Didaktik Prinzipien englisch

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					Didactic Principles
Fundamental understandings of didactics and its
implications for the work of InWEnt
Didactics Work Group:

Marion Edel
Anja Frings
Ulrich Inden
Ingrid Jung
Hinrich Mercker
Peter Nagel
Luiz Ramalho


Introduction                                                     3

Fundamental understanding of didactics                           4

Didactic principles                                              4

        The application of the didactic principles in the
        four InWEnt tools                                        6

                 The didactic principles in “Advanced
                 Professional Training”                          6

                 The didactic principles in “Dialogue”           7

                 The didactic principles in “Network Building”   8

                 The didactic principles in “Personnel
                 Development Advice”                             9

Bibliography                                                     11

The remit of InWEnt is defined by the man-        tinuous development process. The didactic
date granted by the Federal Government for        model defines quality standards which permit
Capacity Building in the form of advanced         more effective planning, monitoring and
training, personnel and organisational devel-     evaluation of our own work.
opment. InWEnt is thereby guided by the
model of a global future-compatible develop-
ment. At the core lies the reinforcement of
the competence of (trainee) managers from
developing, transformation and industrial
countries to resolve problems, act and ini-
tiate change in order to achieve social ef-
fects. In terms of the issue of didactics, In-
WEnt has almost 60 years of experience.

The didactic principles outline the route to
reinforcing competence as an active and tar-
geted design of learning processes which
enable the participants individually and
through exchanges with a learning group to
acquire orientation knowledge on the basis of
their own previous experience. Learning in
InWEnt programmes takes place in an inter-
national context. The international nature of
the learning environment draws attention to
the cultural definition of being different. The
strong practical orientation of the pro-
grammes puts action into the forefront of the
learning processes. The Capacity Building
concept of InWEnt refers to methodic-didactic
competence as a quality feature of its work.
The inseparable nature of the content and
methods is thereby a core element of one’s
own understanding of learning.

The InWEnt-specific understanding of didac-
tics has important implications for our work
and is reflected in the seven didactic princi-
ples, which apply to the four tools of InWEnt
– advanced training, dialogue, network build-
ing as well as personnel development advice
– in the context of increasing the effective-
ness of our work. Thereby the didactic princi-
ples provide orientation assistance for the
InWEnt employees as well as for external
freelance staff in the preparation, implemen-
tation and evaluation of the programmes.
The discursive and reflective consideration
of our own work is for us, as a learning or-
ganisation, an integral part of our own con-

Fundamental                                           Didactic principles
understanding of
                                                      The continuous acquisition of professional,
                                                      methodical and social qualifications of people
InWEnt didactics is based on the knowledge            to increase their comprehensive competen-
and experience gained through individual and          cies of problem resolution, change and
also inter-subjective learning processes.             implementation is the main issue of the work
Learning is a process of becoming aware of            of InWEnt. It leads to the aptitude and readi-
oneself. Learning processes are built upon a          ness of people to act properly and humanly,
knowledge structure, upon cognitive sche-             reflectively and with social responsibility, i.e.
mata and emotional experience structures of           to resolve independently current problems in
the student and change and differentiate              a targeted way and on the basis of reflective
them.                                                 action schemata, to assess the solutions
                                                      found and to expand the repertoire of one’s
Every person perceives their own reality and          own action schemata. This includes the ability
constructs it on the basis of their experiences       to recognise future problems early as well as
and through growing into their culture.               offer adapted solutions, thereby emphasising
Knowledge and know-how are therefore not              the importance of the development of a self-
simply assumed through teaching, but must             learning competence as well as anticipa-
be generated in each case individually and in         tion skills. Accordingly, the aims of the pro-
interaction with others. This understanding of        grammes in international cooperation are the
learning as a pre-requisite for the initiation        sector-specific acquisition of knowledge as
and structuring of change processes leads to          well as the acquisition of so-called “soft
the focus of the InWEnt remit on the profes-          skills”, which in times of accelerated global-
sional design of learning processes and               isation reinforce one’s own competency to act
learning situations. Knowledge and compe-             and make changes:
tency to act can be better acquired by the
creation of learning situations and processes             •   joined-up or systemic thinking
adapted accordingly to the underlying condi-              •   conceptional thinking
tions. Integrating and addressing “head, heart            •   inter-disciplinary action
and hand” in a balanced proportion in struc-              •   inter-cultural competency
turing the learning processes necessitates a              •   anticipatory thinking
targeted choice of methods. This creates trust            •   acting responsibly and ethically
and emotional security.
                                                      From the fundamental understanding shown
In accordance with this fundamental under-            of didactics and the aims of learning with an
standing of didactics, learning is an inte-           international orientation seven didactic prin-
grated process combining situational, active          ciples are derived which are indispensable
and social elements, which is different for           for sustained learning success in the interna-
each person.                                          tional context. They are based on the inter-
                                                      cultural competence of the tutors and stu-
This fundamental understanding of learning            dents and take into account the inter-
processes forms the basis for the effective           subjective and thus the social components of
use of the InWEnt tools: advanced training,           all learning. These principles, which are not
dialogue, network building and personnel de-          distinct from each other, but rather should be
velopment advice.                                     considered as complementary, represent the
                                                      normative framework for the overall work of
                                                      InWEnt. They are the principles for the plan-

