfacing v/s RAW
 computational power
Programming Levels of Representation
                                              temp = v[k];
High Level Language                           v[k] = v[k+1];
   Program (e.g., C)
                                              v[k+1] = temp;
              Compiler                    ldr        r0 , [r2, #0]
 Assembly Language                        ldr        r1 , [r2, #4]
   Program (e.g. ARM)
                                          str        r1 , [r2, #0]
              Assembler                   str        r0 , [r2, #4]
                               1110    0101   1001   0010   0000   0000   0000   0000
Machine Language               1110    0101   1001   0010   0000   0000   0000   0100
  Program (ARM)                1110    0101   1000   0010   0001   0000   0000   0000
                               1110    0101   1000   0010   0001   0000   0000   0100
              Machine Interpretation

Control Signal                         ALUOP[0:3] <= InstReg[9:11] & MASK
  Specification
          °
          °
   SOC (System on a Chip) Example




° Hand Held PC
5 Classic Components of a Computer
                              Network/Bus


Processor                                            Processor
                     Input         Input
Control                                               Control
            Memory                          Memory


Datapath             Output       Output             Datapath
An Expanded View of the Memory Systems

            Processor


           Control
                                                      Hard disk
                                                      (Virtual
                                              Main
                                                      Memory)
              Register


                         Cache
                                 2nd Cache   Memory
   Datapath




   Speed: Fastest                                     Slowest
    Size: Smallest                                    Biggest
   Cost:    Highest                                   Lowest


     •Cache is handled by hardware
     •Virtual memory is handled by and Operating System
     •Programmer sees only one memory and the registers
           Fetch Decode Execute Cycle

Instruction   Obtain instruction from program storage
  Fetch
                                                  Processor
Instruction   Determine required actions                                Input
                                                 Control
 Decode                                                        Memory

 Operand      Locate and obtain operand data
                                                 Datapath               Output
  Fetch

 Execute      Compute result value or status
                                                 ALU        Registers
  Result      Deposit results in storage for later use
  Store

   Next
              Determine successor instruction
Instruction
       A BRIEF INTRODUCTION          TO
             EMBEDDED SYSTEM




EELC2041 lec01-Intro.13        Saeid Nooshabadi
                          TOPICS TO COVER

     ° DEFINITION


     ° KEY FEATURES


     ° DESIGN ISSUES/CHALLENGES


     ° TOOLS OF THE TRADE


     ° FUTURE DIRECTION

EELC2041 lec01-Intro.14                     Saeid Nooshabadi
                              WHAT IS AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM

°         An embedded system is an applied computer system,
          as distinguished from other types of computer
          systems
°         Embedded systems are embedded within another
          sophisticated (electronic) system, which could be
          any system for any kind of application. The ES do not
          directly interact with the environment/users.
°         An embedded system is a very special computer
          system designed to perform a dedicated function.
°         An embedded system is a computer system with
          higher quality and reliability requirements than
          general- purpose computer systems.




    EELC2041 lec01-Intro.15                                Saeid Nooshabadi
                          DEFINITION (Continued)



     ° A very special (often tailor made) computer
       system put inside any Engineering product
       to make the final product more:
             • Reliable
             • Accurate/Precise
             • Feature reach




EELC2041 lec01-Intro.16                            Saeid Nooshabadi
                               KEY FEATURES
                          OF AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM


  ° Real Time in nature (RTOS)
  ° Employs very specific types of components. Specific in terms of
         • Quantity (Memory)
         • Available Feature (DVS, Watch Dog Timer)
         • Operating System (Application commands the OS)

  ° Developed in an environment which is totally different from the
    actual.
  ° Power Requirement, Size & Cost are considered with great detail
    along with the application.
  ° Highly focused on Application, Business Plan and Cost. Selects
    Hardware, Software components and Design Process based on
    A,B & C.

EELC2041 lec01-Intro.17                                     Saeid Nooshabadi
                             Embedded Systems and their Markets
                          Market                           Embedded Device

 Automotive                                    Ignition System, Engine Control, Brake
                                               System


 Consumer Electronics                          Digital Televisions, Set-Top Boxes, Kitchen
                                               Appliances, Toys/Games, Telephones/Cell
                                               Phones/Pagers, Cameras



 Industrial Control                            Robotics, Process and Manufacturing
                                               Controls

 Medical Equipment                             ECG Machine, Dialysis Machines, Cardiac
                                               Monitors


 Office Automation                             Fax Machine, Photocopier, Printers,
                                               Scanners, UPS


 Networking ( Spl. Application)                Routers, Hubs



EELC2041 lec01-Intro.18                                                    Saeid Nooshabadi
                          A Very Special Application




                              A FOOTBALL

EELC2041 lec01-Intro.19                                Saeid Nooshabadi
                          DESIGN ISSUES/CHALLENGES
  ° CRYSTAL CLEAR PRODUCT SPECIFICATION TO BE DECIDED/GIVEN AND BE
    ADHERED TO. THIS INCLUDES H/W AS WELL AS S/W COMPONENTS (PROCESS
    TIME).


