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					Elements of Music
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  _______________ 2009
                 Notes in Written Music




In standard notation, a single musical sound is written as a note. The
two most important things a written piece of music needs to tell you
about a note are its:

____________________- how high or low it is

____________________- how long it lasts.

                          The Parts of a Note




                                  2
Notes in Written Music
    The Length of a Note




        Table of Notes




             3
                 Notes in Written Music

                              Level 3 - DI

  Students will invent and represent musical ideas to express mood,
                       using shape and contrast.

I have produced these sheets myself.

This is an introduction to music notation. It is simply two sheets that
could be used to reinforce or guide students being taught music
notation. They would have to be taught with the guidance of a
teacher.

These sheets should be followed with exercises assisting students in
writing music notation on manuscript.




                                  4
        Notes on the Treble Clef
The notes in the spaces between the lines of the staff
are, from the bottom to the top line:

                              F-A-C–E




                        This spells out the word


                                 FACE.



The notes on the lines of the staff are, from the bottom to the top
line:

                                 E-G-B-D–F




                   Every - Good - Boy - Does - Fine
                                  or
                 Every - Good - Boy - Deserves - Fruit.




                                  5
Notes on the Treble Clef
        Activities Sheet




      Below each note write its name.




                    6
Treble Clef Worksheet




                7
                Notes on the Treble Clef

                              Level 3 - DI

  Students will invent and represent musical ideas to express mood,
                       using shape and contrast.


I have produced these sheets myself.

The aim is to have students identify and notate pitches on the treble
clef.

The first sheet is a reference sheet for students and is followed by two
exercise sheets. They would be used as a progression from an
introduction to writing music notation.




                                  8
       Notes on the Bass Clef
The notes on the lines of the staff are, from the
bottom to the top line:

                            G–B–D–F–A




                   Good - Boys - Do - Fine - Always
                                    Or
                Good - Boys - Deserve - Fruit – Always



The notes in the spaces between the lines of the staff are, from the
bottom to the top line:

                                         A–C–E–G




                          All - Cows - Eat – Grass



                                    9
Bass Clef Worksheet




                 10
                  Notes on the Bass Clef

                              Level 3 - DI

  Students will invent and represent musical ideas to express mood,
                       using shape and contrast.


I have produced these sheets myself.

The aim is to have students identify and notate pitches on the bass
clef.

Once again the first sheet is a reference sheet followed by a worksheet
for students. This could be taught after the treble clef and would need
to be assisted with more exercise sheets to reinforce their note reading
and writing skills.


Both of the previous exercises (treble and bass clef) could be
incorporated into a unit focusing on instruments that read from each
of these clefs.




                                  11
   Some Common Tempo Markings
Traditionally, tempo instructions are given in Italian.




          Word                    Description                 Pronunciation

          Largo                  slow and broad                  LAR-go

         Adagio                        slow                   uh-DAH-jee-oh

        Andante               literally “walking”, a           on-DON-tay
                              medium slow tempo

        Moderato              moderate, or medium             MOD-er-AH-toe

        Allegretto            Not as fast as allegro          AL-luh-GRET-oh

         Allegro                       Fast                    uh-LAY-grow

         Presto                      very fast                  PRESS-toe

        (un) poco                     a little                oon POH-koe
          molto                        a lot                   MOLE-toe
           piu                         more                       pew
          meno                          less                    MAY-no
          mosso                literally "moved";               MOE-so
                              motion or movement

   Translation Exercise                             Allegro
   Using the words above translate these
   tempo markings.

   1.   un poco allegro
   2.   molto meno mosso
   3.   piu vivo
   4.   molto adagio
   5.   poco piu mosso




                                         12
                       Tempo Worksheet

   The tempo of a piece of music is its speed. There are two ways to specify a
 tempo. Metronome markings and verbal descriptions. A tempo marking that is a
 word or phrase gives you the composer's idea of how fast the music should feel.

             Listen to the following pieces and describe their tempo.       Adagio,
                                                                             Presto,
                                                                           Moderato,
                                                                            Allegro,
                                                                             Lively,
1.                                                                          Walking
                                                                           pace, Slow,
                                                                              Fast




2.




3.




4.




5.




