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Ch. 7 Review Questions
1) Approximately what percentage of presidential campaign spending is for TV ads.

2) News management in the Reagan White House operated on what 7 principles?

3) Up until the presidency of Franklin Roosevelt, how did reporters submit their questions?

4) Who was he first president to manipulate media politics with many press conferences and fireside chats?

5) When the First Amendment was written guaranteeing freedom of the press, how much press was there?

6) Prior to the 1930s, how was the president questioned by the press?

7) What about Franklin Roosevelt did the news media not usually report?

8) What era in history did the cozy relationship between politicians and the press end?

9) Where was the first daily newspaper in America printed?

10) Since Kennedy, what has happened to the news coverage of presidential candidates?

11) What change in framework did Thomas Patterson find in the media coverage of presidential candidates?

12) The nation’s most influential newspaper and its unofficial “newspaper of record” is

13) What is the principal source for reporting national and world news for most newspapers in medium-sized cities and
small towns?

14) Since 1960, how much has newspaper circulation declined?

15) What is the principal source of news and information for most Americans today?

16) In a famous, televised speech in 1952, who denied having received illegal gifts and payments, and declared that the
family dog, Checkers, though a gift, would not be returned.

17) Who owns most of newspapers in America today?

18) Serious magazines of political news and opinion are written mostly for who?
19) What type of journalism did newspaper magnates Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst create?

20) In what year did television became extremely important in political campaigns ?

21) What effect did Television coverage of the war in Vietnam have on the government?

22) What changes has Cable News Network (CNN) brought to Americans?

23) About what % of time is used for written and edited in cable newscasts?

24) Who is the most likely to visit a candidate’s web site?

25) To a large extent, how do television networks define news ?

26) Today’s massive media conglomerates control newspapers with over what percent of the nation’s
daily circulation?

27) What is the bottom line shaping how journalists define the news, where they get the news, and how
they present it ?

28) What level of sophistication is television news programs tailored to?

29) How could most news coverage best described?

30) What did fifteen major news organizations do After the Persian Gulf War?

31) What was the new approach to reporting introduced during the 2003 Iraq War?

32) What has happened to the average amount of air time that a presidential candidate has been given to talk
uninterrupted on the TV news since the 1960’s?

33) What did a survey taken in a 2002 find out about the party affiliation of journalists?

34) The overriding bias in the news is toward stories that what?

35) Why does the news not mirror reality?

36) What did the earliest survey studies of the effect of the media on public opinion, which evaluated its impact on
voting behavior, offer?

37) Agenda setting effects are especially strong for what group?
38) What is the impact of TV news on the priorities of Americans?

39) What does the watchdog orientation of the press help?

40) How does the media inevitably encourage the growth of government ?

Short Answer
1) Explain the importance of the 1960 presidential debate.

2) What effect did the Vietnam War have on the news media?

Essay Questions
1) Describe the relationship between the mass media and the president, and how it has changed over the last several decades.
Include examples of how various presidents such as George Bush, Ronald Reagan, Richard Nixon, and Franklin Roosevelt
have interacted with the media, i.e., how much and under what circumstances.
Page Ref: 212-224

2) Most describe government and election news coverage as superficial, narrow, and limited. Explain what factors contribute to
these tendencies in news coverage in the United States. Who do government officials and candidates blame for the nature of
news coverage? Who do journalists blame?
Page Ref: 216-231; 236-237

3) How have the Internet and cable television impacted American politics?
Page Ref: 220-224

4) Explain how the media determine what is news, and how it is presented to the public.
Page Ref: 225-231

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