  ° SELECTION OF THE PROCESSOR:
      • GENERAL PURPOSE ; MICRO PROCESSORS
      • APP. SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION SET (ASIP); DSP,N/W PROCESSORS, MICRO
        CONTROLLER
      • APP. SPECIFIC INTERATED CIRCUIT (ASIC)


  ° CODE SIZE (COMPACT CODE) – IN RELATION WITH THE PROCESSOR USED.


  ° LANGUAGE USED:
      • ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE ( USEFUL BUT TIME CONSUMING & ERROR
        PRONE)
      • HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE (REQUIRES COMPLICATED AND COSTLY TOOLS
        AND COMPILER)
      • BALANCED DECISSION TO BE TAKEN LOOKING INTO DEVELOPMENT
        COST, AVAILABLE DEVELOPMENT TEAM AND TIME TO MARKET


  ° DIVISION BETWEEN HARDWARE & SOFTWARE COMPONENTS
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.20                                    Saeid Nooshabadi
                            DESIGN ISSUES/CHALLENGES (CONT..)

  ° POWER REQUIREMENT – ONE MAJOR ISSUE IN THIS WORLD
    OF MOBILE DEVICES.


  ° SIZE SPECIFICATION – THIS MAY BE VERY IMPORTANT IN
    SOME CRITICAL APPLICATION.


  ° RELIABILITY – AND COST TO BE INCURRED FOR THAT
    (REDUNDANT SYSTEM). VERY APPLICATION SPECIFIC ISSUE.


  ° BUSINESS PLAN


  ° DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
         • (HOST PROCESSOR / TARGET PROCESSOR)



EELC2041 lec01-Intro.21                            Saeid Nooshabadi
                           TOOLS OF THE TRADE
                          Embedded System Life Cycle

                                Requirement
                                  Analysis



                                 Specification

                                                  S/W Architecture
                                 Architectural
                                    Design
                                                  H/W Architecture

                               Component Design



                                  Integration

                                                  Top Down Model
                                    Testing                 Saeid Nooshabadi
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.22
                               TOOLS OF THE TRADE
              SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TOOL CHAIN FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEM




                                                             PRE PROCESSOR
                                              SOURCE
     DEVELOPER                 EDITOR                              OR
                                               PROG.
                                                            MACRO PROCESSOR



     CODE                    TARGET                           EXPANDED
      FOR                  PROGRAMMER         OUTPUT         SOURCE CODE
    TARGET



                                                OBJECT         COMPILER
   LOADER                 EXE FILE   LINKER      FILE        OR ASSEMBLER

                          ALL THE COMPONENTS MENTIONED IN
                          RECTANGULAR BOXES – ARE SYSTEM
                                     SOFTWARE                    Saeid Nooshabadi
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.23
                              TOOLS OF THE TRADE
                          DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT ; HOST & TARGET




                     C /C++                            ASSEMBLY
                                                         LANG


            CROSS COMPILER                          CROSS ASSEMBLER


                     OBJ 1                               OBJ n

                                       LOCATOR
THE
ENLARGED
                                        CODE
COMPONENTS
ARE PARTS OF
THE HOST                        TARGET PROGRAMMER            OUT PUT
SYSTEM
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.24                                             Saeid Nooshabadi
                          FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    °       More and more embedded systems will be full systems
            on a single chip (SoC). This implies that the software
            and hardware designs will merge.

    °       As systems on chip become more complex, software
            distributed over multiple processors and running over
            different memory spaces will become common




EELC2041 lec01-Intro.25                                 Saeid Nooshabadi
                          FUTURE DIRECTIONS….
    °       Embedded systems will be developed in unusual
            applications. Products will be powered and accessed by
            RF beams. This will lead to convergence in our real
            life..

    °       Existing applications will become far more sophisticated
            with standardized user interfaces – such as web
            interfaces with XML.




EELC2041 lec01-Intro.26                                 Saeid Nooshabadi
                 FUTURE DIRECTIONS                       FOR
                              DEVELOPERS


    °       More and more multi-disciplinary expertise will be
            required. For example – biology-chemistry-electronics
            and VLSI for bio-sensors.

    °       Fields of micro-processors, VLSI, communications etc.
            would merge for developing embedded systems.




EELC2041 lec01-Intro.27                                 Saeid Nooshabadi
            °GOOD LUCK
              WITH THIS
              COURSE

EELC2041 lec01-Intro.28   Saeid Nooshabadi

								
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