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									V. Appendices
  A.     Appendix 1:   Kamehameha Schools Hawaiian Language Competencies
  Kamehameha Schools
   Hawaiian Language
Submitted to the Headmasters of Kamehameha Schools
    (Dr. Michael J. Chun, Dr. Rod Chamberlain, and Dr. Stanley Fortuna)
                                                 P R E F A C E

This document is a work in progress. It launches the process of defining the essential language and cultural knowledge useful and

practical for Kamehameha students to develop before graduation. These competencies are not designed to be a mere checklist. The

true test of the value of these competencies is in their thoughtful implementation. For example, learning the factual information

should be the result of meaningful experiential activities, not simply of memorization. Nor should the competencies be interpreted

as a rigid rule. A student interested in music may want to satisfy part of the language, literature and music competencies in the

creation of an original song. If the student then goes on to perform the song for an audience, it will satisfy a part of the community

competency as well. It is a tool which, when applied with heart, will support each student to discover again and again what it is to

be a Hawaiian. It is hoped that the knowledge contained in the competencies will come alive as a living and breathing part of each

student‟s life. May this instrument continue to be refined in the spirit of Nohona Hawai‘i [holistic application of ‘Ike Hawai‘i] so
that it becomes an integral part of the process of our students acquiring an understanding of what it is to live in today‟s society as a

 Hawaiian Language Competencies Overview

Contributors: Tri-campus Committee [Kapälama, Maui and Hawai„i Campus Representatives]; Kapälama Hawaiian Language
              Committee; Competencies Sub-committee, Faculty Competencies Review Committee, Students, Faculty, Staff and
              Alumni of Kapälama campus; and the Faculty of Maui and Hawai„i campuses.

Levels:      These competencies are not rigid.
             Foundational level is the initial building block to language learning, likened to planting a seed. It refers to the set of
             competencies all Kamehameha students must meet before high school graduation.
             Developing level is based on the foundational knowledge and helps to build personal understanding, much like the seed
             growing into a flower. It refers to the set of competencies which are possible for Kamehameha students to meet
             between elementary school and the end of middle school or through student‟s activities in the community.
             Advanced level fosters a deeper understanding and appreciation for what it is to be a Hawaiian, similar to the flower
             developing into a fruit. It refers to the set of competencies which are possible for those students who take fourth year
             or fifth year Hawaiian in high school or those who have extensive immersion school experience. “Developing”
             includes “foundational competencies” and “advanced” includes “foundational” and “developing” levels. It is expected
             that as Kamehameha grows in experience as a Hawaiian school, these competency levels as well as the competencies
             themselves will grow.

Language:    Conscious effort was made to use language which would be understandable to all. The language used to describe
             competencies is specific when particular items [e.g. songs] must be learned, and general when a variety of means are
             available and discretion can be used to meet the competencies.

The How:     An attempt has been made to honor the experiences of students outside of Kamehameha. Competencies can be
             acquired through a variety of means from formal Hawaiian language courses offered from K-12 and from the Hawaiian
             language experiences through extracurricular activities, home and the community. Some competencies may be
             acquired from courses other than Hawaiian language [e.g. English, Performing Arts, Ekalesia, Hawaiian History, etc.]
             and from the daily bulletin, morning announcements, Song Contest, Character Education community service, etc. Yet
             competencies may be acquired informally by enlisting the help from other knowledgeable students, coaches, teachers
             and community members.
Timeframe:   These competencies can be met any time during the student‟s life at Kamehameha regardless of when the student
             entered Kamehameha. Some students may even meet all the foundational competencies at the time of entry.

Scope:       This set of competencies applies to all three Kamehameha campuses. Each school community will develop its own
             implementation plan, assessment and evaluation.
COMMUNICATION:                  1) interpersonal communication, 2) listening and reading skills and 3) oral, written and visual presentations, all
                                conducted in Hawaiian language
Value: Honor ancestors and elders, family, school, self, protocol and the Hawaiian oral tradition
     TOPICS                  FOUNDATIONAL                                   DEVELOPING                                        ADVANCED
      Self             1. Trace genealogy [at least 3            1. Present genealogy orally and/or in writing    1. Present genealogy tracing as far
      Family              generations; use lineal descent].         [at least 3 generations].                        back as possible.

      Home             2. Interpret body language correctly      2. Use formal greetings and closings.        2. Interact with Hawaiian speakers
                           [e.g. head level for respect, eye                                                      using more complex Hawaiian
      School
                           contact when spoken to or when     3. Interact with Hawaiian speakers using basic      [e.g. teachers, küpuna, visitors and
      Occupation          scolded, putting a hand on head       Hawaiian [e.g. teachers, küpuna, visitors and    family].
                           for deep thinking, etc.].             family].
      Sports                                                                                                  3. Read, listen to and view authentic*
      Leisure          3. Develop correct pronunciation and 4. Read with comprehension basic materials in        materials with comprehension
                           enunciation.                          Hawaiian.
      Clothing                                                                                                4. Deliver prepared and impromptu
                        4. Use greetings, leave-takings and   5. Deliver prepared presentation.                   speeches on topics important to the
      Events              courtesy expressions [e.g. How are                                                     self and for protocol.
      Protocol            you?; thank, apologize, express    6. Create basic writing pieces.
                           failure to understand, greet                                                        5. Express in written form complex
                           küpuna appropriately,              Apply #3 - #6 in the following contexts:            ideas and thoughts [e.g. letters,
                        address others appropriately].            a. identifying objects, people, and location    essays, research paper...].
                                                                        [e.g. related to home, family, school,
                        5. Give and follow simple instructions          sports, leisure activities, clothing and
                           [e.g. come inside, sit down,                 occupation]
                           listen...].                               b. naming kinship terms [e.g. sibling
                        6. Use the alphabet, the spelling               relationship, how to refer to the same
                           system, and the resources correctly          gender, age difference...]
                           [e.g. dictionary of place names...].      c. expressing likes, dislikes, preferences,
                                                                         needs and feelings
                        7. Provide and obtain basic personal         d. inviting people to events
                           and practical information about           e. requesting things and asking for help
                           self [e.g. full name, nickname,           f. planning for activities
                           parents, küpuna, birthplace and           g. negotiating for desired outcome
                           residence, tel. #, address...].
*Authentic: Literature, oral excerpts and other resources accepted by the general community of Hawaiian speakers
both native and bilingual.
Values: Honor the Hawaiian customs and traditions; create harmony with people, environment and God

     TOPICS              FOUNDATIONAL                                   DEVELOPING                                     ADVANCED

   Music          1. Sing songs in Hawaiian:           1. Sing songs in Hawaiian and explain the basic 1. Translate and give the meaning
                      [number of verses are campus         background and the meaning of the following:    and the main idea of the following:
                      specific]                           [number of verses are campus specific]
                                                                                                              a. Patriotic song [Kuläiwi]
                      a. Patriotic songs [Hawai‘i          a. Patriotic song [Kaulana Nä Pua]
                         Pono‘ï, Ka Na‘i Aupuni]                                                              b. Christian hymns [Kanaka Waiwai,
                                                           b. Christian hymns [‘Ekolu Mea Nui, Ke Akua         Ua Mau]
                      b. Christian hymns [Ho‘onani i           Mana ë, Iesü nö ke Kahuhipa, Queen’s
                         ka Makua Mau, Hawai‘i Aloha]          Prayer]                                        c. School Song(s) [campus specific]

                      c. School songs [I Mua               c. School song(s) [campus specific]             2. Create original songs in Hawaiian
                         Kamehameha, He Inoa no                                                               following the guidelines and
                         Pauahi, Pauahi ‘o Kalani]                                                            techniques of song composition.

   Chant          1. Recite memorized chants with     1. Recite memorized chants with correct             1. Recite a repertoire of chants in
    [Mele Oli]        correct pronunciation,              pronunciation, enunciation and intonation.           appropriate contexts with proper
                      enunciation and intonation.         Identify the appropriate context and protocol        protocol. Translate the chants into
                      Identify the appropriate context    for each chant. Summarize the meaning of             English. Provide information
                      and protocol for each chant.        the chants in English.                               regarding important places in the
                                                                                                               chant and hidden meanings [e.g.
                      a. Entering chant [call and         a. Thanking chant                                    ko‘ihonua, genealogical or migration
                         response]                                                                             chant].
                                                          b. Name chants
                      b. Greeting chant
                                                          c. Occasional chants [i.e. chants appropriate to 2. Compose chants following the
                      c. Giving lei chant
                                                             occasions of significance]                       guidelines, techniques and protocol
                                                                                                              of chant composition.
Values: Honor the Hawaiian customs and traditions; create harmony with people, environment and God
    TOPICS               FOUNDATIONAL                               DEVELOPING                                     ADVANCED

   Pule and       1. Recite memorized prayer in           1. Recite memorized prayer:                   1. Offer impromptu prayer with
    Scripture         Hawaiian. Identify the appropriate      a. Pule a ka Haku [Lord’s Prayer]             appropriate pule construction.
                      context and protocol [e.g. offer the
                      kupuna when present to do the        2. Recite from memory one personally          2. Recite from memory two personally
                      prayer...].                             meaningful verse from the Bible with          meaningful verses from the Bible
                                                              correct pronunciation. Translate the verse    with correct pronunciation.
                      a. Pule Kahikolu [Trinity Prayer        into English.                                 Translate the verses into English.
                         - In the name of the Father...]

                      b. pule ho‘omaika‘i [a grace for

                   2. Read one personally meaningful
                      verse from the Bible with correct
                      pronunciation. Translate the verse
                      into English.
Value: Honor the wisdom of words, homeland, nature and the traditional food and the interconnectedness of all
NOTE: Competencies should require higher order thinking skills and personally meaningful applications.
    TOPICS              FOUNDATIONAL                               DEVELOPING                                   ADVANCED
   Literatur 1.    Recite and identify               1.    Recite and identify                   1.    Recite and identify
e                  appropriate                             appropriate context with                    appropriate context with
                     context for at least 5                literal and figurative                      literal and figurative
                   „ölelo no„eau.                          meanings for at                             meanings for at least 20
                     Translate them into                     least 10 „ölelo no„eau.                   „ölelo no„eau. Translate
                   English.                                Translate them into                         them into English.
                2. Identify key Hawaiian                                                          2. Translate into English
                historical                   2.   Identify and analyze key                        authentic*
                   and literary figures         works of literature and their                          Hawaiian literature and
                   [e.g. Kamehameha, Mäui,      personal significance.                            sources.
                   Pele...]. Evaluate their
                                                                                                  3. Tell stories using the
                   significance.             3. Summarize in Hawaiian a
                                                story written in English.
                                                                                                       Hawaiian story-telling
                3. Identify the
                   significance of mo„olelo
                   (story) of one‟s own wahi                                                      4.    Compose an original story
                   pana (home or other                                                            in
                   special place).                                                                       Hawaiian.

   Geography 1.    Identify the main 8         Identify the poetic Hawaiian 1. Identify the districts of
&                  Hawaiian islands.           name of each                  each island.
     History                                     Island.
                2. Identify the major town,                                  2. Identify nä kai „ewalu
                flower,                      2. Identify a wind, a rain, and    (ocean channels).
                     color, mountains, songs   the districts of
                and ali„i                        student‟s home island.      3. Identify the Küpuna
                     of each island.                                         Islands.
                                             3. Identify significant
                                               historical places and facts   4. Identify and provide
                3. Identify the kings,
                                               [campus specific].               information in Hawaiian
                   queens and other members
                                                                                about the sacred and
                   of royal family [e.g.
                                             4. Identify significant            historic places.
                   Kamehameha, Kaläkaua,       historical events and
                   Lili‘uokalani,                explain their historical    5. Identify significant
                   Lunalilo...].               impact.                          historical places and facts.
                                                                                Explain their impact on
                4. Identify the significant                                     people living today.
                     events of the Hawaiian                                  6. Identify significant
                language.                                                       historical events and
                     [e.g. introduction of                                      explain their impact on
                written                                                         today‟s society.
*Authentic: Literature, oral excerpts and other resources accepted by the
general community of Hawaiian speakers both native and bilingual.
SOCIETY (continued)
Value: Honor the wisdom of words, homeland, nature and the traditional food and the
interconnectedness of all
NOTE: Competencies should require higher order thinking skills and personally meaningful
    TOPICS            FOUNDATIONAL                     DEVELOPING                         ADVANCED

   Science      1. Identify native plants 1. Recite the moon phases and         1. Identify terminologies
                 and                         explain their                       for Hawaiian
                       animals and explain        cultural significance.              measurements and
                 their cultural                                                  amounts.
                      significance.          2. Identify the relationships
                                                between areas of an ahupua„a     2. Discuss the relationship
                 2. Identify the land           [e.g. parts of lo‘i (irrigated   of ahupua„a
                 divisions and                  taro garden), parts of                elements in Hawaiian.
                       explain their            fishpond, parts of wa‘a
                 cultural significance          (canoe), parts of the hale       3. Participate in
                      [i.e. mountain to the     (house)...].                     sustaining or restoring
                 sea].                                                                balance in ecosystem
                                             3. Participate in and reflect       [e.g. taro
                 3. Participate in and       upon culturally                          irrigation, fishing,
                 reflect upon                     significant activities         canoeing and the
                      culturally significant involving the ecosystem                  traditional Hawaiian
                 activities                       [e.g. taro irrigation,         house...].
                      involving the          fishing, canoeing the
                 ecosystem [e.g.                  traditional Hawaiian
                       taro irrigation,      house...]. Investigate
                 fishing, canoeing and            and analyze the impacts of
                       the traditional       the role of each
                 Hawaiian house...].              element/aspect/player.

   Health and   1. Identify and participate 1. Identify the process of          1. Use Hawaiian to
    Wellness     in the                         harvesting, preparing and        demonstrate the
                     preparation of             eating Hawaiian food.                  preparation of Hawaiian
                 Hawaiian food.                                                  food.
                     Use protocol            2. Examine the significance of
                 associated with food        traditional                         2. Examine the historical
                     etiquette [e.g.              Hawaiian food [e.g. kapu,      and cultural
                 kupuna eats first, poi      kinolau...].                             significance of
                     etiquette, communal                                         Hawaiian life-style
                 nature of                   3. Examine the evolution of              practices [birthing,
                     eating...].             Hawaiian                            ceremonial...].
                                                  lifestyle and its impact on
                                             health                              3. Examine the evolution of
                                                  [e.g. physical, mental,        Hawaiian
                                             emotional,                               lifestyle and its
 Values: Honor, care and nurture community, land and sea
   TOPICS        FOUNDATIONAL                DEVELOPING                                     ADVANCED

 Our         1. Participate in one of       1.    Participate in one of the   1.     Help to plan and organize a
Community     the following:                      following and                      Hawaiian
                                                    explain the personal               civic event or
                   a. Hawaiian civic              meaning of the event:              performance.
              events [Kü i
                        ka Pono march,              a. law case on the topic   2.     Interact at a high level
              ceremonies,                         of Hawaiian civic                  with native/
                        presentations...]                issues                        bilingual speakers [e.g.
                   b.   Public performance          b. public discussion on            program...]
              [dance,                             Hawaiian issues
                         song, speech...]                                      3.     Expand the body of Hawaiian
                                             2.    Converse with                       language resources [e.g.
              2. Greet and interact with          native/bilingual speakers          chants, materials for
              native/                             using basic Hawaiian.              immersion programs...].
                   bilingual speakers.
                                             3.    Expand the body of knowledge 4.    Assume the role and
              3. Use the Hawaiian-           in                                      responsibility to
              related                           Hawaiian resources [e.g.               demonstrate the
                    resources for research websites,                                 appropriate protocol
              [e.g.                             magazine articles,                     for one‟s role in the
                   internet sites,         artwork...].                              ÿohana and the
              literary magazines...].                                                  community.
                                           4. Demonstrate the protocol for
              4. Identify the              one‟s role in
                 appropriate context and        the ohana and the
                 protocol for one‟s role community.
                 in the
                 ÿohana and the
                 community, and
                 demonstrate this
                 knowledge [e.g.
                 kaikaina, kaikua‘ana...]
                 in the school setting.

