STAIF-2007_MLT_Powered_Spacecraft-Final-3.1_W-O_Appendix

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					   Mach-Lorentz Thruster (MLT)
                    Applications

                                                MLT   MLT

                                             Light m1 Heavy m2




                          FORCE Rectifications as Symmetry Breaks
                                     Net F = (m1* a) – (m2 * a)

Paul March
                                      G/I
STAIF-2007

February 13, 2007    Paul March - Friendswood, TX                 1
Rockets: Their Costs & Transit Times
•   Costs: $100/lb-m to greater than $200k/lb-m
•   Transit Times: Lunar Apollo/Orion: 3 days
•   Mars transits: 6-to-8 months
•   Jupiter & Beyond: Years to Millennia
•   Problems with these rocket solutions?
•   Low launch safety, human’s poor zero-g &
    ionizing radiation exposure tolerances, our
    short lifetimes, and the huge costs using
    chemical or even nuclear rockets.
 February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX   2
Rocket Payload Costs vs Flight Rate to LEO
                       NASA’s Project Constellation Lunar Flights
                       at 2-flights per year = ~$155k/lb-m
                       Space Shuttle ($10k-to-$20k/lb-m)
        $5k                           Current Satellite Launch Costs
                                    ($1,000/lb-m)


                                                             $100/lb-m: Large Scale
                                                             Commercial Viability
         $25
                                     Minimum Fuel Cost / lb-m



                                                     3k
From: Paul Czysz (~2004 Prices)
   February 13, 2007              Paul March - Friendswood, TX                        3
NASA’s Summary of the Earth-to-LEO Problem.




 February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX   4
   How long would a Nuclear powered Human
  Crewed Spacecraft take to go to Mars at 0.2g?
• The Movies “2001” and “2010” provided two
  candidates that might meet this requirement with a
  constant acceleration of just above a Lunar-g (1.6m/s2).
            The Discovery             The Leonov




  February 13, 2007    Paul March - Friendswood, TX    5
                                                    Mars-2
30-Days Max at 0.2-g
                                                          970 Million Miles
15-Days Max at 0.2-g                                      (1,562x106 km)

                            Mars-1

                            284 Million Miles               ~45 Days at 0.2-g
Assume: Propellant                                              Isp ~ 540k sec
Mass Fraction = 0.5            (456x106 km)
Constant +/- 0.2-g acceleration                                          Jupiter
Isp = ((Delta-V)/ ln (mo/m1)) / 9.81m/s =
(7.76x105 / (ln (2/1)) / 9.81 = 114,122 seconds to Mars-2                     !!
(For 1.0g, Isp = 570,607 seconds to Mars)

  February 13, 2007        Paul March - Friendswood, TX                            6
 Solar System Based Nuclear Rockets
                  Fission                         Electric        Project Orion Nuclear
NERVA         Nuclear Thermal                   Ion Rockets           Bomb Rocket
              Rocket




                      Isp=~900 sec           Isp=~3,000 sec                  Isp=10k+ sec


Anti-Matter Rocket                                                   Fusion/Electric Rocket
Isp=~1,000,000 sec                                                        Isp=~20,000 sec




             Cost of       VASIMR                               To Mars
             Anti-Matter?? Isp=10k-to-30k sec
         ?
  February 13, 2007              Paul March - Friendswood, TX                         7
 Our Solar System’s Neighborhood
This sphere’s Radius is 20 Light
Years or 117.6 Trillion miles
(1 light year = 5.879x1012 miles)


             20 Light Years

Proxima Centauri is 4.3
light years away. To get
there in 6-years Earth time
with a PMF = 0.5 would
require an Isp of 66.2x106
seconds, but there is an issue.
The best Photon Beam Rocket
can only provide an Isp of
30.58x106 sec.
Houston, we have a problem!
   February 13, 2007          Paul March - Friendswood, TX   8
The Better Rocket = 1-g Space Drive
• We need a way to convert electricity into
  thrust without dumping reaction mass
  overboard, but reactionless space drives don’t
  exist in our universe due to Newton’s 3rd Law.
• However, one might find a way to recycle a
  local supply of propellant to make a 1-g space
  drive, just like an electric motor recycles its
  stator on every new revolution of its rotor.
• So what could a 100% duty-cycle, 1.0-g
  (9.81m/sec2) Space-Drive buy us?
 February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX   9
 One-Way Trips Times at 1.0-g (9.81m/sec2)
Acceleration from Earth to “Inner” Solar System




                                             Earth-to-Moon: ~4.0 hours
                                             Earth-to-Mars: 2-to-5 days
                                             Earth-to-Asteroids: 3-to-6 days
             Asteroid Belt                   Earth-to-Jupiter: 6-to-7 days
                                             Earth-to-Saturn: 8-to-9 days



 February 13, 2007           Paul March - Friendswood, TX               10
     Building a 1.0-g Space Drive
• Newton’s three Laws of motion and their spin-off
  rocket equation had MOST of it right, EXCEPT
  that Newton glossed over the “Origin of Inertia.”
• Newton said that every time you push on a mass, it
  pushes back, NOW, with an equal and opposite
  reaction force, i.e., his 3rd Law, which is quite true.
• But WHY does Galileo’s inertia law apply in our
  universe? And if we knew the answer, could we
  side-step the current
    tyranny of the rocket equation?
February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX       11
Possible Explanations for Inertia:
• Could it be an INTRINSIC PROPERTY of
  MASS? (Galileo & Newton)
• Could it be an ACTION of the LOCAL
  SURROUNDINGS - (THE QUANTUM
  VACUUM)? (Puthoff, Haisch, etc.)
• Could it be the GRAVITATIONAL ACTION
  of the rest of the MASS in the UNIVERSE
  via gravitational field interactions?
  (Einstein & Mach)
February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX   12
                    1948
                              Albert Einstein’s Take
                              on the Origin of Inertia
                                       (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955)
                           "...inertia originates in a kind of interaction between
                                                   bodies...”
                                    (Albert Einstein, in a letter to Ernst Mach)

