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Quality and Stability in Nigerian Universities ppt

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					QUALITY ASSURANCE AND
 STABILITY IN NIGERIAN
     UNIVERSITIES

              By
    Prof. Ignatius I. Uvah,
                 PhD(Cantab)
   Director, Academic Planning & Research,
   National Universities Commission, Abuja,
                    Nigeria
THE NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM


   The Nigerian University System consists of
    78 Institutions
   This is made up of:
     • 30 Federal Institutions:
       • 26 Universities
       • 4 Inter-University Centers
    • 25 State Universities
    • 23 Private Universities

                    I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005     2
    THE NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM
                (cont’d)

   Student enrolment:
     •   1,395 in 1960;
     •   40,000 in 1976;
     •   172,000 in 1988;
     •   448.230 in 2000;
     •   650,000 in 2004;
     •   Over 750,000 by end of 2005.




                      I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005   3
           Classification of Universities


   Nigerian universities may be classified by:
    •   Ownership;
    •   Age (generation);
    •   Nature of Academic Disciplines;
    •   Size of Enrolment; and
    •   Carrying capacity for students.




                     I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005     4
     Classification by Ownership


                The Nigerian University System
                            n=78

State Institutions     Federal Institutions      Private Institutions
      n=25                   n=30                       n=23

           Min. of Defense       Min. of Educ.
                 n=1             (Thru. NUC)
                (NDA)                n=29

                           Centres        Universities
                            n=4              n=25


                     I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                           5
          Classification by Age


   Federal universities are classified by age
    into:
    • First generation - 6;
    • Second generation - 7; and
    • Third generation - 13.




                   I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005      6
       Classification by Nature of
          academic disciplines


   Universities may be categorised according to
    their academic programmes into:
    • Conventional – offer most disciplines;
    • Specialised – oligo- or mono-disciplinary;
       •   Military
       •   Agriculture;
       •   Management;
       •   Technology;
       •   Education.



                      I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005     7
Elements of University Educational
            Delivery

• Main functions of a university:
    • Teaching
    • Research, and
    • Community Service


• University education:
    • Imparts in learners:
        • Knowledge
        • Skills, and
        • Attitude
    • Prepares learners for:
        • Challenges of life; and
        • Service to society.
• Component elements of academic environment
  must be right for effectiveness

                   I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005    8
      Elements of University Educational
              Delivery (cont’d)

   Elements of university educational delivery:
     • Are the requisite structures, resources and services for
       achievement of the university’s mission.
     • Include;
         •   Adequate funding;
         •   Qualified & experienced staff;
         •   Well provided library;
         •   Suitable lecture spaces (classrooms, theatres);
         •   Well equipped clinics, studios, laboratories;
         •   Suitable staff offices;
         •   Recreational facilities; and
         •   Sensible planning & good management; among others.




                            I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005              9
      Elements of University Educational
              Delivery (Cont’d)

   Academic Brief:
    • Is an academic plan of programmes and services;
    • Documents the university’s:
        •   Philosophy
        •   Mission
        •   Aims and Objectives
        •   Academic pattern
        •   Curriculum
        •   Organisational Structure, and
        •   Future growth and development.




                         I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005       10
      Elements of University Educational
              Delivery (Cont’d)

   Academic brief: cont’d
    • Mission and Objectives should be within the framework of the
      National Policy on Education;
    • Academic content and resources should be as provided in the
      relevant Minimum Academic Standards documents, e.g.:
        •   Curricula;
        •   Library resources;
        •   Academic Spaces;
        •   Staffing and appropriate staff mix;
        •   Offices and recreational facilities;
        •   Funding; among others; and
    • Should be the basis for the physical development plan.


                             I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                11
                   Concept of Quality


   Quality is conceptualised as:
    • Degree of excellence; level of value in a product
    • A grade of achievement, a standard against which to judge
      others – Robin Middlehurst(1992)
    • Degree of worth– Chambers Super Mini Dictionary
    • Being multidimensional; and embracing all functions,
      resources and activities of a university including teaching,
      academic programmes, research and scholarship, staffing,
      students, building facilities, equipment, and service to the
      community and the academic environment – UNESCO.
   Assurance:
    • That which denotes feeling of certainty or confidence.


                       I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                      12
            Concept of Quality (cont’d)



   Quality of a university may be measured by:
    • How well the graduates are being prepared for life and for
      service to society in various capacities;
    • How well prepared learners are for university education;
    • How good and effective the teachers are at teaching them;
    • How adequate and accessible are the resources needed for
      effective teaching and learning;
    • How good the products of research are; among others.