 Our ‗äina   1. Perform community           1. Perform community service and 1. Plan and participate in
and kai       service                        explain the                      community
                   [e.g. reforestation,           personal meaning.                service project.
              beach clean-up,
                   He‘eia fishpond...]       2. Identify and explain Pauahi‟s 2. Explain how Pauahi‟s land
                                             land legacy in                   benefits
              2. Identify and explain             terms of historical              the community at large
              Pauahi‟s                       perspective [e.g. how the           [e.g. Kamehameha School’s
                   Kamehameha School              land came to her               sibling relationship with
                                             ownership...], and the uses
              campus [e.g.                                                       other ali‘i trusts...].
B. Appendix 2: KHS Department Head Survey Results
   1.  A chart representation of competencies currently addressed
      Although cursory in nature the result of the survey reveal that even within the
      same course there is a wide divergence in the coverage of competencies.
      Therefore, the course name identified next to each competency may vary
      according to the teacher.
COMMUNICATION:       1) interpersonal communication, 2) listening and reading skills and
3) oral, written and visual presentations, all conducted in Hawaiian language
Value:      Honor ancestors and elders, family, school, self, protocol and the Hawaiian oral
    TOPICS           FOUNDATIONAL                       DEVELOPING                        ADVANCED
               1.   Trace genealogy      1. Present genealogy
                                      Hw 4                                 Hw 4    1. Present genealogy     Hw 4
   Self                              Hw
                                         orally and/or                     Hw Cult
                                                                                   tracing                  HBiolo
              [at least 3                Cult                                                               gy
 Family      generations; use        CE       in writing [at              Hw 1          as far back as
                                         least 3 generations].             Hw Cult possible.
              lineal descent]. Hw 1
 Home                                   2. Use formal greetings                   2. Interact with
            2. Interpret body    Hw                                        Hw 1                             Hw 3,
                                    Cult and                               Sp/com Hawaiian
 School      language correctly Hw
              [e.g. head level      Hist
                                               closings.                   Hw 2
                                                                                         speakers using     4
 Occupatio                      HumRel 3.   Interact with                 Hw Cult more
              for respect, eye
                                         Hawaiian speakers                               complex Hawaiian
n             contact when                     using basic Hawaiian
                                                                           Hw 1
                                                                                         [e.g. teachers,
              spoken to or when
 Sports                                 [e.g.                                     küpuna,
              scolded, putting                 teachers, küpuna,                        visitors and
 Leisure     a hand on head Hw 1 visitors and                                     family].
 Clothing    for deep           Hw          family].                      Hw 1    3. Read, listen to
              thinking, etc.]. Hw Cult 4. Read with                                and view                 Hw 4
 Events    3. Develop correct      Hist comprehension basic                             authentic*
              pronunciation and Art            materials in                        materials with
 Protocol    enunciation.
                                         Hawaiian.                                       comprehension
                                 Hw 1                                                                       Hw 3
            4. Use greetings,    Speech 5.   Deliver prepared                      4. Deliver prepared
              leave-takings and Hw       presentation.                     Hw 1    and
                                    Cult                                   Hw Hist
              courtesy           Hw      6. Create basic writing                         impromptu
              expressions [e.g.     Hist pieces.                                   speeches on
              How are you?;         S.
                                         Apply #3 - #6 in the                            topics important   Hw 3
              thank, apologize,          following contexts:               Hw 1    to the
              express failure               a.    identifying                            self and for
              to understand,                 objects, people,                      protocol.
                                                   and location            Hw 2    5. Express in
                 greet and address                                         Hw Hist written form
                 küpuna and others Hw 1              [e.g. related to      Hw 2
                                                     home, family,                       complex ideas
                 appropriately}. Hw Cult                                   Hw Hist
               5. Give and follow     Rel.
                                                     school, sports,       Hw 2
                                         S.          leisure               Hw Hist
                                                                                         thoughts [e.g.
                 simple                                                            letters,
                                                                           Hw 2
                 instructions [e.g.   Hw 1
                                                                                         essays, research
                 come inside, sit     Hw             clothing and                  paper...].
                 down, listen...].    Hw
               6. Use the                Hist   b.     naming kinship
                 alphabet, the                       terms [e.g. sibling
                 spelling system,                    relationship, how
                 and t he
                                      Hw 1
                                                     to refer to the
                 resources            Speech         same gender, age
                 correctly [e.g.      Hw             difference...]
*Authentic: Literature, oral excerpts and other resources accepted by the general
community of Hawaiian speakers both native and bilingual.
 Legend:      Hw 4=Hawaiian Language Level 4, Hw Cult=Hawaiian Culture, Hw Hist=Hawaiian History, Hum
 Rel=Human Relations, Sp/com=Speech Communications, Sp/deb=Speech and Debate, Board=Boarding Program,
 Ec/Soc=Economics or Social Studies, USH/S=?, WHist=World History, Art Hist=Art History, HUSHist=Honors
 U.S. History, Vis Art=Visual Art,
 HPLit=?, HWH=Honors World History, StAct=?,
 Tech/B=Technology/Business, CE=Character Education, Rel. S.=Religious Studies
Values: Honor the Hawaiian customs and traditions; create harmony with people, environment and
      TOPICS            FOUNDATIONAL                          DEVELOPING                              ADVANCED
                                                  1. Sing songs in Hawaiian                1. Translate and give
     Music      1.    Sing songs in              and explain                              the
                      Hawaiian:                        the basic background and                  meaning and the
                         [number of               the meaning                              main idea
                      verses are                       of the following:                         of the          Hw 1
                                                                                  Hw 1                           Hw
                      campus specific]   Hw 1     [number of verses               Hw
                                         Hw                                                                            Hist
                                            His       are campus specific]        Hist
                        a. Patriotic        t                                     Hw            a. Patriotic song Board
                                                                                  Cult     [Kuläiwi]
                       songs [Hawai‘i    Rel.         a. Patriotic song                                           Hw 3
                       Pono‘ï, Ka Na‘i              [Kaulana Nä Pua]
                       Aupuni]           Hw 1                                     Hw 2           b. Christian hymns
                      b. Christian       Sp/Deb                                                 [Kanaka
                       hymns [Ho‘onani      His       b. Christian hymns                             Waiwai, Ua Mau]
                       i ka Makua Mau,      t       [‘Ekolu Mea Nui,                                                   Hw 4
                       Hawai‘i Aloha]    Board
                                                           Ke Akua Mana ë, Iesü                   c. School
                                         Rel.       nö ke                                       Song(s) [campus
                                            S.            Kahuhipa, Queen’s                            specific]
                                         Hw 1
                        c. School        Sp/Deb     Prayer]
                      songs [I Mua       Hw                                                2.    Create original
                                            His        c. School song(s)                        songs in Hawaiian
                       Kamehameha, He    Rel.     [campus specific]                             following the
                       Inoa no Pauahi,      S.                                                  guidelines and
                       Pauahi ‘o                                                                techniques of song
                       Kalani]                                                                  composition.
                 1. Recite memorized     Hw       1. Recite memorized chants      Hw Cul   1.    Recite a              Hw 4
     Chant      chants                  Cult
                                         Rel.     with correct                                  repertoire of chants   Hw
      [Mele Oli]      with correct       S.            pronunciation,                           in appropriate
                      pronunciation,                 enunciation and                            contexts with proper
                      enunciation and                  intonation. Identify                     protocol. Translate
                      intonation.                    the appropriate                            the chants into
                 Identify the                          context and protocol                     English. Provide
                      appropriate                    for each chant.                            information
                 context and                           Summarize the meaning of                 regarding important
                      protocol for       Hw          the chants                   Hw            places in the chant
                 each chant.             Hist          in English.                Hist          and hidden meanings
                                         CE                                       St Act        [e.g. koÿihonua,
                                                                                  Board                                Hw 4
                      a. Entering                      a.   Thanking chant                      genealogical or        Hw
                 chant [call             Hw                                                     migration chant].      Cult
                                         Cult          b.   Name chants
                 response]                             c. Occasional chants                2.    Compose chants
                                                  [i.e. chants                                  following the
                                                           appropriate to                       guidelines,
                        b.   Greeting
Legend:      Hw 4=Hawaiian Language Level 4, Hw Cult=Hawaiian Culture, Hw Hist=Hawaiian History, Hum
Rel=Human Relations, Sp/com=Speech Communications, Sp/deb=Speech and Debate, Board=Boarding Program,
Ec/Soc=Economics or Social Studies, USH/S=?, WHist=World History, Art Hist=Art History, HUSHist=Honors
U.S. History, Vis Art=Visual Art,
HPLit=?, HWH=Honors World History, StAct=?,
 Tech/B=Technology/Business, CE=Character Education, Rel. S.=Religious Studies
CUSTOMS & TRADITIONS           (continued)
Values: Honor the Hawaiian customs and traditions; create harmony with people, environment and
      TOPICS         FOUNDATIONAL                        DEVELOPING                          ADVANCED
                                       Sp/Deb   1. Recite memorized          Hw 1    1. Offer impromptu    Hw 3
  Pule and    1. Recite memorized     Hw       prayer:                      Board   prayer                Hw
   Scripture   prayer in               Hist                                                                Hist
                                       Rel.          a. Pule a ka Haku                    with appropriate
                    Hawaiian.          S.       [Lord’s Prayer]                      pule
               Identify the                                                  Hw 3         construction.
                    appropriate                 2.  Recite from memory one                                   Hw 3
               context and                           personally meaningful           2. Recite from memory
                    protocol [e.g.              verse from                           two
               offer the                             the Bible with                       personally
                    kupuna when                 correct                              meaningful verses
               present to do the       Hw 3
                                       Rel.          pronunciation.                       from the Bible
                    prayer...].        S.       Translate the verse                  with correct
                                                     into English.                        pronunciation.
                   a. Pule Kahikolu                                                  Translate the
                 [Trinity           Hw 3
                                    Rel.                                                  verses into
                        Prayer - In S.                                               English.
                 the name of the
                       Father...]   Rel.
                 b. pule ho„omaika„i
                 [a grace
                      for meals]

                2. Read one
                    meaningful verse
               from the
                    Bible with
               Translate the
                    verse into
Legend:      Hw 4=Hawaiian Language Level 4, Hw Cult=Hawaiian Culture, Hw Hist=Hawaiian History, Hum
Rel=Human Relations, Sp/com=Speech
Communications, Sp/deb=Speech and Debate, Board=Boarding Program,    HPLit=?, HWH=Honors World History,
 Ec/Soc=Economics or Social Studies, USH/S=?, WHist=World History, Art Hist=Art History,
 HUSHist=Honors U.S. History, Vis Art=Visual Art,
 Tech/B=Technology/Business, CE=Character Education, Rel. S.=Religious Studies
Value: Honor the wisdom of words, homeland, nature and the traditional food and the
interconnectedness of all
NOTE: Competencies should require higher order thinking skills and personally meaningful
    TOPICS           FOUNDATIONAL                             DEVELOPING                               ADVANCED
               1. Recite and            Hw 1      1.    Recite and identify       Hw 1     1.  Recite and identify      Hw 1
   Literatu                            Hw
                 identify appropriate      His         appropriate context with               appropriate context
     re          context for at least      t           literal and figurative                 with literal and
                 5 „ölelo no„eau.       Hw             meanings for at                        figurative meanings for
                   Translate them          t             least 10 „ölelo                      at least 20 „ölelo
                 into English.                         no„eau. Translate them                 no„eau. Translate them    Hw 4
               2. Identify key          Hw 1
                                                       into                                   into English.
                 Hawaiian historical    Hw               English.                 Hw 1     2. Translate into
                 and literary figures       His                                   Hw          English authentic*        Hw 4
                                            t                                        His                                Hw
                 [e.g. Kamehameha,      Hw        2.     Identify and analyze        t        Hawaiian literature and   Cult
                 Mäui, Pele...].            Cul        key works of literature    Hw          sources.
                 Evaluate their             t          and their personal            Cul   3. Tell stories using
                                        HWH                                          t                                  Hw 4
                 significance.          Art            significance.              HPLit       the traditional
               3. Identify the                                                       9,       Hawaiian story-telling
                                                                                  10, 11
                 significance of        Hw 3
                                                  3.    Summarize in Hawaiian a               techniques.
                 mo„olelo (story) of    Hw             story written in                    4. Compose an original
                 one‟s own wahi pana       Cul         English.                            story in
                 (home or other         Hw                                                      Hawaiian.
                 special place).           His
            1. Identify the main        Hw 1      1.    Identify the poetic       Hw 1     1.  Identify the             Hw 1
  Geograph   8 Hawaiian islands.
                                                       Hawaiian name of each
                                                                                              districts of each
                                        Cult                                         His                                   Cul
    y                                   Hw             Island.                       t        island.                      t
        &   2. Identify the major       Hist                                               2. Identify nä kai „ewalu    Hw
History                                 Biolog    2.    Identify a wind, a                                                 His
              town, flower, color,      y                                         Hw 4        (ocean channels).            t
              mountains, songs and      Hw 1           rain, and the districts    Hw       3. Identify the Küpuna       Hw
              ali„i of each             Hw             of student‟s home             Cul
                                                                                           Islands.                        Cul
                                        Cult                                         t                                     t
              island.                   Hw
                                                       island.                             4. Identify and provide
                                        Hist                                      Hw 3        information in Hawaiian   HWH
                                        W Hist    3.    Identify significant      USH/So
               3. Identify the                                                                about the sacred and
                                        Biolog         historical places and      Hw                                    HWH
                 kings, queens and      y                                            Cul      historic places.
                                                       facts [campus specific].      t
                 other members of                                                          5. Identify significant
                                        Hw 5                                      Hw
                 royal family [e.g.     Hw                                           His      historical places and     Hw 4
                 Kamehameha,            Cult      4.    Identify significant         t        facts. Explain their      Hw
                                        Hw                                        Econ/S                                    Cul
                 Kaläkaua,              Hist           historical events and         o
                                                                                              impact on people              t
                 Lili‘uokalani,         Biolog           explain their                        living today.             HWH
                 Lunalilo...].          y                                         Hw 4                                  Ec/Soc
                                                       historical impact.         USH/S                                 HWH
               4. Identify the                                                    Hw
                 significant                                                         Cul   6.    Identify significant   Hw 4
                 historical events of   Hw 1                                         t          historical events and   Hw
                                        Hw                                        Hw                                       Cul
                 the Hawaiian                                                                   explain their impact
*Authentic: Literature, oral excerpts and other resources accepted by the general
community of Hawaiian speakers both native and bilingual.
Legend:       Hw 4=Hawaiian Language Level 4, Hw Cult=Hawaiian Culture, Hw Hist=Hawaiian History, Hum
 Rel=Human Relations, Sp/com=Speech
Ec/Soc=Economics or Social Studies, USH/S=?, WHist=World History, Art Hist=Art History, HUSHist=Honors
U.S. History, Vis Art=Visual Art,
 Communications, Sp/deb=Speech and Debate, Board=Boarding Program,     HPLit=?, HWH=Honors World History,
 Ec/Soc=Economics or Social Studies, USH/S=?, WHist=World History, Art Hist=Art History, HUSHist=Honors
 U.S. History, Vis Art=Visual Art,
StAct=?, CE=Character Education, Rel. S.=Religious Studies
SOCIETY (continued)
Value: Honor the wisdom of words, homeland, nature and the traditional food and the
interconnectedness of all
NOTE: Competencies should require higher order thinking skills and personally meaningful
    TOPICS               FOUNDATIONAL                              DEVELOPING                               ADVANCED
                 1.    Identify native      Hw Cult   1.    Recite the moon phases      Hw Cult 1. Identify
   Science           plants and animals
                                                           and explain their cultural           terminologies for
                      and explain their                    significance.                             Hawaiian
                      cultural                                                          Hw Cult measurements and
                                                                                        Hw Hist                             Hw
                      significance.         Hw 1
                                                      2.    Identify the                Econ         amounts.               Hist
                                            Hw Cult        relationships between
                 2.    Identify the land    Hw Hist        areas of an ahupua„a [e.g.             2. Discuss the
                                            Biology                                                                      Hw
                      divisions and                        parts of lo‘i (irrigated               relationship of        Cult
                      explain their                        taro garden), parts of                      ahupua„a elements
                                            Hw Cult        fishpond, parts of wa‘a      Hw   1
                      cultural              Hw Hist                                     Hw   Cult in
                      significance [i.e.    Biology        (canoe), parts of the hale   Hw   Hist      Hawaiian.
                      mountain to the       CE             (house)...].
                      sea].                                                                       3. Participate in
                                                      3. Participate in and                       sustaining or
                 3.    Participate in                    reflect upon culturally                       restoring balance
                      and reflect upon                   significant activities                   in
                      culturally                         involving the ecosystem                       ecosystem [e.g.
                      significant                        [e.g. taro irrigation,                   taro
                      activities                         fishing, canoeing the                         irrigation,
                      involving the                      traditional Hawaiian                     fishing, canoeing
                      ecosystem [e.g.                    house...]. Investigate                        and the
                      taro irrigation,                   and analyze the impacts of               traditional Hawaiian
                      fishing, canoeing                  the role of each                              house...].
                      and the traditional                element/aspect/player.
                      Hawaiian house...].
               1. Identify and              Hw 2      1.    Identify the process of Hw 1          1. Use Hawaiian to        Hw 3
   Health and participate in               Hw Cult
                                                           harvesting, preparing and              demonstrate
      Wellness     the preparation                         eating Hawaiian food.                       the preparation of
               of                                                                                 Hawaiian
                   Hawaiian food.                     2.    Examine the significance    Hw 2           food.                USH/Soc
               Use                                         of traditional Hawaiian      USH/So                              Hw Hist
                                                                                        c                                   ChiDev
                   protocol                                food [e.g. kapu,             Hw
                                                                                                  2. Examine the
               associated with                             kinolau...].                 Hist      historical and
                   food etiquette                                                       Hw             cultural
               [e.g. kupuna                           3. Examine the evolution of       Cult      significance of         Hw Hist
                   eats first, poi                    Hawaiian                                        Hawaiian life-style ChiDev
               etiquette,                                  lifestyle and its            Cult      practices
                   communal nature                    impact on health                  Hw            [birthing,
               of                                          [e.g. physical, mental,      Hist      ceremonial...].
                   eating...].                        emotional,
Legend:      Hw 4=Hawaiian Language   Level 4, Hw Cult=Hawaiian Culture, Hw Hist=Hawaiian History, Hum
Rel=Human Relations, Sp/com=Speech    Communications, Sp/deb=Speech and Debate, Board=Boarding Program,
HPLit=?, HWH=Honors World History,    StAct=?, Tech/B=Technology/Business, CE=Character Education, Rel.
Ec/Soc=Economics or Social Studies,   USH/S=?, WHist=World History, Art Hist=Art History, HUSHist=Honors
U.S. History, Vis Art=Visual Art,
S.=Religious Studies
    Values: Honor, care and nurture community, land and sea
      TOPICS        FOUNDATIONAL                DEVELOPING                                               ADVANCED
                  1.    Participate in      Hw 1     1.    Participate in one of             1.    Help to plan and         Hw 5
     Our              one of the
                                                          the following and                       organize a Hawaiian
     Community         following:           Hw            explain the personal                    civic event or
                         a. Hawaiian        Hist          meaning of the event:                   performance.
                                            Vis                                     Hw                                      Hw 5
                       civic events         Art                                     Hist
                             [Kü i ka       Tech/B          a. law case on the      WHist    2.    Interact at a high
                       Pono march,          CE            topic of Hawaiian civic   Am Law        level with
                              ceremonies,                 issues                                  native/bilingual          Hw 4
                                                                                    Hw 1
                                                                                    Hw            speakers [e.g. hänai-a-
                                                    b. public discussion            Hist          kupuna program...]
                    presentations..]    Hw 1      on Hawaiian issues
                      b. Public                                                     Ind
                                                                                    Lit      3.    Expand the body of
                    performance [dance,
                                        Speech 2.  Converse with                                  Hawaiian                  Hw 4
                    song, speech...]    Hw        native/bilingual                  Hw 2          language resources
                  2. Greet and          Cult      speakers using basic
                                        Hw                                                        [e.g. chants, materials
                    interact with                 Hawaiian.
                                        Hist                                        Hw 3          for immersion
                    native/bilingual    Rel.
                                               3. Expand the body of
                                                                                    Hw            programs...].
                    speakers.           S.
                  3. Use the Hawaiian-            knowledge in                               4.    Assume the role and
                    related                         Hawaiian resources                            responsibility to
                      resources for               [e.g. websites,                   Hw
                                        Hw 1                                        Hist          demonstrate the
                    research [e.g.      Hw          magazine articles,              Ind           appropriate protocol
                      internet sites, Hist        artwork...].                      Lit           for one‟s role in the
                    literary                                                        HmnRel        ÿohana and the
                    magazines...].             4. Demonstrate the
                  4. Identify the                 protocol for one‟s role
                    appropriate                   in the „ohana and the
                      context and                 community.
                    protocol for
                      one‟s role in
                    the ÿohana
                      and the
                    community, and
                         knowledge [e.g.