• Einstein published his 1915 General Relativity
  Theory (GRT) that demonstrated the relationship
  between space, time, energy, and gravity.
• “For universes like ours, GRT also indicates that
  “Mach’s principle” (Einstein’s words) is the best
  explanation for the origin of inertia...” (J. F. Woodard)
February 13, 2007             Paul March - Friendswood, TX                         13
                                      Ernst Mach
                                (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916)

                             The Science of Mechanics (1893) - Mach, E.




“Mach was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher,
and is the namesake for “Mach number” & “Mach’s
principle,” which states that; “the inertia of any system is
the result of the gravitational interactions of that system
with the rest of the mass in the universe."
  February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX                        14
Other Physicist’s Thoughts on Inertia
• Dennis Sciama, (Student of Paul Dirac & Stephen
  Hawking’s Graduate Advisor), in 1953 showed that
  inertial reaction forces on all accelerating objects can
  be viewed as an “inertial-induction effect” generated
  by the gravity based inertial radiation field created by
  the distant cosmic matter’s (~1080 atoms) mass-energy.

• Derek Raine, (University of Leicester - UK), in 1975
  showed that Sciama’s inertial-induction idea is correct
  in Einstein’s GRT for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker
  (FRW) cosmologies, i.e., in a universe like our own.
  February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX    15
Mach’s & Sciama’s View of Inertia
The Causally 1                     2   The Cosmic Gravitational/Inertial (G/I) mass-
Connected                              energy provided by the Universe’s ~1080 atoms and
Spacetime Universe                     “Dark Energy” forms the G/I Radiation Field.
r = ~14x109 L.Y.
                                                       3   Mach, Einstein & Sciama viewed
                                                           inertia as G/I interactions between
                   G/I Radiation Field                     the local accelerated mass and this
                                                           primordial G/I Radiation Field.
           r                                               4   These G/I interactions takes the
                         Acceler                              form of spherical momentum &
                          Mass
                                                           energy Spacetime Distortion Waves
                                                           that propagate both forwards AND
                                                           backwards in time at light speed.

                                                        The summation of all these ~1080 G/I
G/I Field                                               momenergy waves becomes the local
                                                  5
falls off at 1/r                                        atom’s measured “inertial mass.”
    February 13, 2007                  Paul March - Friendswood, TX                      16
                      James F. Woodward’s 1990’s
                      Mach-Effect (M-E) Conjecture
• “Mach's principle and local Lorentz-invariance
  together yield the prediction of transient mass
  fluctuations in accelerated masses that concurrently
  change their internal energy states.”
• “The resulting mass fluctuations, in both principle
  and practice, can be quite large and, in principle at
  least, negative.”
• “The M-E derivation is relativistically invariant, so
  the conservation laws are automatically satisfied”
• “No New Physics is involved.”               - J. F. Woodward
  February 13, 2007        Paul March - Friendswood, TX   17
Woodward’s Mach-Effect Equation
• “Consider a mass that is accelerated. It experiences an
  inertial reaction force. This force is the gravitational
  force due to the distant matter in the cosmos and can
  be expressed as a classical wave equation, the
  d’Alembertian of the gravinertial potential of the
  field, set equal to its gravitational sources.”


d’Alembertian of f Newtonian
4-D Wave Operator Source Term
                                    Transient                         Transient
                                +/- Impulse Term               Negative Wormhole Term
• When the time derivates in this M-E equation go to
  zero, what is left is Newton’s law of gravity in
  differential form.
 February 13, 2007              Paul March - Friendswood, TX                        18
Woodward’s Mach-Effect Equation-2
• If the accelerated mass doesn’t concurrently change
  its internal energy state, then the larger transient G/I
  source terms in the M-E equation go to zero. This
  implies that to generate detectable mass fluctuations,
  accelerated masses should use an energy storing media
  like high dielectric constant ceramic capacitors.

• “If the amplitude of the mass’ proper energy density
  variation AND its first and second time derivatives are
  large enough, then a detectable mass fluctuation
  should ensue.” *
* FLUX CAPACITORS AND THE ORIGIN OF INERTIA, Woodward, Foundations of Physics (2004)
  February 13, 2007           Paul March - Friendswood, TX                     19
                Is this Stuff for Real?
              Experimental Verifications
• Experimental data from a number of sources now
  indicate that some type of mass fluctuation
  phenomenon exists in High-K ceramic capacitors.

• Woodward demonstrated in 2002 that something like
  his negative wormhole term’s mass fluctuation
  exists, for his piezoelectric stack based device lost
  1.2% of its apparent weight when excited by 400
  watts of 66.6 kHz ac power while in a vacuum.

