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Inquiry-Based Learning How It Looks, Sounds and Feels http://www.suhsd.k12.ca.us/suh/---suhionline/inquirybased.htm http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/index_sub1.html How does Inquiry Lessons differ from the traditional approach? In general, the traditional approach to learning is focused on mastery of content, with less emphasis on the development of skills and the nurturing of inquiring attitudes. The current system of education is teacher centered, with the teacher focused on giving out information about "what is known." Students are the receivers of information, and the teacher is the dispenser. Much of the assessment of the learner is focused on the importance of "one right answer." Traditional education is more concerned with preparation for the next grade level and in-school success than with helping a student learn to learn throughout life. What Is Inquiry and Why Do It? Inquiry-based Learning The inquiry approach is more focused on using and learning content as a means to develop information-processing and problem-solving skills. The system is more student centered, with the teacher as a facilitator of learning. There is more emphasis on "how we come to know" and less on "what we know." Students are more involved in the construction of knowledge through active involvement. The more interested and engaged students are by a subject or project, the easier it will be for them to construct in- depth knowledge of it. Learning becomes almost effortless when something fascinates students and reflects their interests and goals. Definitions from Students n“When you do stuff that is real.” n“It is like projects and things that take a long time.” n“When kids work in groups or with partners and make big things.” n“It’s fun!” Five Characteristics of Inquiry-Based Learning 1. Bloom’s Taxonomy Inquiry-based Learning asks questions that come from the higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. BLOOM’S TAXONOMY 6. Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate 5. Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, write. 4. Analysis: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test. 3.Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write. 2. Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, translate, 1. Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state. handouts . 2. Asks Questions that Motivate Inquiry-Based Learning involves questions that are interesting and motivating to students. 3. Utilizes wide variety of resources Inquiry-based Learning utilizes a wide variety of resources so students can gather information and form opinions. Inquiry in the Classroom 4. Teacher as Facilitator Teachers play a new role as guide or facilitator Teacher as Guide nWhat does facilitating a class really mean? Rather than teach content, you will manage team member interactions so that teams stay focused and make progress. With your careful encouragement, each team's problem, plan of action, and outcome will emerge on its own, the unique product of its members' collective strengths and interests. In your role of facilitator, you will begin by briefing students on their projects they will be doing. When team work begins, you will spend most of your time observing team members to determine what problems they are having working together and completing their assignments. 5. Meaningful products come out of inquiry-based learning Learning in the Classroom nCooperative Learning nTeamwork nExcitement nPresenting nMovement Five Kinds of Questions Need to be Asked in Inquiry-based Learning 1.Inference Questions 2.Interpretation Questions 3.Transfer Questions 4.Questions about Hypotheses 5.Reflective Questions The Art of Questioning by Denise Wolf Research project for the Rockefeller Foundation. Inference Questions… nAsk students to go beyond the immediately available information. nAsk students to look for clues, examine them and decide if they have a role Examples of Inference Questions n“What conclusions can you draw by looking at this photograph?” n“How did the author feel about the character in the story?” Interpretation Questions… nAsk students to predict what consequences may occur as a result of a given scenario. nAsk students to combine past knowledge of situations and new factual information. Examples… n“You found that Sports Illustrated actually had more tobacco ads than any other magazine we looked at. What does that say about Sports Illustrated?” n“We read and loved two books by Hill. What patterns did you see that you think might be present in the third book?” Transfer Questions… nAsk students to take their knowledge and apply it to new situations. nAsk students to expand their thinking. Examples… n“We found many patterns in math today. Now let’s look at our Language Arts lesson on adverbs. Let’s see what patterns you find there?” n“We learned how to make Inspiration webs from paragraphs in our textbook. Now let’s try going the other way and making a web and then writing a paragraph from it.” Questions about Hypotheses… nAsk students to predict outcomes and carry out tests to discover new knowledge. nQuestions are often seen in science, but belong in all disciplines. Example: n“How can we find out if Energizer batteries really last the longest?” Reflective Questions… nAsk students to look again at the beliefs they have and the evidence that supports them. nLead students back into investigation. Examples… n“How do we really know that there are no aliens out there?” n“How do we know that the show on TV was telling the truth?” Where do You Begin? nExamine your lessons nListen to the questions you ask. nStart with small projects and slowly expand. nRemember, children who are not used to thinking may not know how to approach problems. Be the guide. Planning an Inquiry Lesson 1.Think of a topic or standard you might teach in your area. 2.Write down several questions you might ask to motivate your students. 3. Label the type of question it is as explained in this PowerPoint presentation. Inquiry-based Learning in Classrooms http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/dem onstration.html Students Doing Inquiry-based Learning Students view themselves as learners in the process of learning. *They look forward to learning. *They demonstrate a desire to learn more. *They seek to collaborate and work cooperatively with teacher and peers. *They are more confident in learning, demonstrate a willingness to modify ideas and take calculated risks, and display appropriate skepticism. http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/index_sub2.html Students accept an "invitation to learn" and willingly engage in an exploration process. *They exhibit curiosity and ponder observations. *They move around, selecting and using the materials they need. *They confer with their classmates and teacher about observations and questions. *They try out some of their own ideas. Students raise questions, propose explanations, and use observations. *They ask questions (verbally and through actions). *They use questions that lead them to activities generating further questions or ideas. *They observe critically, as opposed to casually looking or listening. *They value and apply questions as an important part of learning. *They make connections to previous ideas. Students plan and carry out learning activities. *They design ways to try out their ideas, not always expecting to be told what to do. *They plan ways to verify, extend, confirm, or discard ideas. *They carry out activities by: using materials, observing, evaluating, and recording information. *They sort out information and decide what is important. *They see detail, detect sequences and events, notice change, and detect differences and similarities. Students communicate using a variety of methods. *They express ideas in a variety of ways, including journals, drawing, reports, graphing, and so forth. *They listen, speak, and write about learning activities with parents, teacher, and peers. *They use the language of learning, apply the skills of processing information, and develop their own "ground rules" appropriate for the discipline. Students critique their learning practices. *They use indicators to assess their own work. *They recognize and report their strengths and weaknesses. *They reflect on their learning with their teacher and their peers. The importance of inquiry learning is that students learn how to continue learning. This is something they can take with them throughout life -- beyond parental help and security, beyond a textbook, beyond the time of a master teacher, beyond school -- to a time when they will often be alone in their learning.
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