                  ...] in
                      the school
                  1.    Perform community   Hw 1     1.    Perform community        Hw 1     1.    Plan and participate     Hw 5
     Our ‗äina        service [e.g.
                                                          service and explain the   Tech/B
                                                                                    Hw            in community service
     and                                                  personal meaning.
Legend:      Hw 4=Hawaiian Language   Level 4, Hw Cult=Hawaiian Culture, Hw Hist=Hawaiian History, Hum
Rel=Human Relations, Sp/com=Speech    Communications, Sp/deb=Speech and Debate, Board=Boarding Program,
HPLit=?, HWH=Honors World History,    StAct=?, Tech/B=Technology/Business, CE=Character Education, Rel.
Ec/Soc=Economics or Social Studies,   USH/S=?, WHist=World History, Art Hist=Art History, HUSHist=Honors
U.S. History, Vis Art=Visual Art,
S.=Religious Studies

        ii.    Possible competencies which can be implemented with additional
        staff development

            I.    Counseling
                 Using forms of greetings, leave-takings, and courtesies
                 Chants (entrance)
            II. English
                Depending on the specific mo‗olelo, the activity of integrating and
              analyzing significant Hawaiian mo‗olelo will
                 encompass many of the Hawaiian Competencies.
            III.       Midkiff Learning Center
                 Pono use of ‗Ike Hawai‗i and knowledge of other ethnic groups.
            IV. Social Studies
                With staff development / in-service opportunities, teachers could give
              simple instructions / greetings in Hawaiian.
               With assistance from knowledgeable staff, create a list of Hawaiian terms
                 for specific courses (i.e., Economic, World History, U.S. History terms,
            V.    Speech
                 Trying to integrate Hawaiian knowledge and values into our pedagogy and
                  curriculum. The department has already taken significant steps to include
                  Hawaiian language and knowledge into our curriculum.
VI. Student Activities
    Entering chant, Greeting chant, Lei giving chant
    He moku – having all leadership students understand background and recite
    Protocol
    Invitations in Hawaiian
    Plan and participate in community service project
    Identify and explain Pauahi‘s Kamehameha Schools campus to guests
    Hawaiian Leadership
VII.     Technology
    Language related to the fields of design and designing techniques.
    Use of money in the Hawaiian traditional system.
    Use of Hawaiian related resources for research and development.
VIII.    Visual Arts
    Society: Foundational #3 ID the significance of mo‗olelo of one‘s own
     wahi pana or other special place. (This is a good starting point or a
     theme for a variety of studio projects in Drawing and Painting, Screen
     Printing and possibly other art courses.)
    Community, Land and the Sea #1, b. Public Performance (This should also
     include visual presentation which could include 2 and 3 dimensional art,
     video productions, computer graphics and still photography.) Ideas
     include developing a KS websites featuring Hawaiian art which could
     feature both student and professional artists. This site could focus on
     art with Hawaiian themes from both a historical and contemporary
     perspective. The site could be done in collaboration with Hawaiian
     language classes and could be viewed in both Hawaiian and English
    Community, Land and the Sea – Developing #3 Expand the body of knowledge
     in Hawaiian resources. The art teachers have suggested that many of their
     art students create projects based on Hawaiian subject matter, mythology
     or a Hawaii sense of place concepts. The art teachers would like to
      explore the idea of having a second annual display (much smaller) that is
      only Hawaiian theme based art. This display could also be taken to a
      public off campus site to reach a broader and non-Hawaiian audience.
     It is certainly within our kuleana to expand upon what we already do,
      especially in the use of Hawaiian vocabulary, land management principles
      (the ahupua‗a). This can be accomplished gradually with the development
      of vocabulary lists and resource materials which address basic principles
      using examples from the Hawaiian or other Polynesian islands to complement
      those in the text books which focus on temperate North America.
Character Education
     The main focus for CE is to provide a foundation for understanding the
      Hawaiian values and opportunities to practice. However, contact with the
      students is limited to large group special activities. Therefore, I would
      say that most of what CE contributes is at the foundational level with
      some, possibly at the developmental level. There is potential for growth
      and development in all areas. Areas of continued development are: Mälama
      Ka ‗äina and ke kai, Health and Wellness, Community, Customs and
      Traditions. A primary role for character education is to reinforce those
      areas pertinent to personal growth and good character. Also, the CE
      programs affirm the importance of Hawaiian language and culture and how it
      helps to bring forth good character traits.
           iii.       Resources for staff development 2006-10

 Dept.        SY 05-06         SY 06-07         SY 07-08         SY 08-09         SY 09-10


Counseli   Language         Language         Language         Language         Language
ng         Skills           Skills           Skills           Skills           Skills

           Release time     Time to plan     Time and funds   Time and funds   Time and funds
English    to facilitate    and design one   to design,       to design,       to design,
           the discussion   unit for each    plan and         plan and         plan and
           about the        grade level      present          present          present
           integration of   (9-11), which    workshops and    workshops and    workshops and
           Hawaiian         couples one      training for     training for     training for
           literature       Hawaiian         colleagues.      colleagues.      colleagues.
           into our         mo‗olelo with    Time to revise   Time to revise   Time to revise
           present          an existing      the first        the second       the third
           curriculum.      novel/play/sho   implemented      implemented      implemented
           Time to begin    rt story         unit from        unit from        unit from
           collaborating    within the       SY06-07. Time    SY07-08. Time    SY08-09. Time
           and planning.    present          to plan and      to plan and      to plan and
                            curriculum.      design an        design an        design an
                            Time and funds   additional       additional       additional
                            to design,       unit for each    unit for each    unit for each
 Dept.        SY 05-06       SY 06-07        SY 07-08         SY 08-09         SY 09-10
                          plan and        grade level      grade level      grade level
                          present         (9-11), which    (9-11), which    (9-11), which
                          workshops and   couples one      couples one      couples one
                          training for    Hawaiian         Hawaiian         Hawaiian
                          colleagues.     mo‗olelo with    mo‗olelo with    mo‗olelo with
                                          an existing      an existing      an existing
                                          novel/play/sho   novel/play/sho   novel/play/sho
                                          rt story         rt story         rt story
                                          within the       within the       within the
                                          present          present          present
                                          curriculum.      curriculum.      curriculum.


Midkiff    Time           Time            Time             Time             Time


           Time for       Same            Same             Same             Same
Science    teachers to
 Dept.        SY 05-06            SY 06-07         SY 07-08         SY 08-09         SY 09-10

Speech     More knowledge   ???              ???              ???              ???
           of Hawaiian
           customs and
           of Hawaiian
           More hands-on
           work with
           those in the

Student    Resource         Resource         Resource
Activiti   familiar with    familiar with    familiar with
es         chants and       Hawaiian         Hawaiian
           their            protocol.        Leadership
           Learning                          Pauahi
           history of KS                     Leadership
           – archives?                       Institute?
           history?                          Tom

Technolo   Money for        Curriculum       Team teaching    Teachers to      Re-evaluate
gy/        visitations      development      incorporating    use lectures     the materials
Business   and research     time to meet     the use of       and materials    and directions
           to be done out   the suggested    Hawaiian         developed by     of the
 Dept.         SY 05-06         SY 06-07          SY 07-08        SY 08-09         SY 09-10
            in the           competencies.     studies         the Hawaiian     Hawaiian
            community.                         teachers into   studies          competency
                                               our present     teachers in      objectives.
                                               class           their classes.

Visual      As the program
Arts        and
            begin to
            develop over
            the next few
            years and the
            teachers have
            a chance to
            become more
            familiar with
            them, we will
            be able to do

         iv. Additions and possible          revisions to the existing competences

           IX. Counseling
               Communication competency emphasizes that this be done in Hawaiian. In
               counseling, interpersonal interaction and relationship building is a key
         part of what we do. As part of that process, counselors talk about family
         genealogy as a means to build ties / bonds with students.
X.       English
         Suggested that each department take a different ‗Ölelo No‗eau to integrate
         and apply to the learning experience for the year or quarter. This will
         expose students to the practice and context of ‗Ölelo No‗eau rather than
         rote memorization without application.
XI. Social Studies
        It may be helpful for the HLC Committee to review the Hawaiian Culture
         curriculum. Who can Kalehua Lima send it to?
        A teacher commented that his / her curriculum is ―full‖ now. What should
         s/he leave out to make room for changes?
XII. Speech
         None for now.
XIII.          Student Activities
XIV. Technology / Business
         A competency related to the value of the craftsman in the Hawaiian
         community. Also one related to the management of ―Kala‖ to keep Hawaiians
         engaged in the community.
XV. Visual Arts
         The creation of art and visual imagery can be a powerful tool for
         communication, education and cultural awareness. The art teachers fully
         support Kamehameha as a Hawaiian School, but feel it is important that we
         do activities and projects that are authentic to our strength, which is
         the creation of art. The idea of learning about who Hawaiians are and
         what they can communicate about their attitudes, values and beliefs
         through the visual arts seems to be undervalued in the existing
      XXII. Science
           Not at this time.
      XXIII. Character Education
           Community item #3: Recommend that you change the example to something
           more specific to the topic. For example, ―What is the purpose of Hawaiian
           related resources in the context of community?‖ In the context of
           community it might be to find out what are the needs of the community. In
           the context of our culture it would be on protocol to assist and serve in
           the community to meet the needs.

C. Appendix 3:   Immersion Student Programs Report
  Introductory Comments:
  Students joining Kamehameha with a background in the Hawaiian language immersion
  experience bring precious gifts to our community. We have not done a good job in
  receiving these students, providing them optimal opportunities to continue their
  growth in Hawaiian, and finding ways for them to share with us the gifts they bring.
  We want to do much better. Doing so will make available to us another vital source,
  he wai ola, to support the growth of Hawaiian language in our community.

  Current Relationship between KS and the Immersion Program schools:
  Through its Ho‗olako Like program, KS is supporting 12 start-up charter schools.
  These schools are Hawaiian-focused, emphasizing Hawaiian culture, language, values,
  practices and traditions. Five of them are Hawaiian immersion schools that conduct
  lessons solely in Hawaiian. The charter schools enroll nearly 1000 students, 93
  percent of them of Hawaiian ancestry.   KS contributes a minimum of $1 for every $4
  that the state allocates to each charter school. In addition to per-pupil funds, KS
also provides assistance with curriculum, program evaluation, professional staff
development, accreditation and consultation on other funding resources.

Voices (more to be added as they come in):
―Over the years, I have spoken to a number of former immersion students as a part of
our department's faculty/student portfolio interviews. In these conversations, one
of the major themes is that the transition from immersion to KS is a difficult one,
particular in the first few years of schooling here. A number of students felt
isolated because very few of their teachers and classmates spoke in Hawaiian and
perceived the world through a Hawaiian set of values. Another key issue raised was
the predominant devaluation of the Hawaiian language in comparison to English.
Though I don't sense that this was purposefully done by students or teachers, just
the fact that these immersion students could not freely converse in Hawaiian is
probably a major reason for this perception. (Walter Kahumoku 4-28-05)

―We should focus more on the importance of being able to speak rather than knowing
all of the specific patterns.‖ (Pililuaikekai‗ohilo Keala ‘05)

―As for my needs, I would have liked to see more lessons that incorporated more
cultural activities. Not focus so much on mechanics. More cultural lessons.‖ (Uakea
Weisbarth-Tafaoimalo ‘05)

―I truly feel that even students in Hawaiian 5 can‘t converse or include themselves
in simple conversation. Maybe if the teachers (or whoever) could focus more on
being able to engage in easy kükäkükä between friends…‖ (Luana-Keonaona Napoleon

―There should be the option to do interview in Hawaiian. It shows that KS cares and
it honors young Hawaiians from the immersion program.‖ (Kalei Ka‗awaloa, ‘05)
―Bring more küpuna into the mix where individuals can spend time with them to
personally experience the küpuna and learn more about their language and childhood.‖
(Bronson Lopez ‘05)

―It would be better if the Hawaiian curriculum wasn‘t too heavily stressed on
sentence patterns because we already know how to speak the language and the proper
writing of the language was not taught to us in immersion. I also think that it
would have been better if there was some kind of class offered past Hawaiian 5.
Independent study would have been a good class that I wanted to take, but there were
no available teachers to teach it and advise me. Some other immersion students may
want to do the same path that I wanted to undertake but was unable to do so.‖ (Lea
Ka‗awaloa ‘05)

―We are very thankful to have received support from Kamehameha Schools. It affords
us some flexibility. As a KS graduate, I think Pauahi would have wanted Kamehameha
to reach beyond its own campuses.‖ (Kauanoe Kamanä KS ‘69)

Major Recommendations:
   We recommend that the proposed ―Overseer‖ of Hawaiian Language Competencies
     Implementation be responsible for the care, nurturing and oversight of
     immersion students in our community. To the extent that is desirable and legal,
     this person will assist Admissions to assure the appropriate processing of
     these students as they seek admission to our campuses. The Overseer will then
     provide appropriate transitioning into our programs and, together with
     counselors and the Hawaiian language teachers, plan for each student‘s
     continued language growth while at Kamehameha. The Overseer will also help to
     create academic and non-academic experiences to support these students in their
     progress and provide opportunities for the KS community to receive the gifts
     they bring to us.
     We recommend that all immersion students enrolled for the 2005-06 school year
      be invited to a weekend retreat at KS lands in Punalu‗u, O‗ahu in early
      September, ‗05. Cultural/social activities will encourage a sense of personal
      connectedness. Discussions will be held to chart out our plans for the future
      with regards to Hawaiian language contexts to support these students. It is
      recommended that a similar retreat become a regular part of our support program
      for immersion students. A follow up gathering should take place later in the

     We recommend that KS convene a representative conference in the coming year to
      address issues pertaining to the relationship between KS and the community
      immersion programs. This group should include administrators, teachers,
      students and parents.

     We recommend the gradual implementation of the following initiatives:

Action Plans
 A flagging mechanism will be added for identifying immersion students who are
  admitted to KS and enter our programs.

   Special consideration will continue to be given candidates with verifiable
    Hawaiian language skills, either as documented from an immersion experience or
    from other exposure. Hawaiian language skills will be to their advantage in the
    competitive admission‘s process. As part of the information dissemination from
    KS, families will be informed that we recognize, value and reward this ability in
    our applicants.

   Candidates for admission to KS will, to the extent feasible and legal, be allowed
    to have parts of their admissions interview conducted in Hawaiian, if they so
   A student applying to Kamehameha from an immersion school should not be
    disadvantaged because of a deficiency in English. A program will be developed to
    assist otherwise promising and competent individual applicants for admission who
    need ―booster‖ support in English because they have been schooled in Hawaiian
    previously. The goal for these students will be functional bi-lingualism. A
    strengthening of their English to meet KS programmatic needs will not assume a
    neglect or diminishment of their Hawaiian. The Overseer will, together with
    counselors, provide individual guidance and counseling for these students and
    access to resources as they transition to KS. The summer before admission is a
    time that could be used to prepare these students.

   Information will be provided these new invitees to inform them of what they can
    expect or not expect by way of continued support of their Hawaiian once they join
    our programs. They will be counseled as to placement in Hawaiian language

   Criteria for placement of immersion students in Hawaiian classes will be re-
    evaluated. It will be the kuleana of the Overseer, working with Hawaiian language
    teachers, to establish meaningful criteria and to place immersion students

   Kamehameha will not, even inadvertently and unintentionally, contribute to a
    ―brain-drain‖ in accepting many of the top immersion students and thus leading
    them away from those programs that benefit from having them. Strong support by KS
    of the community immersion schools will be seen as a part of, indeed a
    prerequisite to, our support of individual immersion students who make the family
    decision to join KS.

