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					User Interface Evaluation

        Usability Inquiry Methods




       http://jthom.best.vwh.net/usability/
 http://www.cs.umd.edu/~zzj/UsabilityHome.html
      Usability Inquiry Methods
 Usability experts learn about the users’ likes,
  dislikes, needs, etc. of the system through:
   Observation
   Verbal questioning
   Written questioning


 Widely used in practice.

 Different methods have different costs, but in
  general, this is relatively cheap.
      Usability Inquiry Methods
 Contextual Inquiry

 Field Observation

 Questionnaires

 Interviews

 Focus Groups

 Logging Actual Use
              Contextual Inquiry
 Contextual Inquiry is also known as proactive field
  studies.

 Applicable Stages:
   Requirements & Design


 Personnel
   Usability Experts, approximately 1.
   Developers, 0.
   Users, 2.
           Contextual Inquiry
 Usability Issues Covered
   Effectiveness: No
   Efficiency: No
   Satisfaction: No


 Quantitative Data is NOT collected.

 Can NOT be conducted remotely.

 Can be used on any system.
            Contextual Inquiry
 What is it?

 Before designing the system, the expert(s) visit the
  users’ workplace and question them.

 This should occur before any design has been done.
           Contextual Inquiry
 How can I do it?

 Determine who your users are.

 Go visit them where they work.
             Contextual Inquiry
 How can I do it?

 Talk to them about the system
     How do they currently do their job?
     How would you like to do your job?
     What do you like about the current system/method?
     What don’t you like about the current system/method?




 http://jthom.best.vwh.net/usability/context.htm
 http://www.cs.umd.edu/~zzj/FieldStu.htm
              Field Observation
 Applicable Stages:
   Test & Deployment


 Personnel
   Usability Experts, approximately 1.
   Developers, 0.
   Users, 2.
            Field Observation
 Usability Issues Covered
   Effectiveness: Yes
   Efficiency: No
   Satisfaction: Yes


 Quantitative Data is NOT collected.

 Can NOT be conducted remotely.

 Can be used on any system.
                Field Observation
 What is it?

 Usability experts observe users in the field using
  the system/product.
             Field Observation
 How can I do it?

 Go to the users’ workplace and simply observe.

 Things to look for:
   What is the user’s mental model?
   Are the users using it the way you expect?
   You don’t want them to know you are evaluating them.



 http://www.cs.umd.edu/~zzj/FieldObs.htm
               Questionnaires
 Applicable Stages:
   Any stage of development (depending on the questions)


 Personnel
   Usability Experts, approximately 1.
   Developers, 0.
   Users, 2.
               Questionnaires
 Usability Issues Covered
   Effectiveness: Yes
   Efficiency: No
   Satisfaction: Yes


 Quantitative Data is NOT collected.

 Can be conducted remotely.

 Can be used on any system.
                Questionnaires
 What is it?

 Written lists of questions that you distribute to your
  users.
              Questionnaires
 How can I do it?

 Develop a list of questions on paper, web, email,
  etc. and give the questionnaire(s) to the users.

 The users will answer the questions and return the
  questionnaires to you.



 http://jthom.best.vwh.net/usability/question.htm
 http://www.acm.org/~perlman/question.html
                   Interviews
 Applicable Stages:
   Any stage of development (depending on the questions)


 Personnel
   Usability Experts, approximately 1.
   Developers, 0.
   Users, 1.
                   Interviews
 Usability Issues Covered
   Effectiveness: Yes
   Efficiency: No
   Satisfaction: Yes


 Quantitative Data is NOT collected.

 Can be conducted remotely.

 Can be used on any system.
                 Interviews
 What is it?

 You interview users and ask them questions.
                     Interviews
 How can I do it?

 Develop a list of questions for the users.

 Meet with the users, individually.

 Ask them the questions and log the responses
   Written and/or taped
                     Interviews
 How can I do it?

 Interview Tips:
   Clearly define this is an interview.
   Ask open ended questions to get the user talking. Yes-No
    questions are bad.
   Begin with less demanding topics and progress to more
    difficult topics.
   Don’t ask questions to support your belief or hypothesis.
   Do not answer your own questions.
   Do not agree or disagree … remain neutral.
                     Interviews
 How can I do it?

 Probes: used to encourage the subjects to continue
  speaking, or to guide their response in a particular
  direction

 Addition Probe
   Encourages more information or clarifies certain
    responses from the test users. Either verbally or
    nonverbally the message is, "Go on, tell me more," or
    "Don't stop."
                     Interviews
 How can I do it?

 Reflecting Probe
   Uses a nondirective technique, encourages the test user
    to give more detailed information. The interviewer can
    reformulate the question or synthesize the previous
    response as a proposition.


 Directive Probe
   Specifies the direction in which a continuation of the
    reply should follow without suggesting any particular
    content. A directive probe may take the form of "Why is
    the (the case)?"
                     Interviews
 How can I do it?

 Defining Probe
   Requires the subject to explain the meaning of a
    particular term or concept.




 http://jthom.best.vwh.net/usability/surveys.htm
 http://www.cs.umd.edu/~zzj/Interview.htm
                 Focus Groups
 Applicable Stages:
   Test & Deployment


 Personnel
   Usability Experts, approximately 1.
   Developers, 0.
   Users, 6.
                Focus Groups
 Usability Issues Covered
   Effectiveness: Yes
   Efficiency: No
   Satisfaction: Yes


 Quantitative Data is NOT collected.

 Can be conducted remotely with email, bulletin
  boards, conference calls, etc.

 Can be used on any system.
                Focus Groups
 What is it?

 A group of users are gathered to talk about the
  system.

 The expert acts as the moderator.

 Should conduct more than 1 focus group.
                 Focus Groups
 How can I do it?

 Bring a group of users together and begin.

 Collect data




 http://www.cs.umd.edu/~zzj/FocusGro.htm
            Logging Actual Use
 Applicable Stages:
   Test & Deployment


 Personnel
   Usability Experts, approximately 1.
   Developers, 0.
   Users, 6.
           Logging Actual Use
 Usability Issues Covered
   Effectiveness: Yes
   Efficiency: Yes
   Satisfaction: Maybe


 Quantitative Data is NOT collected, in most cases.

 Can be conducted remotely.

 Can be used on most systems.
            Logging Actual Use
 What is it?

 The computer automatically collect usage data.

 You could ask the user to log their usage, but that’s
  not practical.
           Logging Actual Use
 How can I do it?

 Usability Logger
   http://www.usabletools.com/


 Automatic capture of keyboard, mouse, etc.

 VideoCam and other products.
           Logging Actual Use
 Facts On Logging Actual Use
   You know exactly what the user is doing.
   You don’t know why, but you do know what, when,
    where.
   You don’t know how the user feels.




 http://www.cs.umd.edu/~zzj/Logging.htm
        Usability Inquiry Methods
                       most useful

 Contextual Inquiry

 Field Observation

 Questionnaires

 Interviews

 Focus Groups (least useful)

 Logging Actual Use

				
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posted:9/10/2011
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