                                      13
                              T em p o
                             Level 3 – PK

Students will identify through focused listening, and experiment with,
                  contrasts within musical elements.

                             Level 3 – CI

Students will prepare and present music, using basic performance skills
and techniques, and respond to live or recorded music performances.

I have produced these sheets myself.

The aim is to have students identify and describe different tempos.

The first sheet is a reference sheet with a small translation exercise
followed by a listening worksheet. Students who struggle with literacy
could be encouraged to describe in other ways the tempo, i.e. describe
the scene in a movie where you might hear this music in the
background.

This activity could be reflected on by student during music
appreciation.

Another activity that could help teach the differences between the
tempos markings is:

  1. Decide on some tempos markings and revise them with the
     students.
  2. Choose a piece of music that the students are familiar with
     (could even be a rhythm exercise done in class) and play it or
     have students play them at the different tempos.




                                  14
                    Dynamics
In music, markings added to show the varying degrees or
changes in volume or loudness. They are written as
words, abbreviations, letters, or signs. Dynamics tell the
performer when to play loudly or more softly and when to change from one to
the other. From pianissimo (as soft as you can play) to fortissimo (the loudest you
can play), music ranges from a whisper to the fullest of sound.

        Symbol                       Term                       Meaning

           pp                      Pianissimo                   Very Soft

           p                        Piano                         Soft

           mp                    Mezzo Piano                 Medium Soft

           mf                    Mezzo Forte                Medium Loud

            f                        Forte                       Loud

           ff                      Fortissimo                   Very Loud

                                                       Gradually becoming
                                  Crescendo
                                                            louder

                                                       Gradually becoming
                                Decrescendo
                                                             softer


                                             Musical Example




                                Mezzo Forte                                 Decrescendo

                                                    Crescendo
                                       15
     Volume Line
      W o r ks h eet

1.




2.




3.




4.




5.




6.




           16
                   Dynamics

                             Level 3 – PK

Students will identify through focused listening, and experiment with,
                  contrasts within musical elements.

                              Level 3 - DI

  Students will invent and represent musical ideas to express mood,
                       using shape and contrast.

                              Level 3 – CI

Students will prepare and present music, using basic performance skills
and techniques, and respond to live or recorded music performances.


I have produced these sheets myself.

The aim is to have students identify and describe change in dynamics.

The first sheet is a reference sheet followed by a listening worksheet.
The students are to draw a sound envelope for each recording heard.
The center-line is a guide and represents a medium dynamics
(moderato). Students should be encouraged to translate each of their
sound envelopes into Italian or English after each hearing

This activity could also be reflected on by student during music
appreciation. Students could be asked to produce a sound envelope
for a selected part of a song.

Another activity could be for students to experiment with dynamics
on a piece that the students are learning and have them demonstrate
this to their peers in groups etc.



                                  17
                           Timbre Worksheet
   One of the basic elements of music is called colour, or timbre (pronounced “TAM-
   ber”). Colour includes all the aspects of a sound that do not have anything to do
   with how high or low it is, how loud or soft, or how long or short. In other
   words, if a flute plays a note, and then an oboe plays the same note, for the same
   length of time, at the same loudness, you can still easily tell the two notes apart,
   because a flute sounds different from an oboe. This difference is the colour of the
   sound.

   You are about to here each of these instruments played individually. On the next
     page write what instrument you think you are hearing and describe the sound
    they make. You might like to describe the sound by comparing it to a colour or
                               drawing a quick picture.




             Cello                                            Oboe




                                           Bagpipes

                                                                            Trumpet

Electric Guitar



                                                                         Violin




                                  Drum Kit
                                        18
                         Bright, dark,
                        full, thin, rich,
                              reedy,
     Timbre Worksheet       breathy,
                           scratchy,
                         heavy, light,
1.                           intense




2.




3.




4.




5.




6.




7.



           19
                                   Timbre
                                   Level 3 – PK

 Students will identify through focused listening, and experiment with, contrasts
                             within musical elements.

                                   Level 3 - DI

Students will invent and represent musical ideas to express mood, using shape and
                                    contrast.



I have produced these sheets myself.

The aim is to have students identify and describe the different sound colours
produced by different instruments.

These sheets are an introduction to timbre. The activity is focused towards
students first recognizing and secondly describing the difference in sound of
instruments. Make sure that the students discuss and compare the differences and
similarities between different instruments timbre.