   Kamehameha will develop ways for immersion students to share the gifts they bring.
    Peer tutoring, doing cultural work in place of their school service/community
    service work and getting same credit for it are possible ideas to explore.
    Immersion students could, for example, visit lower level classes and help with
    listening comprehension experiences, support kumu, help create interesting
    materials, create traveling skits in Hawaiian that could be taken to classes &
    shown on Puka Mai ka Lä, etc. They could offer peer tutoring experiences at other
    times, lead a group of interested faculty, help in practical ways with the
    implementation of Hawaiian Language Competencies, etc.

   KS will develop ―contexts‖ in which immersion kids can come together—with the
    understanding that these are kïpuka ‘ölelo. One suggestion is the newly
    reinstated recycling program could be done in ‘ölelo under the leadership of an
    appropriate Hawaiian speaking kumu. It would be great for all the kids to hear
    Hawaiian in this way throughout all the classrooms. A school service credit could
    be offered here, but with clear stipulations and expectations that this be done in
    Hawaiian. The Overseer will develop other types of activities which place the
    language in our midst with increasing visibility & audibility.

   We will develop more upper levels classes to support and elevate immersion kids.
    Such classes will also be open to advanced level students, say top 4th year and 5th
    year kids. There will be an advanced level conversation class for immersion kids.
    The current conversation class could be re-geared for 2nd and 3rd year as well as
    4th year who need more practice. We will look to having classes/contexts which
    combines the Hawaiian language that lives in these kids with other activities such
    as dance and music (i.e. inter-disciplinary courses). For example, we can arrange
    weekly gathering with each student having an ‘ukulele—singing and having a good
    time (kanikapila) all in Hawaiian. Other advanced level kids who are committed to
    ‘ölelo will be included.

   Kamehameha will begin planning for a dorm experience which will eventually
    provide an on-going living context for the language. This needs to be planned for
    and the level of expectations around such a plan need to begin rising.
   There will be an ‘ölelo award created for immersion students. At present they
    cannot compete in the languages award that are given yearly to top-level students
    in Hawaiian language.

   There will be a hui or club founded for immersion students and other top-level
    students who truly commit to creating and maintaining this kïpuka ‘ölelo. This
    club will, among other things, create materials for Puka Mai Ka Lä and for
    classroom use.

   Puka Mai ka Lä will run bi-lingually once, twice a week and eventually daily.
    PSAs created by immersion kids.

   We will look for areas where kïpuka ‘ölelo or language hälau will be established.

   There will be a Kua‘ana Program for immersion kids.   Older students will help new

   Immersion seniors as a group will be the alaka‘i or leaders of an oli mahalo at

   Graduation diplomas for Hawaiian language students will be embossed with a
    likeness of Pauahi which corresponds to the Hawaiian Language Pin the student has
    acquired through continued study of ‘ölelo. Students will be allowed to wear
    their pins at Founder‘s Day,   and Graduation.

   Incoming immersion students will be placed in the same homeroom with a kumu who
    can guide this part of their school day in Hawaiian.

Closing Comments
The move to ignite the development of a Hawaiian language-speaking community with
our haumäna kula kaiapuni (immersion students) at the core is tremendously exciting
and very Hawaiian. It has great promise for cultural revitalization at Kamehameha.
It also puts our Po'e Kanaka in the center of that revitalization effort, which
sends an important and powerful message of authenticity and rightness.
D. Appendix 4:      Q & A with Immersion Students

         1. Is there a mechanism in place in Admissions for flagging former immersion students?
            Yes there is a mechanism in place for applicants to grades 6, 7 and 9 at all three
            campuses. There is no mechanism in place for applicants to kindergarten and grade 4.

            If so, what is that?

            Previously, we identified them by a computer search based on the school from which they
            were applying (e.g. Änuenue, Waiau, etc.).

            However, with the advent of myriad charter schools and the recognition that some HLIP
            students may have already transferred to English standard schools prior to submitting an
            application to KS, this year we manually checked every application to grades 6, 7 and 9
            to determine whether or not the child was a current or former HLIP student.

            This was determined by a combination of information including the applicants‘ current
            school, a review of past and present report cards, and by reading through the optional
            information sheet where we ask if anyone in the home speaks any language other than
            English. We then flagged these students on our database.

            However, because this was incredibly time-consuming, next year we are planning to add
            the question ―Has the applicant ever attended a Hawaiian Language Immersion School?‖ to
            the application form.

         2. Is any special consideration given these candidates for the gifts they bring in this

            Yes. Following the ―regular‖ selection process, HLIP students not admitted are
            considered again for selection in the ―Gifted & Talented‖ quota.

            In other words, is it somehow to their advantage in the competitive admission‘s process
            that they have this precious ability?

3. Is it left up to each interviewer to identify and acknowledge such a gift as part of the
   admission‘s process and recommendation narrative?

   No. As noted earlier, these students are identified by a careful review conducted by
   the Admissions Office. The interview may or may not reveal that the applicant has
   participated in the HLIP, depending upon what the child chooses to share with the
   interviewer in that process. I also feel compelled to note that the interview is a
   relatively small part of the overall admission process. Out of 24 possible points, the
   interview is worth a maximum of 2 points.

   Is it possible that some interviewers might not value this gift as strongly as other
   interviewers or simply might not become aware of it?

   It has been my experience that most interviewers, once aware of it, view this as a
   ―positive‖ attribute.

   Or that some may overvalue it?

   I have no data upon which to base a judgment of this nature. Anecdotally, however,
   staff in the Admissions Office has observed that HLIP students generally receive high
   scores on their interviews UNLESS the interviewer has severe concerns about the oral
   reading portion of the interview. As an aside (and jumping forward to question 4) when
   we did allow interviews to be conducted in Hawaiian we found that our KS Hawaiian
   language teachers tended to give HLIP students the highest possible recommendation, not
   based necessarily on the criteria they were supposed to be evaluating, but by virtue of
   the fact that the students could converse in Hawaiian. This could be viewed as an
   unfair advantage in a process that is closely scrutinized.

   In other words does this whole area get real subjective?

   Yes. Interviews are inherently subjective, that is why, as I noted earlier, we only
   allot a maximum of 2 points to this portion of the evaluation.
4. There was a period when we allowed interviews to be conducted in Hawaiian. That was
   discontinued.   What was the thinking both for allowing and then disallowing this

   Both those decisions were made by former Admissions Director Wayne Chang. My
   understanding was that he wanted to give HLIP students a greater advantage in the
   admissions process. That was back when the Gifted & Talented quota was reserved
   exclusively for athletes.

   Later, when the Gifted & Talented quota was expanded to include music, art and second
   language, a venue became available to give HLIP students special consideration for
   admission in a way that was consistent for all students with special gifts, and so the
   Hawaiian language interviews were discontinued.

   In addition, Mr. Chang noted the preponderance of possibly ―inflated‖ interview scores
   for HLIP students. Mr. Chang also was concerned about consistency in terms of the
   actual evaluation.

   To achieve a consistent and meaningful final evaluation score that has any validity when
   used comparatively, all students must be evaluated on the exact same criteria, including
   a standardized interview (questions & language). This has become even more of an issue
   now that the admissions process is audited every summer.

   Where do we stand in our thinking today?

   The mana`o on this has not changed. In the Admissions Office we believe that the
   validity of the admissions process and the validity of final composite scores require
   absolutely consistent evaluation criteria. Special consideration to HLIP applicants is
   best (and most appropriately) afforded via a special category, as is currently done in
   the Gifted & Talented selection process.

5. Are there any statistics relating to how many immersion applicants actually are accepted
   and how many not accepted?

   There is nothing readily available that provides a historic view. However, this year I
   can report that (at Kapälama) a total of 28 completed applicants to grade 7 were
   identified as current or former HLIP students. Of this group, 6 were admitted and
   another 4 were waitlisted. This is an acceptance rate of about 21%.

   At grade 9 (Kapälama) there were 19 HLIP applicants. Of this group, 5 were admitted and
   another 6 were waitlisted. The 5 students admitted to grade 9 represent an acceptance
   rate of 26%.

   By comparison, the overall acceptance rate for applicants to both grades 7 and 9 at
   Kapälama is just 15.5% (1,135 grade 7 applicants for 176 spaces; 797 grade 9 applicants
   for 124 spaces).

   Thus, these statistics suggest that HLIP students, as a group, are fairing rather well
   in the overall admissions process. However, this is just one year of data.

   Do we have a profile on these students which would suggest trends here?

   The only ―profile‖ we have in the Admissions Office would be the applicants‘ scores in
   the various areas evaluated, along with his/her composite score and final status. An
   analysis would need to be performed to determine any ―trends‖.

   For example, if the admissions process is exclusively an English language process does
   the fact that they may have weakness in their English due to a strong previous focus on
   the Hawaiian side present challenges that work against their acceptance and thus place
   them in a disadvantaged position from the start because of their Hawaiian language

   I don‘t think so, primarily because these students are 1) flagged; 2) afforded special
   consideration, and; 3) fluent in English. The only area evaluated that could possibly
   put them at a disadvantage might be the writing sample (worth a maximum of 4 points in
   the overall process), particularly in the case of applicants to the 6th or 7th grade,
   since the HLIP has delayed introduction of English as a ―subject‖ until the 5th grade.
   This is probably less of an issue for applicants to grade 9.

6. Is anything being done to consider, say, the acceptance  of a candidate with the
   stipulation made that a strengthening of English skills would be necessary for optimum
   success at KS and that an intensive summer program would be advisable? In other words,
   individual counseling of these students for success as they transition to KS.
   Any initiative of this nature would need to come from the school. This is not something
   that the Admissions Office could initiate, as it is not our kuleana and would require
   coordination between the language department, the respective principal‘s office and
   summer school. On the other hand, Admissions could support this type of initiative by
   sending special conditional notification letters to these students.

   A word of caution, however, with regard to the handling of students who do not comply
   with this requirement: Would the Admissions Office be placed in the unhappy position of
   having to rescind the child‘s offer of admission? Or would the principal‘s office
   handle this? Would there be legal risks or implications?

7. Once students are accepted, is there a way that their Hawaiian speaking status is
   conveyed to administration, for example by notifying counselors at the respective
   levels? As teachers, we never know unless parents get in touch with questions or
   concerns regarding placement in classes.

   The Admissions Office normally sends lists of the students admitted under the ―Gifted &
   Talented‖ quota and their talent area to the department heads who were involved in the
   selection process, as well as to the Athletic Directors, just prior to the start of the
   new school year.

   For several years I have sent Ke`ala Kwan lists of the HLIP students admitted to KS. We
   do not routinely send that type of information to counselors. Rather than send the
   information to a long list of people, we would prefer to send it to one ―contact‖ person
   who can then disseminate the information as appropriate. If the Languages Department
   Head is not the correct person, please let me know who is.

8. Is any information provided these new invitees to inform them of what they can expect or
   not expect by way of continued support of their Hawaiian once they join our programs?

   Not currently. In any event, providing this type of information to new invitees would
   not be the kuleana of the Admissions Office.

   Are they counseled as to placement in Hawaiian language classes?

   I have no way of knowing this.   This is probably a question for Cyr Pakele.
   I can tell you that the Admissions Office forwards the applications of the new invitees
   to the high school counseling office prior to their grade 9 course selection meetings.
   How the counselors use that information is their kuleana.

   At middle school, as I‘m sure you already know, new students are allowed to select just
   one elective course while the balance of their schedule is determined by the middle
   school office. I‘m not sure that there is much counseling involved.

9. Is it possible that Kamehameha, inadvertently and unintentionally, may be contributing
   to a ―brain-drain‖ in accepting many of the top immersion students and thus leading them
   away from those programs that benefit from having them? This, as you know, has
   historically been a concern when KS has admitted public high school students who were
   often the leaders in their classes and thus deprived those left behind with that
   important presence.

   Yes, this is highly likely. Because admission to KS is so very competitive (for all
   applicants, not just ―special consideration‖ students), those HLIP applicants with the
   best grades, teacher references and test scores do tend to be the ones admitted to KS.

   On the other hand, these students must have some purpose in applying to KS, whether it
   is for the unique educational opportunities KS provides, the diversity of the program,
   or for some other reason. Were they fully satisfied with the HLIP, I doubt they would
   apply to KS.

   I do not think that this is something KS needs to worry about. These parents and their
   children are making personal educational choices. We have to take this at face value
   and honor their choices as well as their right to apply to any school they are
   interested in.

10. We are recommending an ―Overseer‖ to be responsible for this new program. Among the
   duties could be oversight of former Hawaiian language immersion students. This person
   could eventually work with Admissions to help with the appropriate processing of these
   students and monitor their continued growth at KS once they are admitted.

   Is this an idea that would be welcomed by your staff?
   The Admissions Office does not require assistance with the ―appropriate processing‖ of
   HLIP students. All applicants are processed and evaluated according to strict protocols
   and in compliance with policy. Any diversion from this process for any group of
   students constitutes tampering.

   With regard to ―monitoring the continued growth‖ of these students at KS after
   acceptance, that is the kuleana of the appropriate principal‘s office, not Admissions.

   How could this person be best used at the admissions stage of these students?

   Although we must protect against even well intentioned initiatives that might constitute
   tampering, this ―overseer‖ could possibly be assigned to participate in the Gifted &
   Talented selection meeting (replacing the Languages Department Head Ke`ala Kwan who
   currently sits on this committee). In addition, this person could also be the one to
   whom we send final lists of HLIP students admitted to KS each year for dissemination to
   the appropriate counselors and teachers.

11. Any other comments or information would be very valuable. What recommendations could
   your staff offer to make the system work better and that we could include in the May
   31st Report?

   I think that our planned addition of a question on the application form regarding the
   applicant‘s previous or current participation in an HLIP program will help Admissions
   enormously, not just in terms of reducing the time spent on screening, but by taking the
   ―guesswork‖ out of the review.

   The only other thought I have would be with regard to the actual quota. Right now the
   ―Gifted & Talented‖ quota is 10% of available spaces at grades 6, 7 & 9 (our largest
   entry points). That quota is shared by HLIP students, athletics, performing arts,
   visual arts and leadership. If it is consistent with KS‘ mission, vision and strategic
   plan (with regard to `Ike Hawai`i) one idea might be to ―reserve‖ a specific percentage
   of the ―Gifted & Talented‖ spaces for HLIP students or even determine a special ―quota‖
   for these students.

   However, this should not be done without due consideration given to the ―domino‖ effect
   that this will have. The new Admissions Policy sets aside 25% of available spaces for
   indigent students, and directs us to admit all ―qualified‖ orphans. To provide a real
life example, this year (as we rolled out the new policy at the elementary school), 42%
of the new invites to 4th grade at Kapälama are either orphan or indigent.

If this trend is consistent at the middle and high schools, beginning next year we must
expect that approximately 40% of spaces will go to orphan and indigent applicants, and
another 10% of spaces to ―Gifted & Talented‖ applicants, leaving only 50% of spaces for
―regular‖ applicants (who, of course, comprise the vast majority of KS applicants).

Were KS to establish a quota exclusively for HLIP students this would further erode the
number of spaces available to ―regular‖ applicants (i.e., more than half of the
available spaces at grades 6, 7 and 9 would be for ―special consideration‖ students).
No doubt this would result in greater frustration and disappointment for the majority
group of ―regular‖ applicants, as it would greatly increase the already daunting level
of competition for admission to KS facing these children.
E. Appendix 5:   FAQ on Competencies and their Implementations
     i.   Who are the competencies for and how long do students have to acquire them?
          Competencies are for all the students of Kamehameha Schools on three
          campuses. Students are expected to achieve the Foundational Level prior to
          graduation. Some students may already be at the Foundational Level at the
          time of entry to Kamehameha. Some students may be inspired to work toward
          the Developing Level and still others may make the commitment to reach the
          Advanced Level. Whatever the level students arrive at prior to graduation,
          it is the spirit of the competencies that is important for us to uphold, not
          the checklist type of implementation.

          The Foundational Level was created specifically for those students entering
          high school at later years. Students who entered Kamehameha in the
          elementary school may reach the Developing stage by the time they enter high
          school. These students have the option of studying the languages other than
          Hawaiian. Students who enter high school wishing to study a non-Hawaiian
          language have the option of acquiring the Foundational level competencies
          through non-classroom means. It is hoped that by the time competencies are
          in effect in high school, a variety of options are open and that the high
          school academic culture would include peer-tutoring and other collaborative

      ii. It seems there are more culture-related competencies than language.   Should
          they be re-named “Cultural Competencies”?