• See:      Mach’s Principle Workshop – “The Technical End of Mach’s Principle” –Woodward
            Feb-2002 Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India (Pub.: Apeiron/Montreal)

 February 13, 2007               Paul March - Friendswood, TX                            20
 Woodward’s Negative Wormhole Term
Mass-Reduction Load-Cell Data in Vacuum
Feb-2002 IIT* Mach’s Principle Workshop – “The Technical End of Mach’s Principle” -Woodward

                                                                        ~125g      66.6kHz




                                    Weight
                                                                                     Thrust
                                    Signal
               Upright
                minus               ~40 gram
               Inverted             PZT Stack
                                                                          Weight
             PZT Temp.
                                   66.6 kHz Power

                          Time in Sec                           Mass Delta = ~1.2%
     Demonstration of Prompt Weight Reduction                   * Indian Institute of Tech.
   February 13, 2007             Paul March - Friendswood, TX                          21
 Converting Mass Fluctuations into
   Useable Unidirectional Forces
• How do we convert these transient mass fluctuations
  generated in High-K ceramic capacitor into a useable
  unidirectional force?

• Answer: Cyclically apply an external force to the
  cap’s dielectric that is appropriately timed and in
  synch with the transient mass fluctuations.

• These externally applied cyclic forces can be either
  acoustical / mechanical, or magnetic in nature.

 February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX        22
        Dynamic Force Rectification
             (DFR) of Mass Fluctuations
 The throw…                                                       The Hit!
                               (Mechanical DFR)
  (Reaction Force-1)                                            (Reaction Force-2)

                                                                      Gulp!




         Whee!

Low Mass State                                          High Mass State
“Momenergy Flux”              Throw Lite, Hit Heavy, Catch Lite
to/from G/I Radiation Field             = NET Force! Author: Ryan W. March
   February 13, 2007             Paul March - Friendswood, TX                23
 Magnetic DFR: The Lorentz Force
(The Other Half of Mach-Lorentz Thrusters)
                                                      (Thumb)

                                                         B (Middle)

                                                            (Pointer)
 Lorentz Force on Positive Electric Charge associated
          with Fleming’s Right Hand Rule
 Where q is the electric charge, v is charge’s velocity along the
 E-field Gradient (pointer finger), B is magnetic field (middle
        finger), and F is the resulting vxB force (thumb).
 February 13, 2007     Paul March - Friendswood, TX              24
Radial Ion Velocity x Toroidal Magnetic Field Yields
  Mach-Lorentz q*[E+(vxB)] Force Rectification
                                                                     AC B-field
Mach-Lorentz                                    AC E-field
 Thrusters                                                          Force Vector
                                     BaTiO3                       (In/Out of page)
                                     Cylinder                       Radial AC
               E-field   1X Freq                                    E-field
                         E-field
                         Voltage                                   Toroidal AC
                         Generator                                 B-field
                         Reference                       +F
                                                                   B-field Coil
         B-field                                                   Toroidal
                           1X Frequency                            Windings
                           B-field Generator
                           & Phase Control                        Lorentz/Fleming
                           Fout= +/-F * sin q                     Right Hand Rule
                                                         -Force
February 13, 2007         Paul March - Friendswood, TX                      25
Mathematica M-E Steady-State Graphical Solution
       0o                           90o                                        270o                      360o
                    90o                     UCC “Race-Track”                                90o
                                                + Ion Velocity (+n)

        (-n x +B)                                                                                (-n x +B)
                          E-field            (+n x -B)        Ion Mass
1.0
Fr                                                            Delta-max               +B-field
                                                   Fr                 180o                          Fr

0.0
        Rest Mass

            Ion Mass
            Delta-min                              -B-field
                                                                      UCC-1A

            UCC-1 Restoring                                                             - Ion Velocity (-n)
            Force Maximum Jerk (da/dt)                                          Acceleration
            at zero ion velocity              1.0 RF-Cycle (360o)
                                                                      Notes:
                                                                      1. Absolute Mass Delta max = 2.0
                                                                      2. Max Acceleration at 90o & 270o
                                                                      3. Resulting vxB force Fr out of page
      February 13, 2007                   Andrew Palfreyman & P. M.                                      26
Ceramic
Dielectric
  Parts
                     Oxygen Depletion Zone            Silver Electrodes




                              E-field
BaTiO3
                                                    B-field
                                        vxB
                                        Force



 February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX                   27
   MLT vxB Modulation (1-wB - Max Out (-Z))
      UCC Restoring Forces (- Push) in -Y-Axis
                                                                               Fnet= (mmax*a)-(mmin*a)
Ti Ion Displacement               Ti Ion’s Min. Mass                                n x B Force / Z-Axis
      +Y-Axis
                                  +Pull   +Pull    +Pull   +Pull     -Pull     -Pull    UCC R.F. / Y-Axis
   B-field                                                                                B-field / X-Axis
                                                        B-Field: +90o Phase
   +Push                                                                                  E-field / Y-Axis
                                                         relative to E-field
   North                                                                       UCC       Ti Ion Velocity n
                        -Z-Axis                                                R.F.      Vector / Y-Axis

                                                                                            Max Velocity
Time &                                                                                      Line at Center
X-Axis                                                                                      of UCC
+Z-Axis
                                                                                                 +Y
  B-field                                                          E-Field
  -Push                                                                                +Z                -Z
  South                                 90o
             -Pull      -Pull
Max Energy
 Storage
                                                                                           -Y
               Ti Ion’s Max. Mass                 Time-1          F= mmin*a    View Looking at Vectors
                            F= mmax*a                  UCC-R.F. (+Push) +Y-Axis Down X-Axis at T1