                                   Level 4 – PK

 Students will identify through focused listening, and experiment with, a range of
              patterns, effects, sound qualities, and structural devices.

                                   Level 4 – CI

 Students will prepare, rehearse, present, and evaluate brief music performances.



This activity could be extended by listening to group performances and describing
their timbre, i.e. string quartet, brass band, jazz ensemble, full orchestra etc.

Even further students could listen to recordings such as Beethoven's Symphony
No. 6, and Holst's The Planets and recognize and describe the timbre qualities of
individual instruments in an ensemble.



                                       20
                              Texture
Texture is one of the basic elements of music. When you describe
the texture of a piece of music, you are describing how much is
going on in the music at any given moment. For example, the
texture of the music might be thick or thin, or it may have many
or few layers. It might be made up of rhythm only, or of a
melody line with chordal accompaniment, or many interweaving
melodies.

                            Monophonic Texture
                            Single-line texture, or melody without
                            harmony or accompaniment.

Examples of Monophony
    One person whistling a tune
    A group of people all singing a song together, without harmonies or instruments.

                             Homophonic Texture
                             One clearly melodic line; it's the line that naturally draws
                             your attention. All other parts provide accompaniment
                             or fill in the chords.

Examples of Homophony
    A singer accompanied by a guitar picking or strumming chords.
    A small jazz combo with a bass, a piano, and a drum set providing the "rhythm"
       background for a trumpet improvising a solo.

Polyphonic Texture
Consists of two or more independent melodic voices.

Examples of Polyphony
    Rounds, canons, and fugues are all polyphonic.
    Much Baroque music is contrapuntal, particularly the works of J.S. Bach.
    Most music for large instrumental groups such as bands or orchestras is contrapuntal at
       least some of the time.

Heterophonic Texture
A heterophonic texture is rare in Western music. In
heterophony, there is only one melody, but different
variations of it are being sung or played at the same time.

Examples of Heterophony
    Some Middle Eastern, South Asian, and Native American music. Listen for traditional music
       in which singers and/or instrumentalists perform the same melody at the same time, but
       give it different embellishments or ornaments.



                                             21
                     Texture Activity

Write the name of the song played under the heading which you think
                      best describes its texture!




                               22
                                    T e x t ure
                                    Level 4 – PK

 Students will identify through focused listening, and experiment with, a range of
              patterns, effects, sound qualities, and structural devices.



I have produced these activities with the guidance of Aart Brusse from Bayfield
High School.

The aim is to have students identify specific textures in an extract of music.

The first sheet is a reference guide for the teacher, however could be given to
students and simplified if necessary. This activity would be used once students can
identify different instruments (timbres) in a musical extract. It could be assisted
with the use of scores to begin with and then encourage students to attempt the
activity just by listening.




                                         23
                                 Melody
The lead singer in a band is the singer who sings the melody. Melody is one of
the basic elements of music, and one of the easiest to hear and understand.
Melodies can be described in a number of ways. Melodies can soar, swoop,
plunge, or hop around and it is useful to be able to describe them by drawing
their shape.




 Listen to the music examples played and describe in words and by drawing their
                                     shape.




                                      24
                                     Melody

                                     Level 3 – PK

Students will identify through focused listening, and experiment with,
                  contrasts within musical elements.

                                     Level 3 - DI

   Students will invent and represent musical ideas to express mood,
                        using shape and contrast.




I have produced this sheet myself.

The aim is to have students identify and describe the shape and contour of a
melody.

The sheet is a simple listening exercise for the students. They are to draw and
describe the shape of the melody that you play for them.
   1. To begin with you could teach through discussion and demonstration the
       students how to recognize whether the sound is ascending or descending.
   2. Then you could play and ascending or descending pattern of notes and
       have the students write which of these it was.
   3. Once the students are familiar you could incorporate these together and
       use this listening sheet.




                                         25
                        Rhythm Worksheet
In music we have pulse and rhythms. In all types of music we MUST make sure we
keep a steady pulse.

The pulse is the same throughout the music. We could keep the pulse by clapping
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 1 –2 – 3 – 4 all the time.


Clap all together counting up to 8 as you clap to keep a steady pulse.