                      I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                 13
                    Concept of Stability



   Stability:
    • Quality or state of being steady and not changing or being
      disturbed in any way; - Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary
    • In context of university – is ability to maintain constancy of
      the character, processes and purpose of its academic
      pursuits;
    • E.g., stable academic calendar – September to June;
    • Predictable start and ending of session, semester and
      vacations.




                        I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                       14
    Maintenance of Academic Quality
        I(a): Role of Government

   By the Nigerian Constitution, the Federal Government has exclusive
    responsibility for quality of tertiary education in the country.

   The Federal Government has, by Act 16 of 1985, empowered the
    National Universities Commission to ensure quality of university
    education in Nigeria on its behalf.

   Pursuant to assurance of quality in Nigerian university education, the
    NUC has taken the following measures:
     •   1. Development of Minimum Academic Standards (MAS):
          • Content- based MAS first developed in 1989 for UG programmes;
          • Outcome-based Benchmark Statements (BS) developed in 2001 following
            Stakeholders Conference on Curriculum Review in April 2001;
          • Merger of MAS and Benchmark Statements in September 2004 to produce
            composite outcome- and content-based Benchmark-MAS (BMAS) for UG
            programmes.




                             I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                             15
Maintenance of Academic Quality I(b):
   Role of NUC and Other Bodies

2. Law and guidelines for the establishment of New Private
    Universities:
•   In 1993, the Federal Government enacted a law by which only the FG may
    grant license for establishment of a private university;
•   Subsequently, the NUC constituted a Standing Committee on Establishment
    of Private Universities (SCOPU) to give effect to provisions of the law.
•   SCOPU:
     • Processes all applications;
     • Ensures that all the criteria/requirements are met;
     • Recommends approval for license

3. Guidance for New State Universities:
• Nigerian Constitution allows state governments to establish their own
   universities;
• The NUC ensures that new state universities are furnished with the basic
   requirements for quality;
• Periodic monitoring and accreditation follows thereafter.



                           I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                          16
Maintenance of Academic Quality I: Role of
     NUC and Other Bodies (cont’d)


4. Guidelines for the Establishment of New Academic
   Programmes:
•   All Nigerian universities require prior approval of NUC before establishing
    new programmes;
•   NUC has developed guidelines and application formats for this purpose;
•   Adequacy of preparedness is assured through resource assessment prior to
    granting approval;
•   Periodic monitoring of the established programme then follows;
•   Accreditation assessment of the programme is eventually carried out when
    due.




                         I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                           17
Maintenance of Academic Quality I: Role
   of NUC and Other Bodies (cont’d)


 5. Accreditation of Academic Programmes:
 • Academic programmes are mature for accredation from three
   years;
 • NUC has elaborate guidelines for accreditation of academic
   programmes.
 • MAS constitute the basis for assessment;
 • Peer assessment by university academics;
 • Formats for undergraduate accreditation are:
         •   Self-Study Forms (NUC/SSF)
         •   Programme Evaluation Form (NUC/PEF)
         •   Accreditation Panel Report Form (NUC/APRF)
         •   Accreditation Revisitation Form (NUC/ARVF)
         •   Manual on Accreditation Procedures (MAP).



                       I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                 18
Maintenance of Academic Quality I: Role
   of NUC and Other Bodies (cont’d)

   6. Postgraduate Accreditation:
     • Guidelines and modalities for accreditation of postgraduate
        programmes are being developed.
     - Statutory professional boards do conduct professional accreditation.
   7. Ranking of Universities:
     • Aimed to generate healthy competition amongst universities;
     • Multiple performance indicators are now utilised.
   8. Support Mechanisms:
     • 8.1 Virtual Library:
         • To improve the quality of teaching and research through
           provision of online books, journals and other resources.
     • 8.2 Virtual Institute for Higher Education Pedagogy (VIHEP):
         • To provide Internet-based training that will improve quality of
           teaching and learning in Nigerian universities.


                          I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                           19
Maintenance of Academic Quality I: Role
   of NUC and Other Bodies (cont’d)

   8. Support Mechanisms (cont’d):
    • Nigerian Expert Academics in the Diaspora scheme (NEADS);
         • Aims to engage such experts in Nigerian universities over short
           periods;
    •   Nigerian Universities Research and Development Fair;
    •   Nigerian Universities Doctoral Thesis Award Scheme;
    •   Central Research Fund Scheme;
    •   National Training for Senior University Managers;
    •   Teachers Industrial Work Experience Scheme (planned);
    •   Sourcing special grants for the federal universities; among others.