4                             Copyright by InWEnt - Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung gGmbH
ning, implementation and evaluation of the                    5.       Tolerance
programmes of InWEnt.
                                                       A climate of openness and partnership moti-
                                                       vates students and tutors and promotes mu-
        1.      Participation                          tual understanding and willingness to partici-
                                                       pate. InWEnt and the external specialist staff
Students and tutors are equal partners who             employed by it are open to the wealth of ex-
cooperate with each other without any hierar-          perience of the participants and feel them-
chy. The participation of the partner organisa-        selves to be equally responsible for taking
tions in decisions in terms of content, meth-          their needs into consideration. Values such
ods and organisation facilitate the considera-         as mutual respect, trust and esteem as well
tion of the interests of participants in the pro-      as an unbiased acknowledgement of differ-
grammes. Thus the learning process is un-              ences are of fundamental importance here.
derstood to be a joint project for all of the par-
ticipants, the success of which is the respon-
sibility of all.                                              6.       Transparency

                                                       InWEnt communicates openly and transpar-
        2.      Variety                                ently with its partners and clients about the
                                                       respective interests and the determination of
The choice of learning formats and methods             objectives, content and conditions of coop-
depends upon the objectives, the target                eration.
group, the content and underlying conditions.
These formats and methods facilitate ad-
dressing the different levels of “head, heart                 7.       Joined-up thinking
and hand”.
                                                       The systemic vision needed to grasp and un-
                                                       derstand complex problems and the associ-
        3.      Practical orientation                  ated joined-up thinking are promoted through
                                                       inter-disciplinary methods and content.
Directly linking the learning material to the
participants’ everyday professional life is im-
portant. The focus is placed on the practical
application of the acquired knowledge and
skills with a view to improving the compe-
tency to act, so as to facilitate the ultimate
transfer to the life and work situation of the

        4.      Participant orientation

The concrete structure of the programmes is
oriented to the prior knowledge, moral con-
cepts, needs and interests of the participants
which they actively bring to the learning proc-

Copyright by InWEnt gGmbH - Capacity Building International, Germany                                    5
The application of the                                 cific feature of what is offered by InWEnt and
didactic principles in                                 distinguishes it fundamentally from traditional
the four InWEnt tools                                  academic and university education.