    February 13, 2007                     Paul March - Friendswood, TX                              28
     MLT vxB Modulation (1-wB - NO Output)
         UCC Restoring Forces (- Push) in -Y-Axis                      Fnet= (mmax*a)-(mmin*a)
Ti Ion Displacement                Ti Ion’s Min. Mass                       n x B Force / Z-Axis
       +Y-Axis
                                                                               UCC R.F. / Y-Axis
   B-field                                                                       B-field / X-Axis
                                                B-Field: 0o Phase
   +Push                                                                         E-field / Y-Axis
                                                relative to E-field   UCC
   North                                                                        Ti Ion Velocity n
                                                                      R.F.
                                                                                Vector / Y-Axis
                        -Z-Axis
                                                                                  Max Velocity
Time &                                                                            Line at Center
X-Axis                                                                            of UCC
+Z-Axis                                                                                  +Y
                                                            E-Field
  B-field
  -Push                                                                      +Z                    -Z
  South
  Max
 Energy                                                                                  -Y
                                                           F= mmin*a         View Looking at Vectors
 Storage      Ti Ion’s Max. Mass            Time-1
                                                                               Down X-Axis at T-1
                       F= mmax*a                 UCC-R.F. (+Push) +Y-Axis

    February 13, 2007              Paul March - Friendswood, TX                               29
  MLT vxB Modulation (1-wB - Max Out (+Z))
       UCC Restoring Forces (- Push) in -Y-Axis
                                                                             Fnet= (mmax*a)-(mmin*a)
Ti Ion Displacement                Ti Ion’s Min. Mass                             n x B Force / Z-Axis
       +Y-Axis
                                  +Pull   +Pull    +Pull   +Pull     -Pull   -Pull    UCC R.F. / Y-Axis
   B-field                                          B-Field: -90o Phase                 B-field / X-Axis
   +Push                                             relative to E-field                E-field / Y-Axis
   North                                                                               Ti Ion Velocity n
                        -Z-Axis
                                                   UCC R.F.
                                                                                       Vector / Y-Axis

                                                                                          Max Velocity
Time &                                                                                    Line at Center
X-Axis                                                                                    of UCC
+Z-Axis                                                                                         +Y
 B-field                                                           E-Field
 -Push               -90o                                                            +Z                 -Z
 South
             -Pull      -Pull
  Max
 Energy                                                                                      -Y
 Storage       Ti Ion’s Max. Mass                  Time           F= mmin*a      View Looking at Vectors
                        F= mmax*a                    1  UCC-R.F. (+Push) +Y-Axis   Down X-Axis at T1

    February 13, 2007                     Paul March - Friendswood, TX                             30
    MLT Output Force Scaling Rules
•     Proportional to the applied vxB Magnetic-field
•      The CUBE of the applied Cap Voltage
•      The CUBE of the MLT Operating Frequency
•      The SQUARE of the Cap dielectric constant
•      The thickness of the Cap Dielectric
•     Proportional to the total active Dielectric Mass
•     But Inversely Proportional to the Cap Density
    SEE: March & Palfreyman (STAIF-2006)
    “The Woodward Effect: Math Modeling and Continued Experimental Verifications at 2-to-4 MHz” - AIP

     February 13, 2007                Paul March - Friendswood, TX                              31
MLT Energy Conservation Issues
• The MLT LOCAL input energy required to generate
  a specific thrust could be much less than a rocket’s
  equivalent jet-power of equal power or thrust.

• Every non-local Joule produced by the MLT has to
  come from spacetime momenergy wave exchanges
  with the universe’s gravinertial (G/I) radiation field.

• The source of this G/I radiation field is the mass-
  energy contained in the causally connected universe’s
  estimated 1080 atoms and perhaps the “Dark Energy.”
 February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX       32
    Mach-Effect/Slepian/MLT Drive
    Published Experiments to Date
• James F. Woodward ~1988-to-2007 with max thrust: up to
  750 micro-Newton (mN) measured, with ~25 mN verified at
  ~53kHz with Faraday Shielded MLT in Vacuum – end of 2006
• Hector Brito ~1993-to-2005 with max Self-Contained Slepian
  Thrust measured: up to ~50 mN at 39kHz
• Tom Mahood 1997-to-2007 with max acoustically rectified
  thrust developed: ~0.03-to-15.0 mN at up to 50kHz / 100kHz,
  measured with the U-80 & torque pendulum force sensors
• Paul March 2002-to-2007 with max MLT thrust developed:
  up to ~1k-to-5k mN in two different experiments at 2-to-4MHz
• Nembo Buldrini 2005-to-2006 with max MLT C-O thrust
  measured: ~20mN at ~53kHz, but claimed unexpected results
  February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX        33
Woodward & Mahood’s Family of Mach Drives
                      1996                  1998                           1999




       Woodward                                                          Mahood
                             Woodward/Mahood
2000                         2001 & 2       2002                2003 &      MLT
                                                                On




Woodward                     Woodward               Woodward
  February 13, 2007              Paul March - Friendswood, TX               34
                                                                                        PZT Stacks
1998: Mechanical DFR
                                          Thomas Mahood - STAIF-1999
                              17.5
Force in Micro-Newtons (mN)



                              15.0

                              12.5

                              10.0

                               7.5

                               5.0

                               2.5




                              February 13, 2007          Paul March - Friendswood, TX                35
 1999 CSUF Torque Pendulum Work




                     Tom Mahood, (at Left) was Woodward’s Graduate Student
                     from 1997-to-1999. Small forces, (0.03-to-1.0uN), in Tom’s
                     above torque pendulum were detected while operating in a
                     vacuum, where none should have existed. These results
                     were reported in Mahood’s 1999 Master Thesis at CSUF.
February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX                          36
       Hector Brito’s vxB Slepian Drive
                STAIF-2005
~13mN Predicted; ~50uN Measured                                                 2 3
                                                                            1
                               39kHz                                                         vxB
                                                                                             Force