          The name of this document has been an issue from the very beginning. Some
          wanted to call this "graduation requirements". This had two major problems.
          "Graduation" refers to high school graduation. This might have created the
          impression that the middle school and elementary school need not
          participate. This also had the negative connotation of "adding more" to the
   graduation requirement, even though the current graduation requirements are
   tied to Carnegie credits and the competencies are not. The next name
   suggested was "Hawaiian Culture" competencies. The competencies are based on
   the language content standards comprised of: a) Communication, b) Culture,
   c) Connection, d) Comparison and e) Community. Communication in Hawaiian
   language is the major aspect of these competencies. Beyond ―communication,‖
   there are ―culture‖, ―connection‖ [across the curriculum content connection],
   ―comparison‖ [of both language and culture] and ―community‖ [language use
   outside of the classroom]. The competencies committee added one more
   standard, ―the land and the sea‖ to bring home the notion of stewardship.
   National Standards deemed the ―5 C‘s‖ to be an integral part of learning a
   language. Since all but one component of the competencies came from the 5
   strands of National Foreign Language Standards, the name "language" felt
   aligned with the national trend to look at language acquisition as a holistic
   activity. If we changed the name to "Culture" there was a concern expressed
   that the language portion may become marginalized.... Since from the start
   the notion that these competencies need to be pervasive within the
   institution and not solely reside within the language classes, and since we
   could not create a document which would cause major disruptions to the pre-
   existing curriculum, we could not make all competencies be acquired through
   the use of Hawaiian. If there were a better name for this document which
   inspires rather than raises more questions, we would all applaud this name

iii. How are the competencies going to affect me?
   The competencies, hand in hand with the ‗ike Hawai‗i initiative [knowledge of
   all things Hawaiian and its emerging working definition, Nohona Hawai‗i
   (living Hawaiian)], will profoundly affect the faculty, the staff, the
   students and all Kamehameha community.
   The inclusive process for developing the implementation plan is of paramount
   importance. It is also important to recognize that for the implementation
   plan to develop fully with time given to really listen to each other and to
   experiment with new ideas, we need to begin the deliberation process from the
   next academic year (‘05-‗06).   The elementary school faculty and staff had a
   head start in processing the competencies and are poised to begin their
   implementation from the next academic year (‘05-‘06).   They are entering the
   implementation phase with their eyes open to the evolutionary nature of the

iv. I‟m concerned about how all the competencies will be assessed.
    Just how the assessment plan will unfold is up to all of us. Current best
    understanding is that it will take a variety of forms depending on the
    circumstance of the students.

   In the elementary school the faculty divided the competencies into ―what‘s
   doable now‖ and ―what requires additional help in order to implement‖. They
   will begin implementing the first category of competencies next academic year
   and work toward the second in a few years. Grade level teachers who are
   responsible for certain competencies in their classes will assess them as
   part of the curriculum. All the students who complete the grade level will
   be deemed successful in those competencies the teachers addressed.

   In the middle school and high school the discussion has not yet taken place
   on how each competency will be treated in the classroom. There are those
   which naturally fall within the responsibilities of certain areas, such as
   prayers to Ekalesia, songs to performing arts and Hawaiian literature to
   English.   As we begin discussions in each department it is hoped the ―who‖
   and ―how‖ will become clearer.
   The assessment of the competencies which in-coming students bring with them
   and those which students acquire through clubs and various community venues
   will require the development of standards for assessment.

v. I feel that the best way to support is to continue to do what I do best, i.e.
   by teaching my classes.
   Kamehameha faculty has received numerous commendations for our dedication to
   teaching and the personal interests we take in serving our students to grow
   into the image mirrored by Princess Pauahi. The best way we can support our
   students through the coming years is for us to align our intention with the
   spirit of the competencies: Its preface states, ― (The competencies are)
   tools which, when applied with heart, will support each student to discover
   again and again what it is to be a Hawaiian.― We have been charged to
   uncover how we can make this spirit come alive in our classrooms. We have
   the time to explore this. We will find the additional knowledge necessary to
   make things work, whether they be through collegial collaboration, personal
   efforts or through staff development.

vi. This is just another top-down initiative and we are given no say in the
    All policies are created and communicated top-down. The Hawaiian language
    initiative, as has been pointed out in Dr. Chun‘s communication, has broad-
    base support and has been in the strategic plan for our school and had not
    been acted upon for many years. The time has come to attend to this issue.

   It is not accurate to state that the faculty has ―no say‖. The Hawaiian
   Language Committee is comprised primarily of volunteer faculty and has tried
   diligently to solicit and gather input and feedback at each critical
   juncture. We will continue to rely on the collective wisdom of this faculty.
   The students, faculty and staff have helped shape the competencies and now
   the faculty is being asked to exercise its power to guide how the
   competencies will be implemented in each area. There will be many
   opportunities to give your good ideas. Just how and when will be the future
   topics of our collective discussion.

vii. I‟m concerned about the student load. Won‟t the competencies add more to
   the already heavily tasked students?
   When we are faced with paradigm shift it is not easy for any of us to see how
   everything can fit. It is counterintuitive to think that we can add more and
   expect no difference in the outcome of the student load. There are many
   unknowns for all of us. However, we are strengthened by the voice we heard
   from the faculty over and again that, ―we have withstood many challenges over
   the years and through them all, we have served our students well.‖ In
   working together we hope to find an inspired reassessment of the current
   curriculum. We are also hoping to tap each other‘s wisdom and generosity in
   opening ourselves to the creative process together. We need to step into the
   unknown together and come out laughing rather than pointing fingers.

viii. Our budget is being re-allocated. How do we expect to offer more with
   Dr. Chun is aware of this dilemma. The three headmasters have approved the
   competencies and have pledged their support in spirit and also with
   resources. Dr. Chun did not say he could fund everything we ask for. He did
   say he would find the money to fund what is necessary. Prudence and balance
   is what is being asked of us in this regard.

ix. Students should not be forced into this. Some may not want to learn Hawaiian
    language. How is it going to help them in the future if, for example, they
    go to the mainland?
    It is often the case that students don‘t know what they truly want. How do
    we help any student become aware that it is important to learn who we are?
    It is hoped that through our efforts we create opportunities for students to
   connect with their Hawaiian roots. One authentic experience may lead
   students to come to a deeper appreciation for their Hawaiian heritage. Once
   such internal connection is made, it is but a small step to transfer the
   understanding to other ethnic background students may possess.

   Similar comments have appeared in quite a few student surveys on
   competencies: ―When I have family I want to be able to teach my children
   something about being a Hawaiian. But there is nothing Hawaiian about this
   school right now.‖ Teachers may be astounded to hear such comments when
   students take Hawaiian history and culture and recite the Lord‘s Prayer in
   Hawaiian. Students have learned the art of compartmentalization. They go
   from one class to another and may even be getting good grades. Perhaps what
   the students are saying is this, ―I haven‘t made a real connection on the

x. I am confused. What is the relationship between the Hawaiian Language
   Competencies and „Ike Hawai„i? How can I gain real knowledge in Hawaiian
   language and culture?
   There is a real concern amongst faculty that some of us lack the Hawaiian
   knowledge necessary to guide our students. The Tri-campus committee, the
   Hawaiian Language Committee and the administrators all share this concern.
   delete. This is no longer relevant is hoped that the collaboration with the
   Office of Hawaiian Cultural Development under the leadership of Randie Fong
   will bring clarity. What we know now is that a variety of staff developments
   is necessary: a) staff development addressing specific curriculum needs, b)
   staff-development which focuses on learning what the students are learning,
   such as ―pule‖ and ―oli‖ and c) faculty and staff making personal connection
   through experiencing authentic Hawaiian language and culture.
  Randie Fong is currently developing a model for cultural program which
  addresses the last point of providing knowledge and authentic Hawaiian
  experiences to all KS faculty and staff.

xi. I don‟t count.
   You are important! Good communication is paramount for all of us to move
   forward together. Please continue to have your voices be heard. No comment
   is too insignificant. We often see a new pathway when we hear your authentic
   voices. Please connect with any one of the people who have been carrying
   this initiative for you. This is no longer the initiative of Dr. Chun or of
   the Hawaiian Language Committee. It is the initiative that belongs to all of
   us now. .
F. Appendix 6: Overarching Questions We need more from Randie Fong.
    1. How can we ensure equal opportunities for experience and assessments to all

    2. How can we bridge/address students who are less exposed to Hawaiian culture and
       language at home?

    3. How do we support both college preparatory goals and objectives and parent
       expectations with regards to our current graduation requirements?

    4. Define Hawaiian school.   What are the general parameters?

    5. How will this impact to resource allocation, TAP, program offerings, extra- and
       co-curricular activities? To add something new, something else has to go.
       What will that be?

    6. Impacts to students, parents, faculty, staff, and administration?

    7. Articulate Hawaiian worldview. What are some general characteristics?   This
       may help during the transition.
G. Appendix 7: Contributing Factors toward the Hawaiian Language
Initiative at Kamehameha
   Recent Reports Calling for a Stronger Emphasis in Hawaiian Language and Culture at KS
   Kamehameha Schools Strategic Plan 2000-2015. Goal 3 mandates that Kamehameha Schools will
    cultivate, nurture, perpetuate and practice ‗Ike Hawai‗i (which includes Hawaiian
    culture, values, history, language, oral traditions, literature and wahi pana—significant
    cultural or historical places—etc.) The effects of this mandate are being felt system-
    wide. KHS Accreditation Report 2005. Surveys conducted with key KS constituencies
    indicate strong support by parents, students, teachers and staff for an increased
    emphasis on Hawaiian language and culture in the life of our school community.

     ―Suppression of Hawaiian Language and Culture at Kamehameha‖ Paper   presented by Käwika
      Eyre at the second Ho‗ohawai‗i Conference, January, 2004.

 Committees/Groups Currently Promoting Hawaiian Language and Culture at Kamehameha.
   Ka‗iwakïloumoku (Formally Hawaiian Cultural Center Project)
   The‗Ike Hawai‗i Content Standards Committee
   The Hawaiian Studies Institute
   The Office of Hawaiian Cultural Development
   Two Ho‗ohawai‗i conferences have been held addressing ways of making KS more Hawaiian
   The Kapälama Hawaiian Language Committee

 XVI. Other Significant Cultural Developments at KS
    High School English courses are now offered with an emphasis on Pacific Island
    Hawaiian language enrollments grades 7-12 continue to expand and are now topping 1000.
    Students in KMS are being turned away as classes are too full.
    Legal challenges to KS‘s preference policy for admitting Hawaiian students have prompted
    us as a community to look more closely at who we are and to consider anew the cultural
    context of our work. We have engaged our students as never before in this self-
    examination and in the resulting calls to action in the form of two ―Kü i ka Pono‖ marches
    with other Hawaiian group through Waikïkï.
    Some 10-12 former immersion students are joining the Kapälama KS ‗ohana each year. Their
    presence is both a challenge and a promise to the way we see ourselves and conduct our
    work. While numbers are not firm, it is believed that some 50 former immersion students
    are now enrolled in grades 7-12. This is a tremendous cultural resource that is gifted us.
H. Appendix 8:
   1. Extension Education Development / Hawaiian Studies Institute Resources
   [A more extensive listing is available from EED/HIS upon request.]

  a) A traveling resource program called 'Ike Pono Hawai'i - with 4 resource
     specialists that travel in a customized 15 passenger van equipped with cultural
     artifacts and replicas from the Bishop Museum; the cultural units include
     traditional kapa making, traditional food utensils and preparation, traditional
     music implements, symbols of royalty, navigation, and the ahupua'a - the original
     painting by Marilyn Kahalewai is part of the collection; this program targets
     grades 4 and 7 DOE, private/parochial, and charter schools, as well as the
     communities on the mainland; in the past this team has done cultural presentations
     to KS staff and administrators on the various cultural units;

  b) .A traveling resource program of elders called Ka 'Ike O Nä Küpuna - 4 küpuna
     resources that travel to preschool-through grade 3 classes promoting literacy and
     Hawaiian culture through the picture resource books titled "Where I Live" with
     emphasis on family, values, the ahupua'a, and historic sites; HSI has limited
     copies of the "Käne'ohe, Where I Live", "Waimänalo, Where I Live", "Wai'anae,
     Where I Live" and "Moloka'i, Where I Live" books, with supplementary materials and
     activities for K-3 teachers; these books are also online in the Ulukau.org
     electronic library website, and are downloadable and interactive as well;

  c) .Hawaiian Language Resource Program, Ka Leo 'Öiwi, provides direct support in
     Hawaiian language through the development of language translated materials and
     publications (KS Press series of ali'i books, From the Mts. To the Sea, etc.);
     other material resources include hands on activity worksheets to enhance language
     acquisition, pronunciation, spelling, and speaking; included in this program are
     Hawaiian language teaching tools for different levels developed by the 'Aha Pünana
     Leo and Immersion Schools
d) .HSI has developed 4 biographical brochures on Pauahi, Mr. Bishop, Ruth
   Ke'elikölani, and Kamehameha I as part of its ongoing efforts to support the
   Heritage Center; these brochures are made available to communities, schools,
   mainland groups, etc.; HSI has a good supply of these resources available for all
   KS employees and students;

e) .Other printed materials that supplement curriculum include: place names
   pamplets, genealogy charts, Hawaiian plants, Hawaiian values, teachers' guidebooks
   for the 'Ike Pono Hawai'i program, Canoe Building Traditions (teacher's packets,
   visual aids), Hala (Pandanus) and its uses, the "Where I Live" booklets and
   teacher packets/activities, cultural files on various themes (Hawaiian poetry,
   monarchy, Hawaiian music, Hawaiian games, etc.)

f) .Resource libraries include: a Hawaiian music lyrics collection of about 1,100
   songs/chants (currently being reformatted and updated by a contractor), an ali'i
   genealogy database, a series of microfilms on various cultural topics, oral
   history tapes (audio/some video)

g) HSI also has developed a community-based project in partnership with the Maunawili
   lo'i kalo (taro gardens) and the Paepae O He'eia fishpond: we would welcome the KS
   Kapälama staff to participate in this project if their schedule permits; visits to
   the sites are coordinated with each site's representative; activities cover a wide
   range of cultural and educational learning experiences; EED's programs such as
   Health Wellness and HSI have worked together to bring community families,
   children, teachers, administrators to the sites as part of an ongoing effort to do
   community service and reconnect to the natural resources

2. ‗Äina Ulu: Land Legacy Education
‗Äina Ulu is the Kamehameha Schools (KS) Land Asset Division (LAD) initiative to
carry out ethical, prudent, and culturally appropriate stewardship of lands and
natural resources while extending KS‘ educational reach to more lifelong learners of
Hawaiian ancestry.

The mission of ‗Äina Ulu is to bridge land and natural resource management and
education to create a synergistic weave of activities with economic, cultural,
environmental, community and educational benefits.

The KS Values and Guiding Principles are at the very core of the ‗Äina Ulu
initiative. ‗Äina Ulu is grounded in all Hawaiian values, especially as they relate
with the ‗äina which feeds and nourishes our people physically, spiritually and
mentally. These programs capitalize upon research showing that not every student
excels in the classroom setting, and that learning is stimulated by the natural
environment and applied, hands-on learning.

The ‗Äina Ulu initiative is a direct response to Strategic Plan (SP) Goal 6. More
specifically, SP Sub Goals 6.1 and 6.2 mandate incorporating resource stewardship
into educational programs and curricula, integrating Hawaiian cultural values and
stewardship and incorporating ahupua‗a management principles. Furthermore, programs
bridge land management and education; incorporating resource stewardship programs
and education programs in an integrated context for learning to ensure that these
traditions are passed on, and that these practices will continue in future

‗Äina Ulu programs integrate Hawaiian cultural values and knowledge with traditional
resource management practices in alignment with SP Goal 3 and our efforts to
cultivate, nurture, perpetuate and practice ‗Ike Hawai‗i. By providing educational
activities that focus on the resources of the ‗äina, wahi pana and Hawaiian culture
the learning experiences reflect a philosophy and approach to education that are
consistent with Hawaiian learning styles, traditional methods of teaching cultural
practices and values as well as innovative approaches to improving education.
Notably, there is an emphasis on gathering oral histories, traditions and literature
of our KS land holdings that support educational opportunities.

While SP Goal 6 specifically includes the sub-goals directing the development and
incorporation of educational programs and curricula into resource stewardship
programs and vice versa, we are proud to note that the ‗Äina Ulu initiative has been
developed to support all seven SP goals. We feel it is our kuleana:

   to provide a program and service that enriches our people;
   to engage families and communities so that we don‘t limit these benefits to
    individual learners;
   to practice, integrate and promote aloha ‗äina, mälama ‗äina, and ahupua‗a
    principles along with continuous gathering and sharing of history and traditions;
   to ensure that future generations of Hawaiians have the skills and wisdom to
    manage and care for our lands and people in perpetuity;
   to leverage resources both financial and non-financial through partnerships and
    collaborations with agencies and community organizations; and
   to encourage the development of our staff and programs through research,
    monitoring and refinement to continuously improve our program management and

In its first two years ‗Äina Ulu program participants exceeded 12,000, far
surpassing expectations. In fiscal year 2003-2004, the third year of program
operation, more than 10,000 lifelong learners of Hawaiian ancestry were enriched by
the Land Legacy left by Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop. Additionally, these lands
are engaging environments to supplement the classroom curriculum of our Kamehameha
Schools K-12 campus programs. KS Hawai‘i campus has found many opportunities to
heighten the learning experience through our lands at Keauhou-Kïlauea, Kahuwai, and
Ke‗ei. On O‗ahu, Kapälama campus teachers and students are exploring and getting to
know our lands at He‗eia and Punalu‗u. Teachers are finding that these experiences
engage students in science, observation and problem-solving in a hands-on
application-based approach. Other KS programs that we are proud to share these rich
resources and treasures with include: Kamehameha Scholars, Alaka‗i Project,
Character Development, Distance Learning, and Enrichment Programs.

While our ‗Äina Ulu sites welcome all KS beneficiaries of all ages, the location of
‗Äina Ulu programs affords KS the opportunity to serve many people of Hawaiian
ancestry that are unable to attend one of the three KS campuses. From Kaua‗i to
Hawai‗i Island, the ‗Äina Ulu programs allow families and communities to connect
with a sense of place to the natural, cultural and economic resources, preparing
people to live and work together while respecting the cultural and ecological
integrity of their communities. Through collaborations with agencies,
organizations, and community program providers, KS‘ lands provide a source of
inspiration, growth and enrichment to students of all ages from universities, State
Department of Education schools, public charter schools, private schools, and
community and cultural groups.