                                                       International training as a part of personnel
InWEnt takes a multi-level approach based              and organisational development requires a
on its systemic vision which reveals the inter-        learning architecture which facilitates a link
dependence between the three levels, the               between the levels of the individual, the or-
individual, organisation and system. InWEnt            ganisation and the system in the advanced
addresses the three levels with advanced               training process too and which ties in learning
training, personnel and organisational devel-          as closely as possible with the specific
opment measures and links these to each                work/life context of the participants. The
other effectively in the sense of a systemic           individual participant on a training course is
development management. Here too the un-               not merely educated as an individual, but also
derstanding of didactics shown emphasises              as an employee of an institution and a system
the inter-dependence between the individuals           in which he or she is expected to attain re-
and their (learning) environment, and thereby          sults and changes in respect of sustained de-
forms a complementary parity to the systemic           velopment. Therefore for the success of pro-
multi-level approach followed by the Capacity          grammes geared towards Capacity Building
Building concept of InWEnt.                            the selection of participants is a relevant de-
                                                       cision which must be made after careful con-
InWEnt uses various tools in the programmes            sideration of individual factors (personal pro-
which can be selected jointly with the partner         file) and institutional role.
organisations in accordance with their needs
and objectives. The fundamental under-                 Learning in the international context is under-
standing of didactics and the didactic                 stood for the individual to be the acquisition of
principles so derived have fundamental                 knowledge and competencies. Knowledge
implications for the individual tools:                 here means above all access to and acquisi-
                                                       tion of new knowledge for a specific profes-
                                                       sional and social context. The competencies
The didactic principles in “Advanced                   here are, in particular, problem resolution and
Professional Training”                                 competence to act as well as cooperation and
                                                       inter-cultural competence. Awareness of so-
                                                       cial responsibility and possible courses of ac-
International professional training is a tool to       tion in relation to people and society charac-
initiate, accompany and support individual,            terises socio-political competence.
organisational and social change and devel-
opment processes. In this respect, advanced            The participants do not just acquire knowl-
training is one tool among several which is            edge and competencies, they reflect upon
used for personnel and organisational devel-           and evaluate their own individual learning
opment.                                                process (e.g. in individual and joint reflection
                                                       phases). Thereby they acquire an under-
The starting point of advanced training with           standing of their own learning and of proc-
InWEnt is the professional, social and practi-         esses of learning and teaching in general and
cal experience of the participants. The                thereby gain competencies for life-long learn-
themes as well as the objectives of the ad-            ing and for their remit as facilitators.
vanced training programme are acquired from
practical experience and for further develop-
ment and change in practical terms and are
determined with regard to the overriding ob-
jective of sustainable development. Learning
from and for practical experience is a spe-

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The active participation of the participants
on an advanced training programme is a con-           Advanced training is implemented by means
stitutive feature of the InWEnt programmes,           of a variety of learning formats and meth-
i.e. advanced training is understood to be an         ods. They can be implemented by attending
interaction process between equal part-               training courses or through e-learning or
ners. In the learning process the experience,         through a sensible combination of the two.
knowledge and questions of the participants           The time parameters of training courses can
are drawn upon again and again, new knowl-            range from one week (workshop, seminar) up
edge is critically processed and integrated           to 1.5 years (ILT incuding transfer project).
into one’s own knowledge. The development             The choice of method and duration depends
of transfer and implementation strategies for         upon the objective, the theme and the feasi-
changes form a fixed integral part of the ad-         bility for the participants (absence from work,
vanced training process.                              Internet access etc.).

Learning by interaction with others offers            In cooperation with the partner institu-
the opportunity of direct experience and in-          tions InWEnt draws up the overall framework
sight that there is not one right way or recipe       and the major learning architecture for an ad-
for a solution to problems and for changes,           vanced training programme. As a general
but rather fosters understanding and learn-           rule, an international team is commissioned
ing from each other between people from               for implementing this. The people in the team
different regions, social, professional and           bring specialist, regional, process and meth-
personal situations. This provides the oppor-         odic competence with them to a varying de-
tunity to recognise the different cultural vi-        gree and link these together sensibly and in a
sions, to be aware of differences and to rec-         targeted way. Thus scope and importance
ognise common models. Experiencing and                are given to the individual learning process as
reflecting upon cultural differences in prem-         a team with regard to successful implementa-
ises and perceptions can lead the participants        tion.
from a “right-wrong” logic into a “not only but
also” behaviour which considers difference to
be a potential for development.                       The didactic principles in “Dialogue”

The practical experience of participants of
advanced training programmes in interna-              Dialogue reinforces the competencies of
tional cooperation is as varied as the number         people for independent planning for the fu-
of participants. In order to do justice to this       ture, creates the basis for a sustained im-
diversity and promote problem resolution              provement in the ability to make decisions
competence and competence to act, con-                and act on all levels, supplies new answers to
crete learning projects are particularly suit-        global challenges and offers suitable plat-
able. In a learning project the participants          forms for preventative diplomacy in the con-
tackle a current problem or a challenge in            flicting areas of politics, business and civil
their direct work and develop concrete im-            society. It is geared to the flexible design of
plementation and change strategies. Ex-               change processes and structure formation.
changing experiences as well as individually          As a Capacity Building tool, dialogue can
and jointly working through learning pro-             contribute to resolving a problem, to reaching
jects with others are thus the central ele-           a compromise which is acceptable to all in-
ments, as opposed to the application and              volved or to acquiring new knowledge in the
transfer of the ready-made solutions of ex-           context of a given problem. It forms the start-
perts. Learning projects can become the cen-          ing point for long-term networks and alli-
tral learning focus of an advanced training           ances. In the context of the InWEnt model,
programme for the individual or small group           dialogue acquires increasing importance as
while other seminar activities relate to that         an “instrument of change”.
and deliver specific contributions to working
through the project.