                                           (10nF)
                                            Qty-3
 ~270V-p                             900-Turns
                                     0.51 milli-H
                                     3.3W dc
      (OR M-E vxB)              42 Gauss

 “what I actually measure is horizontal thrust and last results (still preliminary) are about 50 µN”
                                        09-18-2005 (Argentina)
  February 13, 2007                 Paul March - Friendswood, TX                                37
   MLT-2004 vxB Test Article – 4” OD
                           1,000 pF @10kV,     Fiberglass            #18 AWG Formaleze Magnet Wire
T200-1 Core                Y5R Caps & 10-MW, Tape 1st layer          180C, 74 turns per side, first layer
Segments                   1/2W C.F. Resistors




   1                                   2                                      3
Fiber-Glass Tape, 2nd Layer          #18 AWG 660/46 Litz Wire with Polyester           4-Cap Series leads
                                     / Nylon Insul. 64 turns per side, 2nd layer
                                              + -
                                                          Paul March’s
                                                           first MLT

                                            57 mH
                                                            Both Mag Layers
  4                                                         wired as shown
                                                                                   5
                                                            & then in parallel
       February 13, 2007                Paul March - Friendswood, TX                                   38
    MLT-2004 vxB Force Output Sense
 +/- Cap to +/- Coil
 Series R-L-C Circuit
 Connection Shown
                                                       -       Top &
                                                               Bottom
                                                               Plexiglas
vxB Force is                                                   Mounting
out of the page,                          Coils                Plates
which is defined
as the +Z Sense                                             B-field
                        Caps
                                             -     +         vxB Force
                          +
                                                           E-field
                                -
 E-field in
 Y5R Cap’s                                                   B-field
 Dielectric
 (4 of 8 shown)

   February 13, 2007    Paul March - Friendswood, TX                 39
MLT-2004 HF vxB Test Set-Up                E-field
                                           1-to-3 Step-Up
 +/–Z vxB              +Z
                                           X-former Box
 Thrust Axis                               Max V: 600V-p




Bottom                      Fiber Glass Tube
Mounting                    & Nylon Rod
Plate with                  MLT Stand-off
RTV
                            SCIAME AG-1kg Load Cell         Vacuum Chamber vxB
                       –Z   in Mu-Metal Faraday Shield      +/- Capacitor and
                                                       +    +/- Inductor Terminals
                                                   Caps
                                                      _     Connection shown

10kV Twisted                                        +
Pair Power Feeds
                                        B-field Coils
                                                   _                 Run in Air
Blue/Black - Coil
                                                                     Belden 8898
Red/White - Caps
                                                                    10kV Working
   February 13, 2007        Paul March - Friendswood, TX                    40
          MLT-2004 vxB Resonant Bode Plot
                                      With 1-to-3 Step-Up Transformer
                                                        2.00 MHz
                  10
                        2.2 MHz Operating Point
                   9
                                                                               Voltage Delta: 2.74X
                   8
Output Voltage




                   7
                   6
                   5
                   4     Constant 3.0 V-p Input
                   3
                   2
                   1
                   0
                     z


                             z


                                      z


                                                   z


                                                         z


                                                                   z


                                                                            z


                                                                                      z


                                                                                              z
                    H


                            H


                                     H


                                                  H


                                                        H


                                                                  H


                                                                           H


                                                                                     H


                                                                                             H
                   2M


                          4M


                                  6M


                                           8M


                                                     0M


                                                               2M


                                                                          4M


                                                                                  6M


                                                                                           8M
                 1.


                        1.


                                1.


                                         1.


                                                   2.


                                                             2.


                                                                        2.


                                                                                2.


                                                                                         2.
      March 12, 2005                     Paul March - Friendswood, TX                           41
 MLT-2004 vxB 02-06-2004 DATA
                                                                     Weight Scaling: 1.43 Volt/gram

          o
                  T-Delay = DI-60E Weight Meter Processing Time Delay              98oF
        85 F
                                                0.21 gram-force = 2,059 m-Newton
          Temp.         7.2 sec Force Delta     0.32 gram-force = 3,138 m-Newton          Weight
                          3.76-X Increase       0.43 gram-force = 4,217 m-Newton            464.59g
                    Z 10:00AM         LM34H Temperature Trace
                                                                                    0.17g
  0.65g
                                                                                            464.42g
                                                                                    0.27g
                                                                                            464.15g
  0.48g
                             +Z 10:17AM                                 Peak to Peak     0.21g
                                                463.94g                 Noise: ~0.03
                ~0.20 sec                       No Power                gram-force or
          T                                                             ~147 mN peak 0.64g
               “Sag & Y5R Warm-Up”
                                                                                         0.43g
                  Time: ~6.10 sec
                                ~8.00 sec                                              463.51g -
Volts         MLT Freq: 2.20 MHz                      Load Cell: SCIAME AG-1kg                   Volts
    February 13, 2007                 Paul March - Friendswood, TX                              42
                                      1000
                                                              Measured Output Force
                                                                                                      -Z = 206 dynes (2,060 mN)
Dynes, Amps-peak, VARs/gram & Gauss

                                                     +Z = 422 dynes (4,220 mN)
                                       100


                                                         12.2 dynes Peak at 105V-p
                                                         Direct Calculated
                                        10
                                                                                                  18.0 dynes Peak at 114V-p
                                                                                                  Direct Calculated

                                         1

                                              10Vp    30Vp    50Vp    70Vp      90Vp 110Vp 130Vp 150Vp 170Vp 190Vp
                                                                          Per Capacitor Peak Voltage
                                        0.1
                                                          114V-p/Cap yields - 206 dynes vs 18.0 dynes calculated; Delta = 11.4-to-1
                                                          105V-p/Cap yields + 422 dynes vs 12.2 dynes calculated; Delta = 34.6-to-1