As a tool in the management of non-financial endowment resources, the ‗Äina Ulu
initiative ensures the perpetuity of the endowment, and links education and
endowment management to support the educational mission. With an understanding of
the overwhelming challenge of appropriately stewarding 360,000 acres of land
holdings, additional grant funding and collaboration with community partners who
serve people of Hawaiian ancestry is pursued. While the economic yield potential of
our lands is expected to be enhanced by the social capital developed through ‗Äina
Ulu partnerships, the returns from the programs go far beyond the monetary value of
the perception of land as a commodity. The true returns come in every person that
has been touched by our lands, and who have been able to experience and learn from
the ‗äina. It also comes from our responsibility to appropriately care for the
‗äina, ensuring an ecologically rich and healthy place to live for our people in
I.   Appendix 9:    ‗Ike Hawai‗i Content Standards

                               DRAFT 6 5-10-05        PROPOSED Education System-wide
                               Content Standards

                                         ÿIKE HAWAIÿI
                                 ÿÖLELO HAÿI MUA (PREAMBLE):
                             Kü i ka mäna o ka nohona hulu mamo.
                   Like the ancestors from whom we receive what we learn.
         ÿO ka manaÿo Hawaiÿi ke kumu paÿa o nei mau mea ÿo ke anaaÿo ÿIke Hawaiÿi. ÿOiai ke
         kälele nui ÿia nei ua mau anaaÿo ma luna mai o ka ÿaÿapo pono ÿana mai i ka ÿIke
         Hawaiÿi, ÿaÿole nö nei ÿike ka palena pau. ÿO ko käkou wahi haÿawina ma ka hoÿokomo pü
         ÿana mai i nei mau ÿike ÿo ia hoÿi ka nohona Hawaiÿi. Eia hoÿi, hiki nö i nä papahana
         like ÿole ke kökua ma ka hoÿokö ÿana mai i nei mau anaaÿo ma o ka hoÿokomo pü ÿana mai
         i ka ÿike Hawaiÿi.

         The ÿIke Hawaiÿi content standards are premised on the perspective
         of a Hawaiian worldview. While the emphasis of these standards may
         be on the acquisition of knowledge (ÿIke Hawaiÿi), knowledge is not
         intended to be an end onto itself. Our approach to implementation
         must focus on living Hawaiian (nohona Hawaiÿi). Finally, all
program areas can help contribute to the achievement of these
standards by integrating ÿIke Hawaiÿi.

            MÄKIA                  2. ANAAÿO
                                   3. CONTENT STANDARD
1   ÿÖlelo Hawaiÿi         E höÿike mai i ka mäkaukau ma ka ÿölelo
                            Hawaiÿi i kö pono ÿia nä pahu hopu o këlä me
    Hawaiian Language       këia papahana.

                          Demonstrate competency in the Hawaiian
                          language appropriate to the specific
                          program’s objectives.
2   Loina                E hoÿomaopopo i ke kuleana a me ka pilina
                          kanaka a höÿike küpono mai i ka hanana e pono
    Customs and           ai.
                            Recognize one’s social role and status in
                            relationship to others and demonstrate
                            appropriate actions and interactions.

                           E hoÿokomo pü mai i ka ÿike kupuna i loko o
                            nä moÿolelo i ÿölelo a käkau ÿia i laÿana
                            küpono e hahai ai.

                            Use the wisdom contained in the oral and
                            written traditions as a model for behavior.
3   Moÿokalaleo      E haÿi ÿölelo hou mai ma nä ÿölelo a päpaho
                      like ÿole i nä moÿolelo Hawaiÿi i pili koke
    Literature        aku i ka pahu hopu o këlä me këia papahana

                      Retell in any language and media Hawaiian
                      literature appropriate to the specific
                      program’s objectives.

4   Hana Noÿeau      E hoÿomöhala, hoÿomaÿamaÿa a hoÿohana i nä
                      mäkau like ÿole ma ka hana noÿeau, e laÿa:
    Arts              ka nänä, ka noÿonoÿo, ka hoÿolohe, ka
                      hoÿopili, ka hoÿohälike, ka hoÿokolohua a me
                      ka noiÿi.

                      Develop, practice and apply the skills of
                      observation, thinking, listening, imitating,
                      modeling, experimenting, and questioning in
                      hana noÿeau.

                     E hoÿomaopopo mai ÿo ko käkou moÿomeheu he
                      wahi hoÿomana, ÿike a me ka nohona mai waena
                      mai o ko käkou poÿe känaka i mea e mahalo ai
                      i nä ÿano ÿokoÿa o ka hana noÿeau.

                      Understand our Hawaiian culture as a system
                      of beliefs, knowledge, and practices shared
                      by our people for the purpose of appreciating
                      particular forms of hana noÿeau.
                    E hoÿomaopopo a hoÿohana pono aku i nä pono
                     hana noÿeau, nä kiÿina a me nä kaÿina hana
                     noÿeau ma ka hakuhia ÿana mai i ka mäpuna me
                     ke aÿo pü ÿana i ka ÿike kumu.

                     Understand and apply art materials,
                     techniques, and processes in creating and
                     expressing oneself through a variety of hana
                     noÿeau experiences while learning about the
                     elements and techniques.
5   Ke Ao Nei       E hoÿomaopopo a mahalo i ko käkou pilina i ke
                     one hänau ma o ka manaÿo Hawaiÿi (aloha
    This World       ÿäina) a e hoÿokomo i ia ÿike ma ka mälama
                     ÿana i ko käkou kuläiwi (mälama ÿäina).

                     Understand and appreciate our relationship to
                     our homeland from the perspective of a
                     Hawaiian worldview (aloha ÿäina) and use this
                     knowledge to care for our homeland (mälama
6   Olakino         E hoÿomaopopo a hoÿomau i nä loina e pono ai
                     ka pilikino a me ka piliÿuhane pono no ke
    Well-being       olakino pono.

                     Understand and perpetuate the traditional
                     practices that promote well-being.
7   ÿOhana          E hoÿomaopopo mai i ka ÿike pili ÿohana ma o
                     ke külana, ke kuleana, ka lawena, ka hoÿomana
    Family           a me ka loina.
    Understand traditional concepts of ÿohana in
    terms of roles, responsibilities, practices,
    beliefs and protocols.

      J.   Appendix 10: Relevant Articles and Documents

      a. He Huliau – Shifting Paradigms: Imperatives For Hawaiian Cultural
         Survival, January 23-24, 2004 at Kamehameha Schools, sponsored by the
         Hui Ho‗ohawai‗i Assembly
             This consists of raw data generated from small and large group discussions by
             members of the KS and larger Hawaiian communities.

Discussion Questions:                                                              Themes
Nïnau 1: What Identifies a society as Hawaiian?
Group:#1 Facilitator: Kïhei de Silva

    H. that society bound to it‘s Küpuna
Group: #2 Facilitator: Kapua Akiu -Wilcox
    Values-kuleana, ÿohana
    -blood quantum
    -genealogy
    -protocol
    -History
    -Land
    -Mutual Agreements
    -Identity
    -Traditions, cultural
    Practices (honoring ancestors), Language
Group: #3 Facilitator: Mele Pang
     Language values (aloha) ancestry/genealogy
     Origins-relationship to land - land ownership/stewardship
     Stories – folklore. Music. Ritual. Ceremony. Religion/spirituality blood
      governance ahupuaÿa
     International recognition of nation state. Our interpersonal connections/
      relationships hänai.

Group: #4 Facilitator: Kawika Makanani

     Language – expresses nuances, richness of culture
     Unique activities e.g. specific food preparation, hula
     blood genetic genealogy, moÿo
     Aloha – respect, face-to-face unique experience and actions, hohonu -ÿoluÿolu

Group: #5 Facilitator: Ke‗ala Kwan

     -Live & practice the culture
     -everything (people, etc) in that land – moving as one – the spirit
     -basic: the people
     -Behaving, gestures, way speak, how they interact
     -more than just hula, poi- it‘s a life style – belief system, unity
     -moving as one – but we have (au kahi) individual talents, functions and you
      know your function

Group: #6   Facilitator: ‗Ululia Woodside
          ÿölelo, koko, moÿoküÿauhau, place- connection to wahi pana and ÿäina hänau
          just because you speak Hawaiian doesn‘t make one Hawaiian) gives us the
           knowledge of our ancestors ÿölelo
          -justice – no one left out
          values
          practices
          responsibility to all

Nïnau 2: What makes a Society Vibrant?
Group:#1 Facilitator: Kïhei de Silva
    -Vibrant society is defined by those who enjoy, are informed, pride and
     confidence, awareness
    For us to enjoy, etc… there must be a context (and we must be able to have it
     in a larger context – recognition, respect) Know history, grounded in
     tradition positive and negative (ex: lava flow)
    Creation, change / adaptation, evolving ( but with a mole)
    -Community begins with self and extends beyond; it consists of those who
     desire to belong to that community.
    Currently exists in Hawaiian families but connections have been weakened.

Group: #2 Facilitator: Kapua Akiu –Wilcox
      Dynamic, alive & practicing , kuleana

Group: #3 Facilitator: Mele Pang

           ―vibrant‖ pulsating with life, vigor, activity‖
           -people speak language, practice culture. Youth are well cared fro,
            learning (küpuna ÿöpia connection interrogational ) growing. Produces
            products/services reflective of culture/ past, adaptive and functional in
         present with promise for future.
        Creativity of concepts, products, theories with understanding of societal
        innovation plus tradition.

Group:   #4 Facilitator: Kawika Makanani
         Harmony with nature, land
         ―vibrations‖ vibes
         Wahi pana
         Flourishing at all levels, arts, visible
         Self determination
         Active, positive
         ÿäina, kulaiwi means self-reliant independent

Group: #5 Facilitator: Ke‘ala Kwan
    Vibrant – to be alive
    -Change
    -anything alive-noticeable, behavior and things we do
    -being constantly feed, nourished ―cultural composting: from different
    -constantly working on something
    -certain amounts if inherent cultural pride-doing things that help this –
     difficult with so many things that make this difficult in society.
    -Catalytic in nature not fragmented every experience builds on another- alive
     more that just living- emanating affecting everybody else in the process.

Group: #6    Facilitator: ‗Ulalia Woodside

Nïnau #3 What makes a Hawaiian Society vibrant?
Group:#1 Facilitator: Kïhei de Silva
   We are defined by our culture, but we have come away from it; we need to
     disclose how to evolve into this century to a re-identification w/ unique,
     endemic culture.
   -defined by feeling of attachment to ÿäina
   -define, perhaps, by what it is not.

Group: #2 Facilitator: Kapua Akiu –Wilcox
    Practicing intellectual pursuit
    Constant intellectual pursuit
    Recognition by others/mutual respect
    Empowerment, take control of our community
    Growth of children
    Language
    Tension (küÿë)
    Culturally based education
    awareness/conscious shift in paradigms
    healthy opportunities

Group: #3 Facilitator: Mele Pang

      -Language is spoken in homes, community, government
      -innovation that includes tradition
      our children are instilled with our language and culture they are taught
       these things they live our culture.
      -Our children have a Hawaiian world view
      -we are grounded in who we are, where we‘re from
      -People ―communicate‖ Hawaiian
Group: #4 Facilitator: Kawika Makanani
    Reservoir o f practitioners
    action
    opportunities
    learning
    küpunas, mälama, nä
    nana ike kumu
    systematic
    feelings, esteem within the lähui (ÿohana), and from others.
    (Küpuna have kuleana. Good to pass on ÿike, or to learn)
    Create attitude of speaking ÿike cultural strengths
    Borrowing technological literacy sometimes okay.

Group: #5 Facilitator: Ke‘ala Kwan
    When Hawaiian society affecrs/touches others not Hawaiian – passion
    -looking back to parents and grandparents time (e.g. going to graveyard to
     mälama ÿohana)
    -maintaining kuleana/ÿohana
    -Nourish – ―cultural compositing‖
    -individual kuleana within our ÿohana doesn‘t mean everyone did everything-
     fishermen specialty, hula specialty
    -there are basics shared by all
    Basics: Leo, movements, lawena manners, behaviors, values our ÿano
    Ability to adapt – no matter what we pursue- we can absorb and make it our
    Does a Hawaiian vibrant society only consist of Hawaiians?
    -If if culture is to live- larger mission it must involve others.
    -true lökahi – among elements: spirit, environment
    -go with that all
    -ÿäina based – ―fertilizer‖ specifics
    -At same time Hawaiians have amazing ability to adapt yet preserve cultural
     values. Not all societies do this very well. Wonderful balance in Hawaiian
    -still battling assimilation. Good KS looking at this. If we don‘t start I.D.
     and do the cultural composting.
Group: #6 Facilitator: ‗Ulalia Woodside
    Do it, use it (with the foundation)
    Don‘t just talk about it
    Need land (only people in Pacific- don‘t control land)
    Need a place to exist
    Constantly evaluating, evolving
    Education
    What we want for every Hawaiian
    all speak Hawaiian (Child and teacher)
    Know küpuna, genealogy
    prepared to lead the nation whatever nation
    Oli & hula (mahiÿai Lawaiÿa, etc.) ready to practice
    Keiki w/ high esteem
    Availability of resources
    food
    ceremony
    ÿäina momna - adding, building growing
    Political analysis – critical analysis
    Leadership of Hawaiian society (pono)
    what does it look like?
    Group? One? Küpuna?
    Leadership must be Hawaiian
    Hawaiians speaking, sharing comparable, competitive globally.
Nïnau #4 Why is a vibrant Hawaiian society a good thing?
Group:#1 Facilitator: Kïhei de Silva

Group: #2 Facilitator: Kapua Akiu –Wilcox
    Survival of ―us‖
    -well being of all
    Hawaiians add to the quality of life in a global society. ( it is a blessing
     that Hawaiians are here in this world)

Group: #3 Facilitator: Mele Pang

     People have a strong connection to the homeland and are grounded in a
      Hawaiian world view

Group: #4 Facilitator: Kawika Makanani
    not all at same point
    Developmental, incremental, in pono way.
    Beauty, strength, positive ness of Hawaiian culture benefits Hawaiians and
     everyone else.
    Self Esteem
    Viable alternatives

Group: #5 Facilitator: Ke‘ala Kwan
    All of #2 – Like kïpuka-no matter the obstacles we will continue to survive.
    gives pride to the community
     perpetuation when society is vibrant it fosters perpetuation of culture
      Oh my God this is Hawaiÿi Këia. Where else will find Hawaiians – we are
      alive. ÿO käkou këia
     Same as asking – ―why are we important?‖ anything not nourished not
     Basic human wish to affirm and celebrate deep desire our individual lives –
      in group small or large. And that‘s a good thing. We need to do it.

Group: #6   Facilitator: ‗Ulalia Woodside
                                     LARGE GROUP #1
                           Attributes of a Hawaiian Society:
                                Facilitator: Kehau Abad
                a)   Helpers: Mahealani Chang& Camille Naluai
   -Reality of loss of Sovereignty
     Loss ÿäina, military invasion
     -Integrating elements of Hawaiian culture – many only have elements but not
       enough for wholeness.
     -Need active practitioners in society
     -Concept of I ( 1 for all, everyone vs. oneself)
     -Need a place to go to meet, work with practitioners
     -Oppression of Hawaiian ways
     -Take a space to lead toward taking our country back.
     -What is our long-term goal?
     If we‘re looking at Kïpuka, let‘s look at ex. KS Hawaiian staff trying to
       lead very difficult.
     -There is a society that created ke alii pauahi‘s legacy
     -What is a society that will continue into the future.
     -Confusion of ID will make it very hard.
     -Fear too.
     *Expanding Kïpuka
     KS needs to be a strong Kïpuka
     KS has a role it must take
     KS has Pauahi‘s legacy, money
     KS is the last place of Hawaiian Language, culture.
     *How do we make KS the Kïpuka of the mind?
     If KS in the past was a kïpuka there would have been 100,000 marchers instead
       of 10,000.
     -It‘s hard because Hawaiians at KS do not have control.
     KS is struggling ….tribal unit would be better than ―western best practices‖
       – Hawaiian at best is an elective at KS not a requirement.
     Area of conflict- how inclusive/exclusive are we?
                                      Large Group # 2
                                  Facilitator: Julian Ako
           4. Helpers: Mahealani Chang & Camille Naluai
     Implications for KS
     L.K.-Faculty/Staff speaking Hawaiian and knowing Hawaiian history (5year plan)
     K.E.- Late 1950‘s and 60‘s staff was taught Hawaiian history, culture, but in token;
      need to be goal- oriented and more sustained and in depth (i.e. Hawaiÿi Nui Kuauli)
     I.W.- Have Hawaiian Language requirement earlier middle school, elementary, pre-
     H.P.- Don‘t violate cultural values – feel, internalize akahai, haÿahaÿa, aloha-you
      do it and tha‘s how you get it. Practice values.
     L.K.- bilingualism_ Hawaiian/English start at K and 12 years later those who come
      need to know there is a commitment to Language/culture and to give to the next
      generation… need to be able to analyze politics.
     M.P.- Education to Haumäna, values taught and practiced to become lifestyle not a
      curriculum goal-
     Lifestyle Change
     -Burden of teaching Hawaiian Language/ Culture should not be given to just one kumu
      need interdisciplinary hands ons, integrated.
     J.A. – Graduates serving Hawaiians at KS and elsewhere
     N.H.- KS Strategic Plan made commitments - ÿike Hawaiÿi. Mäori ex. Of Strategic
      till 3000 (tu whare toa) – Note: everyone must know about it (public awareness) we
      need to steps.
     K.E. – There is a willingness to require Hawaiian Language but how to get there is
      the problem – redefined values and destiny is key (i.e. choosing to stay in Hawaiÿi
      for college education)
     N.H.- Opportunity thinking; we need a good plan. Let‘s use our resources. We know
      what our Küleana is. Hui Hoÿohawaiÿi is positive. Look at progress and gaps. Let‘s
      make an action plan.
     L.K. – Finance – spend the money now ex. 500 million. Spend the money now on
      Hawaiians count how many bodies you need to do the work (i.e. teach ) and for the
      budget. Match Budget to the work plan.
     Action Pla

     N.R.- KS work with Pünana Leo.