                                                                   
   1          2          3          4          1          2           3          4


Rhythms are different as we can clap different beats. But we must make them fit in
with the pulse.

Now erase one of the dots. This time rest for one, in the blank box.

                                                                     
   1          2          3          4          1          2           3          4


                                                                       
   1          2          3          4          1           2          3          4


Try a 2 part piece. This now introduces score reading to pupils. Perhaps the boys
can clap the top part and the girls the bottom part.

                                                                
                                                                           

All of the notes we have clapped so far are crotchet beats. They are worth 1 beat.
Let’s try clapping quaver beats, which are worth half beats. This means that we clap
twice in one box.

                                                              
                                                                         
   1          2          3          4           1         2           3          4




                                         26
          Rhythm Worksheet

                            
1    2    3    4        1    2    3   4


1    2    3    4        1    2    3   4


1    2    3    4        1    2    3   4




               Two Parts




                   27
                                  Rh y t h m

                                  Level 3 – PK

Students will identify through focused listening, and experiment with,
                  contrasts within musical elements.

                                   Level 3 - DI

   Students will invent and represent musical ideas to express mood,
                        using shape and contrast.



I have produced this sheet with reference to

              http://www.musicatschool.co.uk/worksheets.htm

The aim is to have students identify, record and recall rhythms.

The sheets are aimed towards students who are not very familiar with music
notation and are an introduction to rhythm. The progression on the worksheet is
clear. To extend from these worksheets have students use proper notation to
record rhythms.




                                       28
                      The Elements of Music

As we now know, music is made up of many different things called Elements.
They are the building blocks of music. When you compose a piece of music you
use the elements of music to build it. If the piece of music is to sound right then
you have to use the elements correctly.

Answer the following questions by filling in the gaps using the words provided.

1. ____________________means the highness or lowness of the sound.
2. ____________________means the fastness or slowness of the music.

3. ____________________means the loudness or quietness of the music.
4. ____________________means the length of each sound.
5. ____________________ and ____________________ means the way the sound
starts and stops.
6. If all the instruments are playing at once then the ___________________is thick.
If only one instrument is playing then it is thin.
7. ____________________is as important as sound in music.


                                                                       Attack
                                      Duration                          and
      Temp                                                             Delay
        o




      Texture                                                                Pitch

                                        Dynamics




                                          29
         In The Hall of the Mountain King




           Complete this sentence; Programme music is music which
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________


 Listen to this piece of “programme” music and imagine what is being described.
                              Write your ideas below:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

             Now write the programme intended by the composer:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________




                                     30
             In The Hall of the Mountain King
What features of the music suggest
   1) A chase?
       __________________________________________________________________
       __________________________________________________________________
   2) A large group of trolls?
       __________________________________________________________________
       __________________________________________________________________
   3) The collapse of the cave?
       __________________________________________________________________
       __________________________________________________________________


Listen again to the piece and notice hot the qualities of sound change as the music
progresses. In the spaces below, write words which describe the sound qualities at
the beginning and at the end.

                           Beginning                             End

     Pitch
                 ____________________________ ____________________________

  Dynamics
                 ____________________________ ____________________________


  Duration
                 ____________________________ ____________________________


   Timbre
                 ____________________________ ____________________________



What emotional effect does the composer wish to create by changing the sound
qualities in this way?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________



                                       31
          In The Hall of the Mountain King

What did you notice about the tune at the start?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________


With so much repetition in the music, it could become monotonous. How does
the composer avoid this?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________


Listen to other examples of programme music. Write their titles and their
programmes in the spaces provided below.

Name of piece & composer:
________________________________________________________________________
Programme:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Name of piece & composer:
________________________________________________________________________
Programme:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________




                                       32
          In The Hall of the Mountain King

                                   Level 3 – PK

Students will identify through focused listening, and experiment with,
                  contrasts within musical elements.



I have rewritten this activity from the Music Knowledge Work Book - Aart Brusse,
Bayfield High School.

The aim is to have students identify and describe how the elements of music
function in a piece of music.

This exercise would be used once students are familiar with the fundamental
aspects of the elements of music. It is a resource that can be used as an
introductory analysis of a piece of music. Parts of this exercise also provide a good
opportunity for formative assessment.




                                        33
Manuscript




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