                                       0.01
                                                       MLT-2004 vxB Test Article w/ Eight, 1,000pF, 10kV, Y5R caps in series
                                                       driving paralleled 148/128 Turn Coils with Eight, T-200-1 Core Segments.
                                                       Peak B-field in Caps = 10.5 gauss / Amp-peak: Operating Freq: 2.20 MHz
                                                       (Palfreyman’s “Direct Calculated” V23E vxB Performance Spreadsheet)
                                      0.001


                                                       Current (Amp-p)      B-field (Gauss)      VARs/gram         Force (dynes)

                               February 13, 2007                       Paul March - Friendswood, TX                                43
March &Woodward’s Mach-2MHz MLT
 Mach-2MHz on mount         Mach-2MHz Components            Mach-2MHz Test Stand
                    +Z                                     Max V: 150V-p - 3.8MHz




                    Z                          T106-2
                                                Core
                              Caps

                                     30-turn Coils              ~1k-to-5k mN

                                                                    500pF


                                                                B-field Graph

   143.4 grams Total Mass                                           500pF
                               34G/Amp
February 13, 2007           Paul March - Friendswood, TX                        44
   Feb 19, 2005 Mach-2MHz Data
144.4 grams                     Pendulum “Rocking” Noise
                                               5 sec.                         1.0 gram
                                            2,160 mN                         (9,807 mN)
143.8 grams           +90o/-90o switching                        Z

143.4g                                                                           Calibration
         Start                                                   +Z   Stop       Weight Pulse
142.6 grams                                 Noise=0.093 g-f p-p or 0.046g-f peak (454mN)

February 19, 2005 - Mach-2MHz vxB MLT Data at 2.13MHz
Measured Force Output: +/-626 mN over 21.2 seconds during
twelve, 1-to-2 second manual +90o/-90o phase reversal switching
cycles at 50W, VSWR= ~8-to-1, 120V-p/0.80A-p per cap.
Predicted Derived vxB results: 16.2 mN Plus Delta: 38.6-to-1
  February 13, 2007               Paul March - Friendswood, TX                            45
                                           1000
m -Newton, Amps-Peak, VARs/gram, & Gauss          At 120V-peak, Measure Force = 626 mN                                    Cap Voltage
                                                                                               Measured: ~626 mN
                                                  vs 16.2 mN calculated; Delta = 38.6-to-1                                Flat-Topping
                                                                                                                          Zone
                                            100




                                                                                               16.2 mN (D mass = 0.858)
                                             10




                                              1

                                                  20Vp 40Vp 60Vp 80Vp 100Vp 120Vp 140Vp 160Vp 180Vp 200Vp 220Vp
                                                                             Per Capacitor Peak Voltage
                                            0.1
                                                           Mach-2MHz vxB Test Article w/ Dual 500pF, 15kV, Y5U Caps
                                                           in parallel driving Dual 30-Turn Coils in parallel with dual T-106-2
                                                           Core Segments. Peak B-field in Caps = ~34 gauss/Amp-p, Operating
                                           0.01
                                                           Freq: 2.13 MHz (Palfreyman’s vxB, V23E Direct Cal. Spreadsheet)

                                                              Current/Cap        B-field (G)      VARs/gram      Force (uN)
                                   February 13, 2007                      Paul March - Friendswood, TX                         46
Space Propulsion – ARC Seibersdorf
   Research – Austria: Jan. 2006
                    Unexpected Results                            Mach-6C Potted
                                             (Only)        6.54   52kHz, ~3.8 kV-p
                                                                  Cap-Only Data
                                                                  Experimenter:
                                                                  Nembo Buldrini


                        ~20 mN




February 13, 2007           Paul March - Friendswood, TX                      47
  Woodward’s 2006 “ARC-Lite” C-O
  Torque Pendulum Result in Vacuum
   Left Thrust Trace = ~ -25 uN                Right Thrust Trace = ~ +10 uN




 Cap V-p = 3.8kV-p
 Freq = 53 kHz
(28-Dec-2006)                                                     (29-Dec-2006)
                                                R
                                                            Predicted M-E
                                       L
                                                MLT         Cap-Only (C-O)
       “Croc”                                               vxB Scaling: V4
                                                            Measured: >V4
  February 13, 2007        Paul March - Friendswood, TX                    48
          M-E / MLT Applications
                                            Personal Transportation Engines




                                                          R/C Turbines

                                           “Impulse Drive” for ALL
                                           Terrestrial Vehicles, Trans-
                                           Lunar, Solar System, & …
                                           Interstellar Spacecraft
February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX                         49
 MLT Powered WarpStar-1 Vehicle
 Mission: 12-hour Round Trip to Moon
   with 2,000kg Payload both ways
                      Crew: 2 + 4-Passengers + 1,200kg Cargo
                      POWER: MLT Arrays Mounted in Cabin
                      Power: Batteries & Fuel Cells with H2 in
                      Nose Cone Area, LOX Mounted under Floor.
 Air                      GLOW: 25,105kg 25,000kg? You can only
 Lock
                                                    lift micro-Newtons! How
                                                    do you expect to grow
                                                    mN to ~100k Newtons?!!