Copyright by InWEnt gGmbH - Capacity Building International, Germany                                7
International, Germany
Depending on the target group and the objec-            A careful selection of the partner organisa-
tive, InWEnt makes the distinction between              tions and participants ensures that compe-
specialist dialogue, sector political dialogue          tencies and interests relevant to the themes
and global political dialogue.                          are comprehensively taken into account and
                                                        exchanged. The success of dialogue events
The specialist dialogue is explicitly aimed at          is promoted by good Internet-supported
the equal exchange of opinions and ex-                  preparation and review.
perience of experts in specific topic areas.
Thus all participants mutually profit from their        The InWEnt instrument, dialogue, is charac-
application-oriented knowledge and permit               terised by the willingness to have discussions
this to flow into operational work. Suitable            with an open outcome, a high degree of flexi-
training formats include seminars, specialist           bility, thorough thematic knowledge, results-
conferences and meetings, virtual round table           oriented process control, excellent communi-
discussions and asynchronous virtual dia-               cation skills and a high level of commitment in
logues.                                                 terms of participants as well as topics.

The sector political dialogue deals with ad-
dressing specialist problems in the overall             The didactic principles in “Network
context of a sector for which solution propos-          Building”
als are to be formulated on a political level. It
promotes changes to underlying conditions
on an institutional and system level. Sector            Networks are communities of learning or in-
political dialogues generally take the form of          terests of individuals and/or organisations
conferences, meetings and forums.                       which are determined for a certain duration
                                                        and, as a general rule, for working on a joint
Global political dialogues in the form of con-          topic. Internet-based networks facilitate
ferences, meetings and specialist talks pro-            agreement on policies and joint interests and
vide an important contribution to informal pol-         their articulation in the public arena. InWEnt
icy agreement in the international arena                uses the tool of international network building
through the targeted equal inclusion of rep-            in order to promote the sustainability of
resentatives from politics, business and civil          change processes. It supports the applica-
society. They are characterised by commu-               tion of the knowledge learnt in profes-
nication in the public arena, i.e. through              sional practice through mutual collegial
international visibility and political signalling.      advice and the specialist support of experts.
                                                        Using the contacts and relationships devel-
All three dialogue formats have a solution-             oped between the learning participants, the
and action-targeted orientation in com-                 exchange of specialist knowledge, the latest
mon which ensures working through experi-               information and experiences can be contin-
ences (“lessons learnt”) and the formulation            ued in the transfer phase. In a relatively short
of realistic recommendations.                           time synergy effects feed through to provide a
                                                        sustainable development of individuals, or-
In harmony with the didactic principles of In-          ganisations and society. Networks are initi-
WEnt, dialogue represents an instrument to              ated in this sense and moderated in its de-
analyse, together with partners from other              velopment phase. They are thereby part of
countries and regions, joint challenges, to             the complex InWEnt programmes and lay the
draft solutions and develop initial strategies          foundations for securing their sustainability.
for their implementation. The dialogue sup-
ports the process of mutual understanding of            International network building of InWEnt con-
interests and positions of various participants         tributes furthermore to constructive coop-
on the basis of unbiased, open cooperation              eration of politics, business and civil society.
without rigid rules and hierarchies.                    Mutual trust through the framework created
                                                        by InWEnt and the knowledge that all in-