     S.O.- Admissions experience (needed to rate keiki with varying levels of experience
      – distributing) Look at how we‘re admitting haumäna
(1)     b. Historical Premise for the Existence of Kamehameha Schools

      5. Overview
      Some two millennia ago, Polynesian voyagers discovered and settled the islands
      of Hawai‗i, giving birth to the Hawaiian culture. Centuries of innovation and
      refinement enabled this culture to attain some of the highest levels of
      achievement known in the Pacific. A conservative estimate indicates that the
      native Hawaiian population may have totaled 400,000 prior to foreign contact.
      However, recent studies show the likelihood of a much higher number of
      inhabitants as evidenced by the agricultural and aqua cultural infrastructure
      which had a carrying capacity capable of supporting between 800,000 and 1
      million people.

      6. Western Influences
      The initial impact of Western intervention was traumatic. New diseases ravaged
      the population. Between 1778 when Capt. Cook arrived, and 1823 when a census
      was taken by American missionaries, the Hawaiian population had dropped from
      400,000 (conservative) to 132,000. By 1853, the native population declined
      further to 70,000.   In addition, imperialistic actions resulted in a
      devastating sense of material and psychological loss. Throughout the 19th
      century, Hawaiians became increasingly disenfranchised from their land and its
      resources which had sustained them in isolation for nearly 2,000 years.

      In an effort to stabilize and maintain Hawai‗i as a sovereign nation, the
      Hawaiian monarchy created social and political alliances with royalty and heads
      of state from throughout the world and ratified treaties with foreign
      governments. It established constitutions that it hoped would protect the
      Hawaiian kingdom from foreign control. It was precisely these historical
      circumstances that inspired Ke Ali‗i Bernice Pauahi Bishop to establish
Kamehameha Schools in 1884. It was her hope that education would help Hawaiian
people to cope and survive in an increasingly non-Hawaiian world. However, by
1893 Americans' burgeoning political and economic interests in Hawai‗i and its
resources peaked, and Hawai‗i‘s last monarch, Queen Lili‗uokalani, Pauahi‘s
hänai sister, was unlawfully overthrown. By this time, the population had
dwindled to about 40,000. Though opposed by the majority of Hawaiians via
petition, Hawai‗i was annexed as a territory of the United States in 1898.
Over a century later, the legality of this action continues to raise questions
in contemporary times.

Downward Spiral
From the turn of the 20th century to the dawning of the 21st, Hawaiians endured a
hundred years of forced assimilation into mainstream American culture and
lifestyle. Despite indications that the Hawaiian kingdom was one of the most
highly literate nations in the world in the latter half of the 19th century, the
Hawaiian language was banned from the public and private school systems in 1896
and it remained an unrecognized language by the government for nearly a century.
The English-only legislation was among the most destructive colonial acts against
native Hawaiians -- it resulted in a precipitous decline in the indigenous
understandings of their own culture, history, values, spirituality, practices and
identity as a people. The effects of colonialism and institutional racism
continued into the 1920s (when only 24,000 native Hawaiians were left), became
imbedded in Hawai‗i‘s system during World War II and remained through statehood
in 1959.
7. Toward Cultural Stability:      Restoring the Values, Soul and Psyche
In the years following statehood, a surge in tourism and an influx of new
residents drastically altered the social and natural landscape of Hawai‗i,
threatening the survival of the then fragile Hawaiian culture.

Then, the tide began to turn during the decade of the 1970‘s which was marked
by a dynamic movement by Hawaiians to hold fast and reconnect to their cultural
roots found in the environment, in themselves and in their past. Hawaiian
language, arts, values, perspectives and socio-political activism, became
widespread – it was an era of great cultural pride. And yet even the colorful
and festive Hawaiian Renaissance could not upstage the debilitating effects of
200-plus years of political, social, cultural and psychological trauma. Today,
in 2003, as Hawaiians continue to be disproportionately represented in social
statistics regarding poor health, unemployment, incarceration, education, and
so forth, they also remain, for the most part, culturally illiterate as a
people and are generally disconnected from their ancestral heritage and
lifestyle on a daily basis.

Moreover, the values and practices of our ancestors shaped by an island home
and subsistence economy, nurture an understanding of the need for sustainable
resource management and of the importance of placing community benefits above
self-interest. These values are as or more relevant in the 21st century as they
were when Polynesians made their first landfall in Hawai‗i Nei.
                                    KAMEHAMEHA SCHOOLS‟ KULEANA

       Given the premise of history and the promise of our future, it is the goal of
       Kamehameha Schools to:

           Work towards the reestablishment of social and cultural stability through the
            restoration of Hawaiian cultural literacy for native Hawaiians of all ages;

           Facilitate Hawaiian cultural learning throughout the Hawaiian community;

           Institutionalize Hawaiian cultural perspectives and practices throughout the
            Kamehameha Schools system;

           Promote the globally accepted understanding that the condition of indigenous
            peoples is directly impacted by their access to resources, their positive
            feelings of self and group esteem, their sense of identity, and grounding in
            their own native culture.

       Collectively, these form an important catalyst for the success and the rightful
       advancement of Känaka Maoli, native Hawaiians, in their own homeland in the 21st
       century. Kamehameha Schools, by virtue of its history and educational and
       cultural mission, is committed to the education of native Hawaiians not simply
       for education‘s sake, but ultimately to improve the conditions of native
       Hawaiians and to ensure their longevity as the indigenous people of Hawai‗i.

c.   Kamehameha Schools As A Hawaiian Institution

       1.     Definition of a Hawaiian Institution:
     A Hawaiian institution is an extended family that manifests its identity
     through beliefs and practices rooted in an ancestral Hawaiian worldview.

2.   Purpose of a Hawaiian Institution:
     The purpose of a Hawaiian institution is to empower Hawaiians.

3.   Purpose of a Hawaiian Educational Institution:
     The purpose of a Hawaiian educational institution is to facilitate
     learning that empowers Hawaiians to thrive as a people who are grounded in
     their culture and committed to its practice, perpetuation, and growth.

     Kamehameha Schools commits itself to the purpose of a Hawaiian educational

4.   Kamehameha Schools affirms its identity as a Hawaiian Educational
     Institution by promoting and exemplifying the following attributes from an
     indigenous perspective:
      Spirituality

        ‗Ölelo Hawai‗i (Native Hawaiian language)

        KS genealogical identity

        Human relationships in the learning and working environments

        Use of resources (e.g. people, land, knowledge and wisdom, money)

        Educational philosophy and practices
               Cultural beliefs and practices

               Decision-making/governance/policy

               Systems of measurement and evaluation

d.   Hawaiian Culture At Kamehameha Schools

       A Position Paper Submitted by the Hui Ho‗ohawai‗i Assembly to the Kamehameha
       Schools Board of Trustees, Acting Chief Executive Officer and the Interim Vice
       Presidents of Education and Legal Affairs, September 23, 2003


       Hawaiian culture refers to the totality of human activity characteristic of the
       traditions, customs, spiritual beliefs, aspirations and worldview of the
       indigenous people of Hawai‗i. It is irrespective of time (not just in the past
       but also in the present), and in some cases, irrespective of place (not just in
       Hawai‗i, but also elsewhere). Notwithstanding, Hawaiian people feel closely
       connected to their ancestral past and view themselves as being genealogically
       connected to the pae moku (island chain) of Hawai'i. Hence, references to the
       past and to locations in Hawai‗i are important ways Hawaiians all over the
       world affirm their identity as being "Hawaiian."

       Ultimately, “culture” is the unconscious acting out of life. Our collective
       goal to revitalize and reestablish Hawaiian culture, in essence, implies that
we are working toward a state where Hawaiian lifestyle becomes natural, and can
be looked upon as normal, commonplace and pervasive throughout all of society.

A living culture is about ―people,‖ not about acquiring "knowledge." The
learning of information, while valuable, is not an indicator of life. For
example, there is much information available about the ancient Maya of Central
America. We know about their language, social structure, religion, delicacies,
attire, ceremonies, agricultural and architectural achievements, and much more.
But the Mayan civilization is not a living culture, it no longer exists. There
is no vibrant community that defines the Mayan people, today. In our case, we
have a lot of knowledge about the Hawaiian culture, and there has been much
emphasis placed on the learning of cultural information. However, there is
considerable difference between ―knowing about‖ a culture (i.e., as in the
Mayan case) and participating in a living and breathing culture. Hence, to
truly perpetuate Hawaiian culture, we must look at the social and cultural
vibrancy of our people, and not focus on knowledge acquisition alone.

Hawaiian culture is alive when people representing a wide range of Hawaiian
cultural beliefs, behaviors and practices coexist and interact together as a
way of life. When this occurs in a fertile environment, that is, an
environment sufficiently versatile to foster interactivity among a broad range
of cultural elements, culture can become dynamic and vibrant with a strong
likelihood for growth.
Often, we describe the presence of Hawaiian culture where in fact there exists
only an element, one small part, of Hawaiian culture. For example, when we
refer to Hawaiian language, hula, farming taro, or sailing a canoe in isolation
from their larger cultural context, we need to constantly remind ourselves that
none of them is Hawaiian culture, per se.
Briefly restated, the existence of Hawaiian culture requires: 1) a wide range of
cultural beliefs, behaviors and practices characterized as Hawaiian, and, 2)
interactivity and coexistence among those cultural elements to form a way of
life. The survival of Hawaiian culture is dependent on fertile environments
that accommodate a wide range of cultural elements and promote coexistence and

Hawaiian Subcultures

To the degree they encompass a range of cultural interactivity in fertile
environments within their own specific domains, certain Hawaiian cultural
practices can and have developed into subcultures. Hula and Hawaiian language
learning represent thriving subcultures that exist as independent entities.

Hula, for example, through the hälau context, combines a wide range of cultural
elements such as Hawaiian language, history, knowledge of native plants,
spirituality, and so forth, and promotes interactivity at a very high level
(e.g., myriad hälau, hula competitions locally and abroad, etc.). Likewise,
the study of Hawaiian language can include a range of cultural experiences that
involve history, culture and the arts. There are thriving communities that
maintain the practice of hula and Hawaiian language; both elements possess the
necessary attributes for survival. However, they are "subcultures." They do
not constitute "Hawaiian culture" by themselves, they are simply parts of a
much greater whole.

"Elements of Culture" VS. "Culture"
While there are many examples of the perpetuation of "Hawaiian cultural
elements" in our community, there are surprisingly few examples of the
perpetuation of "Hawaiian culture." That is to say, there are few fertile
environments within which a wide range of cultural elements coexist, interact
and thrive as a way of life.

Examples of "cultural elements" include the gamut of activities and practices
such as language learning, hula, chanting, singing, composing, storytelling,
surfing, canoe paddling, voyaging, lua, carving, farming, fishing, cooking,
visual arts, healing, conflict resolution, ceremonies, etc. There are hundreds
of programs in schools, churches, organizations and throughout the community,
as well as on television and on the Internet, that facilitate the learning of,
or participation in, cultural activities.

On the other hand, the existence of "Hawaiian culture" (as defined here) is much
more rare. A number of culture-based charter schools (e.g., Hälau Kü Mana, Kanu
o ka ‗Äina, etc.) have created very fertile environments where Hawaiian language,
biology, farming, English, fishing, history, math, kapa-making, economics, poi-
pounding, astronomy, hula and more, consistently interact to form a Hawaiian
lifestyle for students, staff and the administration. Näwahïokalani‗öpu‗u is a
stellar example of a very fertile environment that promotes an indigenous
Hawaiian worldview (honua mauli ola) and operates entirely in the native Hawaiian
language. Kamehameha Schools Hawai‗i Campus at Kea‗au, while its academic
standards are aligned with western paradigms, has established itself as a
learning community with a Hawaiian cultural foundation. This is evidenced in the
fairly high degree of cultural interaction at all levels, and is supported by its
culturally rich community environment which is home to a high percentage of
native Hawaiians.

These few "pockets of Hawaiian culture" within Hawai'i's largely western
society can be viewed as kïpuka. They are like small life-sustaining oases
scattered sporadically amidst an overwhelmingly vast and barren landscape of
lava. Collectively, these cultural-educational kïpuka are important
microcosmic models of what could and perhaps should be happening on a greater
scale to affect a much larger population of native Hawaiians, and non-
Hawaiians, as well. Such kïpuka are not only critical to the vitality of the
Hawaiian people, but also have economic implications for the state. Recent
discussions about reviving our tourist industry, focuses on the important role
of Hawaiian culture to these efforts.

Why Aren‟t We Creating More Fertile Environments?

Why is there an overwhelming amount of attention on preserving individual
elements of Hawaiian culture and very little attention on creating environments
where those elements can come together to form a dynamic Hawaiian cultural

One answer might be the social, political and psychological effects of
colonialism. In traditional times, identity, ancestry, beliefs and behaviors
were reinforced by the ‘ohana, the extended family community. Once the bedrock
of society, this ‘ohana network served as a critical socio-cultural support
system. However, western intervention dismantled Hawaiian society so severely
that now, mere remnants are left of the richness that once existed. Today,
Hawai‗i‘s social landscape finds many native Hawaiians at or near the lowest
rungs of a western-based society. Ongoing disenfranchisement from their land
and its resources compounded by the absence of their own indigenous socio-
cultural support system has left most native Hawaiians culturally depauperate.
With increasing western encroachment and the rapid passing of küpuna and
traditional lifestyles, Hawaiians seem to be in "preservation mode‖ on a
regular basis; they are constantly overwhelmed with keeping parts of
themselves alive. To use the metaphor of a trauma victim, Hawaiians are so
busy trying to stop the bleeding that they are often unable to address other
vital functions key to the survival of their culture.

Statistically, just keeping Hawaiians alive is a task in itself. But is
physical survival enough? The Hawaiian community says, ―No.‖ A key part of
their survival and well being is remembering who they are: their identity,
their ancestral connections to the land and their way of viewing the world.
Hence, "preservation" and "perpetuation of cultural elements" alone are
insufficient. If Hawaiian culture is to survive, Hawaiians need to be
"reassembling" their culture and piecing themselves back together. To do this,
they need culturally fertile environments where they can regenerate their
culture and establish their socio-cultural support systems once again.

Another factor for the focus on cultural fragments as oppose to cohesive
systems, may be the proliferation of a western worldview. Over time, both
Hawaiians and non-Hawaiians alike have become used to seeing Hawaiian culture
broken up into sections like units in a history textbook, or like showcases in a
museum with brief captions below each exhibit. Hawaiians have become accustomed
to framing their history in reference to the arrival of foreigners and foreign
events and not as a dynamic continuum of Polynesian achievement over the course
of millennia. And, sadly, some have come to accept the flawed notion that the
deterioration of Hawai„i‟s indigenous culture was inevitable – simply a natural
course of events for inferior ways of life. As a result, it simply does not
occur to many Hawaiians that it is even possible to create a cohesive cultural
existence as an indigenous people in the 21st century.
The lack of cultural connectedness and a clear vision for the Hawaiian people
may preclude the application of innovative and creative thinking. The
reestablishment of Hawaiian culture may heighten feelings of inadequacy among
culturally detached Hawaiians, thus leading to lukewarm or non-support of
viable avenues for cultural regeneration.

A final compelling reason might relate to resources. The vision to regenerate
and develop a vibrant Hawaiian society may be beyond the thinking of some
leaders in the Hawaiian community. Instead, there is the strong misconception
that simply funding "something Hawaiian" (or in KS nomenclature, 'Ike Hawai'i)
is somehow perpetuating the indigenous Hawaiian way of life. Lastly, it is
much cheaper to fund an activity or a program than it is to rebuild a Hawaiian
community and to reestablish the multi-faceted culture of Hawai‗i's native


There is great danger in saying that the "Hawaiian culture is being
perpetuated" when in fact there is only the "perpetuation of cultural elements
and activities." Doing so creates false impressions regarding the true
condition of Hawaiian culture and the cultural well-being of native Hawaiians.
This would be analogous to purposely implying that someone is in good health
when you are aware that he or she is not well -- it is unethical.

When the general public views the Merrie Monarch Hula Festival, reads an
article on children planting koa, or watches breathtaking footage of the
Höküle‗a on television, they can be led to think that Hawaiian culture is alive
and well. When it sees a commercial for Pünana Leo Preschools or notices an
article written in Hawaiian in the newspaper, it thinks that the Hawaiian
language has been saved. Likewise, when people flip through the Kamehameha
Schools strategic plan, see an ad for Pauahi's Legacy Lives, watch I MUA TV or
tune in to the Song   Contest, the impression is that Kamehameha Schools is doing
a lot to perpetuate   the way of life of the indigenous people of Hawai‗i.
Generally speaking,   public perception may be that Hawaiian culture is strong
and on the upswing,   when in reality its prognosis for survival may be quite

XVII.     Perceptions vs. Reality:   Kamehameha Schools

Generally speaking, when we apply the conditions of culture to Kamehameha
Schools, we find that there are opportunities for Hawaiian cultural education
through various programs and initiatives. These include courses, workshops and
activities that involve Hawaiian language, history, culture, dance, etc. There
are also a few unofficial cultural kïpuka where limited numbers of students,
staff and community members can have brief Hawaiian cultural experiences.