(2005 L-M CEV Proposal)
  February 13, 2007       Paul March - Friendswood, TX                 50
Pursuing the M-E Scaling Dragon
• How do we increase the micro-Newton(s)
  thrust levels obtained in MLTs to date, to the
  required thrust levels of hundreds, thousands,
  to hundreds of thousands of Newtons needed
  to power an airplane, or spaceship?
• Use the MLT’s non-linear scaling rules to
  our advantage by increasing the capacitor’s
  ac drive frequency and cap-voltage as high
  as the dielectric permits, while maintaining as
  large a magnetic-field in the caps as possible.
February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX   51
           WarpStar-1 Thrust-to-Power Curves
                                                                                         Max MLT
           1.E+02                                                                        Nuclear Perf.
                            Region where a percentage of
           1.E+01           the MLT input energy could
Newton / Watt


                            come from the FOAM                                          WarpStar-1
           1.E+00
                                            Hz                                          50MHz 1.0

                                            Hz
                                            Hz
                                            Hz

                                              z
                                              z
                                              z
                           z




                                              z
                                              z
                                              z
                                                                                        N/W MLTs




                                            Hz
                1.E-01




                                        00 k H
                                        00 k H
                                        00 k H
                                         0 kH
                                         0 kH
                                         0 kH
                         50 kH
                                      100 k
                                      200 k
                                      400 k
                                      800 k




                                      400 k
                1.E-02




                                   1,6 0
                                   3,2 0
                                   6,4 0
                                  12, 8
                                  25, 6
                                  51, 2
                                 102,
                1.E-03                                                                  Max Chemical
                1.E-04                                                                  Rocket Perf.
                                                             March’s 2-4 MHz MLT’s
                1.E-05                                                                  MLT
                                                   FOAM = Far Off Active Mass           Assumptions:
                1.E-06
                                           Current Turbofans & Rockets                  Cubic Freq.
                1.E-07                     SSME = 2.5x10-4 N/W (Self-contained)         Cubic Volts
                                           Turbofan Jet = 2.5x10-3 N/W (External Air)   Cap DF= 0.5%
                1.E-08                                                                  B-field: 50G
                                   50V-p        200V-p          800V-p       3,200V-p
                1.E-09                                                                  per Cap Amp-
       Woodward’s
       MLTs
                                  MLT Operating Frequency                               rms (R-L-C)

            February 17, 2007               Paul March - Friendswood, TX                        52
     2,500 Newton MLT Module
                 (562 lb-f)                     vxB Force       50G/Amp B-field
~128, 10.0nF at 10kV, Z5U                        Into page      1,500-Turn Coil
(er = ~8,500), 2.41 kg Active                                   Mass = ~2.4 kg
Dielectric Mass, DF= 0.5%                                       i2R Losses: 0.95kW
With Caps Running at:                                             Eight, 2.90cm OD
50MHz at 36.5V-p/Cap                                              by 0.51cm thick
and 81.0 A-rms, which                                             Z5U caps mounted
generates 189.4 kVARs with                                        in Parallel with
Delta Mass Ratio of ~117.                                         16, 8-Cap Groups
Power Dissipated in Caps                                          in toroidal array
= 947W implies Q = ~100       B-field
B-field = ~4,100 Gauss
                               ~7.0cm                             5.0cm (~2.0”) Ht
Newtons/Watt = 1.32
                                                                 21.0cm (~8.3”) OD
A.P./V23H Spreadsheet
Derived Calculated            7.0cm
vxB force Predictions         Mass: ~6 kg; Max Dissipative Power = 1.9 kW-e
   February 13, 2007             Paul March - Friendswood, TX                 53
25kW-e Tesseract MLT Assembly
                B-field is Inversely       r                 Z2-Canister
                Proportional with r                          Mass: 54kg
 50 MHz Osc./Cooling
 30cm Cube, Mass: ~40.0 kg                                       X2-Canister
                                                                 Mass: 54kg
            X1-Canister
            Mass: 54kg                                                         X-Axis
                                                                              +/- 45kN
 MLT-2004                                                                  (+/- 10,116 lb-f)

                                                                Y1 & Y2 Canister
                            Z1-Canister                         Total Mass: 36kg
                            Mass: 54kg
                                                                Y-Axis: +/- 15kN
                                                                  (+/- 3,372 lb-f)
                                                                 Total Mass: ~292 kg
                                       Z-Axis: +/- 45kN          T/W Ratio: ~15.7-to-1
                                         (+/- 10,116 lb-f)       L=H= 120cm W=60cm
February 13, 2007             Paul March - Friendswood, TX                            54
Assumed High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Radiation Shielding at 1gram/cm2: 1,890kg
         Stub-Wing Radiators w/RCC Leading Edge         Heat-Pipe Fed Radiators
                   Fuselage Radiators                       Hatch Window
                                 Emergency                         8.00m
                                 Hatch

                                        H2
 Air       Cargo                                        2.2m                       4.00m
                                        H2
Lock                                                    Hatch                        OD
                                        H
                                        2
   600kg LOX           LOX
   Crew & Passenger Seats               MLTs 4 LOX Tanks
           ~15.0m                                Telescopic Landing Gear
           (~49.2’)
          ~