                            I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                         20
    Maintenance of Academic Quality I: Role
       of NUC and Other Bodies (cont’d)


        9. The University System Annual Review Meetings (USARM)
     •      Interactive meeting between NUC and University Management aimed
            at:
               •     Assessing the performance of the system with regard to
                     teaching, research and community service.
               •     Identifying the factors that inhibited optimal performance of the
                     system in achieving its goals and objectives.
               •     Assessing the internal and external efficiency of the system.
               •     Assessing the role of NUC in facilitating the delivery of quality
                     university education during the period under review.
               •     Presenting and reaching concensus on (defending) the
                     recurrent and capital budgets of the Federal universities and
                     institutions for the coming year preparatory to submission to
                     Government, and
               •     Discussing any other matters relating to university education in
                     Nigeria.



                             I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                               21
    Maintenance of Academic Quality I: Role of
            NUC and Other Bodies (cont’d)


   Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB)
    • Established by Act 2 of 1978 (as amended by Act 3 of 1999);
    • Responsibility of JAMB is to:
        • (a)    Ensure high quality matriculation examinations so that
          only those that are adequately prepared to benefit by university
          education do gain entrance to the institutions;
        • (b)    Ensure high quality of administration of the examination
          to minimize the exploits of cheats towards enhancing the
          quality of new entrants to the universities.




                         I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                       22
Maintenance of Academic Quality II: Intra-
 institutional Quality Assurance Systems

   Intra-institutional Quality Enhancing Mechanisms:
    • Minimum requirement for admission:
        • To ensure that new entrants are adequately qualified;
    • Internal process for approval of new programmes:
        • Scrutiny by faculty boards and senate;
    • Internal programme monitoring:
        • Annual departmental, faculty and senate review;
    • External examiner system:
        •   Peer review of examinations;
        •   Ascertains that standards set are appropriate;
        •   Comprative standrad of student performance;
        •   Adequacy and fairness of exam and assessment processes.

                         I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                     23
   Maintenance of Academic Quality II: Intra-
institutional Quality Assurance Systems (cont’d)


   Proposed Quality Assurance Office:
    • To coordinate all quality assurance activities;
    • To act as secretariat for Senate Quality Committee.
   Proposed Quality Committee:
    • To be a separate committee; or
    • To be part of the Development Committee;
    • To superintend all issues of quality and report to senate.
   Annual Internal Self-Review:
    • Universities urged to evolve objective means of self-study;
    • Universities requested to utilise their own experts for periodic
      evaluation of the performance of their academic programmes; and
    • To remedy identified deficiencies.



                          I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                   24
    Maintenance of Academic Quality III :
            Role of Proprietors

   Proprietors should promote quality by ensuring:
     • Adequate core funding for their institutions;
     • Emplacement of a suitable administration for qualitative
       management of the institutions;
     • Provision of adequate administrative autonomy for effective
       administration of the institutions;
     • Emplacement of suitable academic structures for sustenance of
       quality & quality enhancement strategies;
     • That deficiencies identified by accreditation are remedied;
     • That academic programmes of their universities are adequately
       funded; and
     • That they take advantage of the advisory and regulatory services of
       the NUC and other Government agencies toward improvement of
       the performance of their universities.


                          I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                      25
Maintenance of academic Quality III: Role
         of Proprietors (cont’d)


   Good Governance (Planning and Management)
    • Are essential ingredients for success of any human
      endeavour;
    • Education is no exception.
   Proprietors must ensure good governance of their
    universities.
   Strategic planning and management may carry an
    institution to improved performance and enhanced
    quality.


                       I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005            26
Maintenance of Academic Quality III : Role of
                Proprietors


 • Strategic Planning and Management:
     • Strategic planning:
          • Provides opportunity for stocktaking and planning toward actualisation of a
            desired future state for the university;
          • Ensures that the university reshapes its institutional culture and diversifies
            its funding base;
          • Allows a university to respond quickly and appropriately to environmental
            changes;
          • Increases institutional autonomy from the proprietor;
          • provides a conducive atmosphere for greater institutional stability.

     • Strategic Management:
                • Is goal-oriented management;
                • Is concerned with effectiveness through critically assessing and
                  reorganizing administrative structures;
                • Encourages initiative and rewards efficiency;
                • Consequently, the university would improve its productivity and
                  thereby be able to accomplish more in assuring quality.




                          I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                                      27
STABILITY IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES


   Stability
    • Is the outcome of a suitable blend of several elements;
    • For a country, may be political, economic or social;
    • For a university, may be steady state of calendar, funding,
      management or policy environment;
    • Is indispensable to realisation of institutional goals,
      objectives and mission.