8                                Copyright by InWEnt - Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung gGmbH
volved will profit from the cooperation, facili-      information and cooperation potential, the
tate cooperation in partnership in the interests      good presentation and the active involvement
of solutions adapted to the problems posed.           of participants who are personally interested
                                                      in network building.
The Alumni programme represents a particu-
lar form of international network building with       The term “learning organisation” is expanded
InWEnt. On the one hand it targets the sus-           through network building. InWEnt does not
tained securing of the specialist knowledge           learn alone but rather jointly with the mem-
taught in the programmes. On the other hand           bers of its network. That practically extends
the alumni are offered a platform through             as far as the InWEnt participants acting
which they can communicate and cooperate              themselves as authors and tutors for future
across the specialist field. The alumni ap-           advanced training events, especially e-
proach targets a long-term bond of the alumni         learning.
in a network of “German Ambassadors”. This
network is open to all alumni, even those
from other German organisations and pro-              The didactic principles in “Personnel
motes the constructive cooperation be-                Development Advice”
tween the participants of international co-
operation, politics and business inter alia
through the promotion of alumni associations.         Personnel development advice (PD advice)
It promotes the strategic development of the          acts as an instrument for a client- and cus-
InWEnt programmes offered. The feedback of            tomer-oriented mandate management. It fa-
past participants contributes towards the fur-        cilitates the transfer of outstanding enquiries
ther development of the InWEnt portfolio and          and requests for individual advanced training
helps InWEnt to continuously assess the               courses to targeted and sustainable ad-
range it offers.                                      vanced training plans and cycles through
                                                      consultative talks with clients and customers.
Included in the network architecture, inter           The instrument of PD advice considers an
alia, are virtual information platforms for the       organisation within the framework of the re-
exchange of topic-related specialist knowl-           spective sector-specific development in a re-
edge, regional and national Internet portals          gional market with regard to the development
including interactive elements and forums,            needs and potential of their staff. On this ba-
virtual events on the Global Campus 21®,              sis InWEnt with its partners conceives
events attended in person on current topics           measures regarding personnel and organisa-
from a specialist field with the perspective of       tional development.
a longer cooperation and management topics
on a national and international level. The In-        The PD advice relies upon methods of
WEnt alumni portal is the comprehensive ac-           change management, including development
cess medium for alumni for information, for           counselling, process accompaniment and
forming and maintaining contacts as well as           coaching.
for continuous learning.
                                                          •   As a personnel development advisor,
Many of the effects of network building are                   InWEnt prepares, in confidential co-
only achieved if one includes virtual commu-                  operation with the partner on a basis
nications methods. For the Internet-based                     of trust, a personnel requirement
networks InWEnt uses its learning platform                    analysis, plans the subsequent steps
Global Campus 21®.                                            of personnel development and imple-
                                                              ments these in agreement with the
Virtual cooperation in networks stands and                    partner.
falls with the acceptance and motivation of
the participants. Important factors for this are
the added value which a network platform
offers through the availability of additional

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     •   The personnel development in the in-
         ternational context is characterised by
         inter-cultural competence and clear
         target-setting in the operating proce-

     •   All programmes concerning person-
         nel- or organisational development in-
         crease their effectiveness by guaran-
         teeing participation, a diversity of
         formats, methods and practical ori-

The personnel development advice clarifies
the conditions for the coordinated deployment
of the InWEnt tools of dialogue, advanced
training and network building.

Didactics is no longer as “dry” as its name
suggests. Didactics builds upon curiosity,
flexibility, differentiation and diversity of
methods. Didactics is the key to impact-
oriented and effective InWEnt programmes
and constantly challenges the corporate cul-
ture of a learning organisation.

10                            Copyright by InWEnt - Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung gGmbH

Deutsche Stiftung für internationale Entwicklung (1997): Didaktische Leitlinien.

Deutsche Stiftung für internationale Entwicklung (1996): Didaktisches Grundkonzept.

FH Solothurn Nordwestschweiz (2003): Didaktik an der FHZ für Diplomausbildung und Weiterbil-

Prof. Dr. Froneck, Hermann J. (2003): Konzept Selbstlernen.

Hochschule Liechtenstein (2005): Didaktisches Leitbild.

InWEnt (2006): InWEnt-Konzept Capacity Building.

InWEnt (2004): Leitbild

InWEnt (2004): Konzept für ein Alumniprogramm.

InWEnt (2004): ILT-Konzept.

Künzli, Christine (2003): Didaktisches Konzept – Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung.

Töpfer, Teresa (2006): Recherche – Auswirkungen neuer Erkenntnisse der Neurowissenschaft auf
pädagogische Methodik.

Copyright by InWEnt gGmbH - Capacity Building International, Germany                           11
InWEnt – Capacity Building International, Germany, is a non-profit
organisation with worldwide operations dedicated to human resource
development, advanced training, and dialogue. Our capacity building
programmes are directed at experts and executives from politics,
administration, the business community, and civil society. We are
commissioned by the German federal government to assist with the
implementation of the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations. In
addition, we provide the German business sector with support for public
private partnership projects. Through exchange programmes, InWEnt also
offers young people from Germany the opportunity to gain professional
experience abroad.

                                                                               September 2006 • GF-0009-2006

Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung gGmbH
Capacity Building International, Germany
Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 40
53113 Bonn, Germany
Fon +49 228 4460-0
Fax +49 228 4460-1766

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