                          ~ 11.0m     ~ 3.00m
                    ~




Stub-Wings
                          (~36.1’)    (~9.84’)
                              Li-Poly Batteries
                                                      WarpStar-1
                                                             Estimated fueled Mass
          Cargo                                              without Payload: 24,465kg
Air                                               ~ 4.00m OD Payload Mass: 2,000kg
                                        H2
Lock                                                (~13.1’) GLOW: ~26,465kg with
          Cargo
                                                             Max Acceleration = 2.0g
Stub-Wings                                        3, 1m x 3m H2 Tanks w/ 75kg H2 each
       6 Fuel Cells     Emergency Hatch           Crew Instrument Panels
February 13, 2007   Rev-E     Paul March - Friendswood, TX                           55
  WarpStar-1 12-Hour, Constant 2.1E-g
                            MLT’s Eff. Q = ~70
          Power Subsystem at 50MHz
164 kWt (typ.)
75kg 100kW/130kWp 2.5kWt             T1              T4         T7              T10
 H2     PEM-PBI      Nom.
600kg 55% Fuel Cells
LOX     2X-100kg
                        ~                                                 H2O              E
75kg 100kW/130kWp                   T2               T5         T8              T11        C
 H2     PEM-PBI                                                                            L
600kg 55% Fuel Cells                                                                       S
LOX     2X-100kg
                                                                          H2O
                                                                                           G

                                          ~
75kg 100kW/130kWp                   T3              T6         T9            T12
                        ~




                                                                                           N
 H2     PEM-PBI                                                                            &
600kg 55% Fuel Cells                                                                       C
LOX     2X-100kg
                                                                          H2O
Start-Up & Recharge            18kW-hr, 100kg        18kW-hr, 100kg  18kW-hr, 100kg
Li-Poly Batt & Caps: 445kg     Li-Poly Battery       Li-Poly Battery Li-Poly Battery
EPD&C: 150kg                  w/ 33kg Ultra-Caps w/ 33kg Ultra-Caps w/ 33kg Ultra-Caps
6 Fuel Cells (600kg) + Fuel 2,025kg + 6, 50kg Tanks = 2,925kg
Total Power Generation Subsystem: 3,520kg / 26,465kg = 13.3% of GLOW              N2 LOX
    February 13, 2007           Paul March - Friendswood, TX                          56
           WarpStar-1 Thermal Control
                   Subsystem
                Dual Redundant
                 Heat Pumps
                                                                     Top of fuselage and Top &
     MLT                                                             Bottom of Stub-Wings covered
   Subsystem       HP1            3 or 4-Way Mixing Valves           with Integrated Radiator Panels in
   30.0 kW-p                                                         Gold/Pink areas with total
  60C Thermal      HP2           ~24m2 Stub-Wings                    Area= 224m2 with Emissivity= 0.85

    Power
  Generation
                                   Air                                                     ~ 4.00m OD
   Subsystem                               ~180C                    ~176.0m2
                                  Lock                                                       (~13.1’)
  492.0 kW-p
 180C Thermal

   EC& LSS                       ~24m2 Stub-Wings                                         ~ 2.0 meter (m)
                   HP3
   Subsystem                                         Emergency Hatch                            typ.
   10.0 kW-p       HP4                        ~ 12.0m                          ~ 3.00m
  30C Thermal                                 (~39.4’)                         (~9.84’)
                                                            ~15.0m
Peak Thermal Load: 532kWt                                   (~49.2’)
  Assumed: Heat rejection to space via IR E&M radiation from a single layer radiator scales with
  radiator temperature to the 4th power (T4). Therefore if we can triple the radiator’s operating
  temperature via heat pumps, the radiator surface area is decreased by a factor of 1/3 4 (1/81).
    February 13, 2007                Paul March - Friendswood, TX                                 57
Current MLT Engineering Issues
• Controlling phase relationship between
  E- and B-fields in High-K ceramic dielectrics
  under high stress conditions.
• Understanding the B-field Generation in
  Cap-Only (C-O) MLT configurations.
• Mitigating and Controlling heat buildup in
  the MLT capacitors and B-field coils.
• Developing low D.F. (<0.5%) , High-K (e-r >
  10k) capacitors with 10,000+ hour lifetimes.
February 13, 2007   Paul March - Friendswood, TX   58
                                 MLT vxB Thrust: Cap-V vs Freq.
Saturn-V F1 Engine
Thrust: 6,672,300 N                                                                        Mach-2MHz MLT
100MHz                1.00E+13                                                               Series R-L-C
2,550Vp               1.00E+11                                                             Extrapolated Data
2.7 Tesla             1.00E+09                                                           Based on Palfreyman’s
                      1.00E+07
                                                                                         V23E W-E Spreadsheet
                      1.00E+05
            Newtons




                      1.00E+03
                                                                                        Where we want to
                      1.00E+01
                                                                                        be and where MLT
                       1.00E-01
                                                                                        theory says we can go.
                       1.00E-03

 ~50mN                 1.00E-05                                                         5.00E+08
                       1.00E-07                                                     5.00E+07 Frequency (Hz)
                       1.00E-09                                                   5.00E+06
                        1.00E-11                                                500,000
                              0V


                                    0V




                                                                               50,000
                                           0V
                            10




                                                    0V
                                   50




                                                            0V
                                           50




March’s 2MHz
                                                                   0V
                                                    50


                                                           50
                                         1,




                                                                   50
                                                  2,




                                                                               Woodward’s 50kHz MLTs
                                                         3,


                                                                 4,




~0.001N MLTs
                                   Peak Capacitor Voltage                      Measured Data (~0.00005N)
Measured Data
    February 13, 2007                           Paul March - Friendswood, TX                             59
           Future M-E Applications
Technology                                                     Warp Drives ~2040
 Maturity


                                   G/I Thermal
                                    Radiators
                                         ~2030
                      HFGW Radio
                           ~2020                               G-Field Generators   ~2035

                                             G/I Power
                                                              ~2025
                                             Generators
                           Recycled Propellant
                                                     ~2015
                               Propulsion                                 Development
 M-E                                                                         Time

  February 13, 2007            Paul March - Friendswood, TX                         60

				
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