                       I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                     28
                 Elements of Stability


   Calendar Stability,
    • Exists when a university is able to operate normal
      uninterrupted schedule of activities, e.g. :
        •   September/October to June/July session;
        •   Uninterrupted 13 week semesters;
        •   Examination on due dates;
        •   Predictable date of completion of academic programme,
    • Benefits of calendar stability:
        •   Staff and student exchange programme is more feasible;
        •   Frees time between sessions to plan;
        •   Student and staff are refreshed for next session;
        •   Overall efficiency and performance are enhanced.



                          I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                   29
         Elements of Stability: cont’d


   Financial stability:
    • Exists when funding is consistent, predictable and adequate;
    • A healthy funding pattern is characterised by steady
      increase not decline or wild swings;
    • Benefit is opportunity to plan and attain corporate objectives.
   Management stability:
    • Is manifest when university managers serve their full terms
      and the process of succession is predictable and smooth;
    • Frequent changes can lead to poor clarity of vision and
      mission.



                        I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                    30
         Elements of Stability: cont’d


   Policy stability:
    • Frequent shifts in Government policy can introduce instability
      in the university system. E.g.;
        • Incessant strikes in universities during the 1990s from non-
          implementation of agreements between government and the
          unions were due to frequent change of government then;
        • Inconsistencies in policy on wage differential between staff
          cadres led to work stoppages.
    • A stable policy environment is necessary for planning and
      healthy institutional development of a university.




                         I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                        31
    Factors Militating against Stability


   Factors of instability include:
    •   Insufficient engagement of students;
    •   Intense union activism among staff and students;
    •   Unhealthy rivalry between unions;
    •   Cultism;
    •   Lack of transparency and accountability;
    •   Poor communication of Management intentions.
   These issues are more prevalent at public than at
    private universities.



                        I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005           32
        Effect of instability on Quality


   Stable university:
    • Teachers complete curriculum;
    • Opportunity for exchange programmes;
    • Graduates have the expected competencies;
   Unstable university:
    • Teachers rush through curriculum which often is not
      completed;
    • Students are poorly prepared for examinations and may
      resort to cheating;
    • Graduates are poorly trained.



                      I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                33
        Stability in Public Universities


   Public university system:
     • Has been operational for over 50 years;
     • Has in the past two decades been frequently disrupted from
       strike action by staff and unrest by students;
     • For long has had irregular academic calendar;
     • Has had poor opportunity for staff and student exchanges;
     • Lost considerable teaching time;
     • Has seen destruction of facilities for teaching and research;
     • Has been poorly funded leading to inadequate facilities;
     • Has had frequent changes in institutional leadership;
   Overall result has been poor quality of university products.


                         I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                  34
       Stability in Private Universities


   Private universities:
     • Are easier to manage because they are smaller;
     • Proprietors exert more influence on their governance;
     • Proprietors more strictly enforce compliance with institutional norms
       by staff and students;
     • Usually run normal harmonised academic calendar;
     • Are financially stable, charge enough fees to cover running costs;
     • Have better opportunity to plan;
     • Have challenge of funding infrastructure to grow;
     • Tend to be more stable, efficient and effective than their public
       counterparts.
     • Hold greater promise for quality and excellence.


                            I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                     35
                           Conclusion

   The human resource of any country is its greatest asset;
   Appropriate deployment of the right quality and quantity of
    human resources could catalyse national prosperity;
   Poor quality university education could scuttle or delay
    economic take-off of Nigeria;
   Nigerian universities must therefore strive to:
     • establish and maintain stability as an ingredient of quality;
     • continually produce qualitative graduates with the requisite
       knowledge, skills and attitudes to drive national development;
     • Conduct research relevant to national development;
     • undergo strategic planning for better focus, management and
       accretion of resources;
     • Admit only the best amongst the qualified candidates;
     • Keep student enrolment within their carrying capacities – for better
       quality and to obviate anti-social habits;


                           I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                       36
                 Conclusion cont’d


   Private universities must learn from the mistakes of
    public universities;
   Public universities must undergo objective corporate
    reviews.
   Globalisation:
    • characterised by speedy international movement of people,
      information, goods and services;
    • Has created an environment of global competition;
   Only the globally competitive institutions will survive,
    grow and flourish.

                      I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005                37
              APPRECIATION


   Thank you for your attention.

   God Bless.




                 I. I. Uvah, Calabar 2005   38

				
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