At the same time, members of the Kapälama Campus community report that daily
life at Kamehameha essentially reflects a western-based culture as evidenced in
the overall curriculum, school-wide learning expectations, policies, employment
practices, finance/budget philosophies, organizational structure,
communications, daily operations, etc. Hawaiian cultural interaction and
practices are quite uncommon among students, staff and the administration, and
large-scale high profile events (e.g. Song Contest, Founder‘s Day, etc.)
provide only limited cultural exposure.

Kawaiaha‗o Plaza, the Schools corporate center, is dominated by western-based
culture. Hawaiian cultural practices and interaction are generally non-
existent with the rare exception of sporadic Hawaiian presentations and
observances. Most programs, policies, procedures and benchmarks seem to
reflect practices and perspectives commonly found in businesses throughout the
U.S. mainland. Generally, both Kapälama and Kawaiaha‗o seem to cultivate
western culture well.
With nearly the entire student population of all KS campuses, as well as KS‘
community-based target audiences being ancestrally Hawaiian, and given the fact
that the resources to found the Schools were bequeathed by a Hawaiian chiefess
to improve the conditions of her severely disenfranchised native Hawaiian
people, there is reason to conclude that the overall range of Hawaiian cultural
elements, practices and cultural interactivity at Kamehameha Schools is
alarmingly low.

There is a strong desire within the Kamehameha community for KS to maintain a
certain ―Hawaiianess.‖ Towards this end, there are conscious attempts to
integrate the significantly more dominant western sphere with the considerably
less-defined Hawaiian sphere. The results are mixed. On the upside, Hawaiian
cultural consciousness has been raised considerably. KS sponsors a number of
activities and programs that deal with elements of Hawaiian culture for the
benefit of students, staff and the greater community via a variety of media.
This is by no means a new endeavor; there have been key individuals and model
programs over the many decades that have fostered appreciation and respect for
Hawaiian culture even during eras when doing so seemed less important to the
community. Today, there are increasing numbers of culturally literate people
who advocate for, and serve as resources in, departments and offices throughout
Kawaiaha‗o Plaza, Kapälama Campus and elsewhere within the institution. Land
Assets Division, which, in its former state, ran a solely revenue-driven
operation, is now beginning to promote indigenous concepts of environmental
stewardship as well as foster a community-oriented lifestyle of native Hawaiian
resource management. While the present cultural environment is still
inconsistent and much work remains to be done, the drive to do more Hawaiian
things reflects a sincere desire on the part of the institution to truly honor
the culture of Pauahi‘s beneficiaries.
At the same time, the effort to project an authentic Hawaiian institutional
persona has given rise to what some perceive to be cosmetic approaches to
Hawaiian culture. For example, the Schools‘ strategic plan directs that
attention be given to ‘Ike Hawai'i (Hawaiian cultural knowledge), but no plan
or mechanism is in place to guide, assess or project a vision for Hawaiian
cultural outcomes at this time. A campaign on Hawaiian values has raised
community consciousness regarding a selective group of Hawaiian concepts.
However, the institutional messages sent to both internal and external
audiences, as well as KS' overall climate, are often perceived as inconsistent
with the Hawaiian values and virtues being promoted.    Hawaiian performing
arts have projected strong and powerful cultural statements on stage. However,
most students' behaviors, attitudes and aspirations off-stage are more closely
attuned to American pop culture. Many students at the Kapälama campus perceive
Hawaiian language and cultural practices as somewhat foreign and some are
unable to articulate attributes of their own Hawaiian heritage and identity
when called upon to do so, even in their senior year. Yet, despite these
challenges, Kamehameha Schools is committed and genuine in its desire to meet
the educational needs of Hawaiian children and may possibly be on the cusp of a
new Hawaiian cultural movement.

Overall, the following generalizations can be made:

   Kamehameha Schools supports and perpetuates "elements of Hawaiian culture."
   Kamehameha Schools as an institution, does not, at this time, actively
    perpetuate "Hawaiian culture," as defined here. That is to say, KS,
    generally speaking, does not appear to be a culturally fertile environment
    that promotes the holistic interaction and coexistence of a wide range of
    Hawaiian cultural beliefs, behaviors and practices to form a cohesive and
    viable native Hawaiian way of life for the indigenous people of Hawai'i. In
    short, Hawaiian culture is not a way of life at Kamehameha Schools.
XVIII.      Recommendations Regarding Hawaiian Culture At KS

1.   Distinguish Between "Elements of culture" and "Hawaiian culture:"
     a. KS should distinguish between perpetuating "elements of culture" and
        perpetuating "Hawaiian culture," as appropriate and practical.
     b. KS should not create the impression that it is engaging in a high degree
        of "cultural perpetuation" when in fact, only isolated cultural elements
        and activities are involved, and because Hawaiian is not truly the
        practiced culture of the institution on a daily basis.

2.           Embrace a Native Hawaiian Cultural Paradigm:
     a.   KS should focus on the creation of fertile environments, kïpuka, to
          foster the regeneration of Hawaiian culture.
     b.   KS should focus on cultural "contexts" not just cultural "fragments"
     c.   KS should focus on the "reassembly" of cultural elements to form a cohesive
          whole and not just the "perpetuation‖ of cultural elements in isolation.
     d.   KS should consider Nohona Hawai'i (Hawaiian cultural living/lifestyle)
          in addition to 'Ike Hawai'i (cultural knowledge), as a strategic
     e.   KS should consider an organizational transition from an institution that
          grooms Hawaiians to be western and to succeed in a western world, to an
          institution that grooms Hawaiians to be Hawaiian in order to succeed in
          all worlds. (See Nä Honua Mauli Ola: Hawai‘i Guidelines for Culturally
          Healthy and Responsive Learning Environments)

3.          Fully Integrate „Ike Hawai„i/Nohona Hawai„i
     a. KS should develop vision, goals and outcomes for Hawaiian culture as it
        implements the strategic plan.
     b. KS should create a bona fide mechanism to facilitate institution-wide
        integration of Hawaiian culture.

4.   Establish Hawaiian Cultural Centers
     a. KS should establish Hawaiian cultural centers, kïpuka, on all three KS
     b. KS should immediately establish a community-wide Hawaiian cultural
        center at the Kapälama campus, since plans are already in place and
        because the scope of the Kapälama site can potentially impact a
        considerably large population of native Hawaiians quickly and
         c. KS, generally speaking, currently educates Hawaiian children to
        become western, which is more aligned with historical injustices against
        Hawaiians. KS should modify and broaden its focus and assist Hawaiian
        learners in becoming reconnected to, and grounded in, their own
        indigenous culture, which is more aligned with righting past injustices
        against Hawaiians. Cultural centers and their programs will help to
        reestablish the socio-cultural support system that was historically
        undermined by westerners
     d. KS should consider the fact that even if it wins the two current
       admissions lawsuits, more suits are likely to come. The continued lack
       of a Hawaiian cultural base at Kamehameha Schools potentially weakens
       our case in that there is inconsistency among our legal positions.
     e. KS should consider the consequences of possibly losing the two lawsuits.
        Should non-Hawaiians be allowed to attend Kamehameha, the Hawaiian
        cultural centers and their programs will be even more critical. The
        centers will provide very fertile environments with high levels of
        cultural interactivity to regenerate the lifestyle of the indigenous
        people of Hawai‗i. This will tend to attract high numbers of native
            Hawaiian applicants to the Schools, thus enabling KS to still address
            the target audience Pauahi intended, yet be in legal compliance.

    5.   Kapälama Campus Hawaiian Cultural Revitalization, HCCP Discussion

            Questions                   XIX.   Responses

A. 1. What would make Kapälama Campus      Everyone behaving with ‗ano Hawai‗i—not
a Hawaiian place?                           only knowing Hawaiian philosophy, values
                                            and practices, but acting upon them; also
                                            having opportunities to practice them.

                                           Philosophically, a Hawaiian place is more
                                            felt than it is seen. To have a place
                                            that looks Hawaiian would be to have
                                            classrooms outside, where the students
                                            learn about weather and plants by walking
                                            around and feeling those things.
                                            Considering the current physical make-up
                                            of our school, this campus could be made
                                            more Hawaiian by providing our students,
                                            faculty and staff with a place that they
                                            can go to, to learn and ―be‖ Hawai‗i. . .

                                           If the campus were organized in a way
                                            that enabled all members of the community
                                            to interact like an ahupua‗a. There
                                            should also be a common gathering place,
                                            other than Kekühaupi‗o that would enable
                                            the practice and support of Hawaiian

   Using Hawaiian Language where ever and
    when ever possible.

   Leadership proficient in language,
    values, practice and protocol.

   Finding and increasing ways to teach
    through culture rather than teach about

   Reinstating and practicing traditional

   Incorporating traditional spirituality
    along with current Christian

   Instilling traditional values relating to
    deep respect for place, property,
    teachers and kupuna.

   Opportunities to engage in practices,
    protocols and experiences. Do it
    Hawaiian whenever there is the need to do

   Everyone learn the importance of
    mo‗oküauhau, learn the Kamehameha family
    genealogy and the connection to KS lands.

   We need to display Hawaiian art all over
    the campus: small pieces and large,
    three dimensional and flat, functional
    and fanciful, traditional and envelope-
    pushing, awesome and god-awful, in places
    obvious and secluded, indoors and out,
    expected and unexpected. Some of these
    pieces should be part of a permanent and
    ever-growing collection, others should be
    temporary, and others should be displayed
    in-progress. We need to showcase the
    work of students, staff, alumni, and
    select artists-in-residence. We need to
    make Hawaiian art (as with Hawaiian
    language and Hawaiian intellectual
    activity of all kinds) central to campus
    life: unavoidable, inescapable,
    ubiquitous, and alive. This, when it
    happens, will reflect a campus-wide
    commitment to the vibrancy of Hawaiian
    culture. The current absence of Hawaiian
    art at Kapälama (except, of course,
    behind glass cases and in the few and far
    between kïpuka of enlightened thinking)
    contributes much to the still non-
    vibrant, still non-Hawaiian ‗ano of the

   The campus needs to be replanted and our
relationship to the ‗äina redefined. The
campus is beautiful in a well-manicured,
western sense – but it gives too little
evidence of aloha ‗äina, of a people‘s
actual attachment and commitment to the
land. Yes, there are places on campus
that are landscaped with Hawaiian plants:
the laua‗e beds at Konia Circle, the
‗äkia at the Heritage Center, and the
‗öhi‗a lehua on the slope above
Kekühaupi‗o, for example. But the
dominant impression-even where the plants
are native-is that of ―estate‖ rather
than ―mäla,‖ of grounds crew rather than
gardener, of scenery not of source. A
concerted effort to replant the campus in
natives would go far to soften its
plantation-manager‘s ambience, but we
need, in the long term, to move beyond
the kind of ornamental Hawaiian
landscaping that is designed, installed,
and maintained solely by people who are
hired to do these things. If the campus
is to be a Hawaiian place (as opposed to
a showcase of Hawaiian plants), then we
Kapälama pono‗i – students, parents,
alumni, staff-have to turn our palms down
and share responsibility for an actual
reciprocal relationship with the land.
The thinking of Kumu Hans‘ mäla ‗ai at
Keöua needs to be nurtured and adopted
                                              system-wide. We need mäla of this sort
                                              in every place possible-places where we
                                              plant and tend palapalai, lehua (any
                                              maybe maile!) aslei plants, places where
                                              we plant and tend koa for Kamehameha
                                              canoe-makers yet unborn, places where we
                                              learn to propagate ‗iliahi from seed,
                                              places where we grow and investigate the
                                              medicinal properties of ‗uhaloa and other
                                              kinolau of Kamapua‗a. Attention needs to
                                              be given, as well, to the transformation
                                              of outdoor spaces into thinking-
                                              gathering-working-interacting places.
                                              Places small and larger, informal and
                                              less informal, covered and uncovered.
                                              Places conducive to learning but removed
                                              from conventional western learning
                                              environments. All told, these mäla and
                                              o‗io‗ian (shaded resting, stopping
                                              places) will demonstrate a campus-wide
                                              commitment to nohona Hawai‗i, to a
                                              vibrant sense of Hawaiian culture in
                                              which ‗äina is central to sustenance and
                                              learning-not just ornamental, not just
                                              pretty scenery outside the classroom

2. What would make Kamehameha Schools a      Same as above but applicable to the
Hawaiian school?                              entire institution: Everyone behaving
                                              with ‗ano Hawai‗i-not only knowing
                                              Hawaiian philosophy, values, and
    practices, but acting upon them; also
    having opportunities to practice them.

   Hawaiian students (we need to support
    every effort to keep Kamehameha a school
    for Hawaiians, as well as a Hawaiian

   Hawaiian Mana‗o-School mission and
    curriculum should reflect the needs of
    the students and community that we serve.
    Teachers, administrators and support
    should be familiar with Hawaiian values
    and customs to better teach the students.

   Hawaiian Language-needs to be treasured
    and language education needs to be
    supported at all levels (accommodating
    staffing needs to educate every child in
    our ‗ölelo makuahine)

   If the mentality of administration,
    faculty, and staff had a more Hawaiian
    perspective regarding the purpose and
    objectives of the school‘s programs.
    (i.e. The Kamehameha Schools Leadership
    program should concentrate on Hawaiian
    Leadership, with student leaders being
    able to greet and host dignitaries
    following Hawaiian protocol.)
   Using Hawaiian Language where ever and
    when ever possible.

   Leadership proficient in language,
    values, practice and protocol.

   Staff development on Hawaiian values and
    philosophies so that Hawaiian views and
    priorities become the focus in any
    decision making process.

   Promoting and engaging in experiences to
    participate in Hawaiian practices,
    protocols, and customs.

   Staff development to learn Kamehameha
    family genealogy, the genealogy and
    lineage of KS lands, and the importance
    of knowing one‘s own genealogy.

   Supporting, valuing and elevating
    Hawaiian ways over the Western corporate.
    Example: value and elevate the käkou
    work over the individualistic.

   Build that connection with the ‗äina. It
    is this place that has made us who we
    are. As Polynesians who first set foot
    on this ‗äina, it was the 90% endemism
    found on these islands that shaped the
                                              Hawaiian. It is these lands, the winds,
                                              rains, plants and animals that make us
                                              unique, and make us Hawaiians.

3. How do the HCCP mission/vision            It is a vital component-life is vibrant,
statement, “Ensuring a Vibrant Hawaiian       our society needs to be alive-doing,
Society” relate to the discussion of KS       being, becoming, birthing, creating for
becoming a Hawaiian school?                   the present and future.

                                             This mission statement is the backbone of
                                              all that we hope to accomplish here at
                                              the school. More emphasis is put on
                                              student outcomes with respect to the long
                                              term good it will do for that individual
                                              as well as for the Lähui Hawai‗i.
                                              Graduates will know their history,
                                              language and culture; and perpetuate it
                                              through their actions after they leave
                                              the school. This pride in themselves and
                                              their culture will carry over into any
                                              profession the decide to pursue, always
                                              remembering their roots and giving back.

                                             If the mission/vision of the HCCP is
                                              accepted by the entire school community,
                                              there will be a different focus for the
                                              student that would align with the goals
                                              of the school. (Body, Mind, Spirit,
                                              World) Students will know who they are as
                                              Hawaiians and with this strong foundation
                                              is able to take progressive steps in the
                                              Western world.

                                             HCCP can be the catalyst and the model.

                                             HCCP can provide guidance.

4.   What is the HCCP‟s role?                HCCP is-even if by default-the primary
                                              engine that will drive KS to its
                                              destination. The vision of its leaders,
                                              the na‗auao of its members, and the
                                              commitment of all, are not found in any
                                              other KS group.
                                             HCCP is the piko of our cultural
                                              resurgence. It can be considered the
                                              facilitator of all cultural practices on
                                              campus. HCCP can be used as a resource
                                              for those who seek information or wish to
                                              share information.

                                             The role of the HCCP is to ensure   that
                                              all levels of our institution are   willing
                                              to take steps to ensure that the
                                              mission/vision is carried out for   the
                                              benefit of the Hawaiian community   that
                                              Kamehameha Schools serve.

5. What would make Kamehameha Schools a      HCCP needs to continue pushing the
Hawaiian organization system-wide?            envelope, along with other KS groups and
                                              individuals. The vision and commitment
                                              of the decision-making, budget-
    controlling leadership is vital in
    providing paths of possibilities. They
    are generally out of touch, so others
    need to prod then and be ready to kökua &

   Understanding of Nohona Hawai‗i.
    Hawaiian leaders with Hawaiian mana‗o.

   To develop a system-wide Hawaiian
    organization steps need to be taken to
    ensure that all members of the
    institution agree with the statement that
    ―Kamehameha Schools should be a Hawaiian
    School.‖ If this statement is agreed
    upon, then steps can be taken at every
    level of the institution to ensure
    Kamehameha Schools is fulfilling its
    kuleana of ―Ensuring a Vibrant Hawaiian

   Hawaiians in leadership roles.

   Leadership adept and proficient in all
    aspects of Hawaiian life ways/culture
    (‗ölelo, pule, alaka‗i, ha‗aha‗a,
    ho‗okipa, laulima, etc.)

   Hawaiian values and relations take
    precedent in all decision-making

   We look to ourselves and our community
    for strength and leadership. We don‘t
    look to the continent for the answers or
    as the model.

   Record our current events through mele
    and mo‗olelo ma ka ‗ölelo makuahine. We
    are the history makers, let‘s leave a
    record of our events and deeds as our
    küpuna did for us.

   We treat each other, staff, teachers,
    students, alumni, etc. as family members.
    We work together and care for one another
    as a family.
   We make our work environment a healthy
    place. Slow down; make sure family,
    friends, spirituality, fun are a
    priority, not second to our corporate

   We develop a relationship with our ‗äina,
    both KS ‗äina, and those places which are
    special to us as individuals.

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