Quality and Stability in Nigerian Universities ppt by suchenfz



    Prof. Ignatius I. Uvah,
   Director, Academic Planning & Research,
   National Universities Commission, Abuja,

   The Nigerian University System consists of
    78 Institutions
   This is made up of:
     • 30 Federal Institutions:
       • 26 Universities
       • 4 Inter-University Centers
    • 25 State Universities
    • 23 Private Universities

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   Student enrolment:
     •   1,395 in 1960;
     •   40,000 in 1976;
     •   172,000 in 1988;
     •   448.230 in 2000;
     •   650,000 in 2004;
     •   Over 750,000 by end of 2005.

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           Classification of Universities

   Nigerian universities may be classified by:
    •   Ownership;
    •   Age (generation);
    •   Nature of Academic Disciplines;
    •   Size of Enrolment; and
    •   Carrying capacity for students.

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     Classification by Ownership

                The Nigerian University System

State Institutions     Federal Institutions      Private Institutions
      n=25                   n=30                       n=23

           Min. of Defense       Min. of Educ.
                 n=1             (Thru. NUC)
                (NDA)                n=29

                           Centres        Universities
                            n=4              n=25

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          Classification by Age

   Federal universities are classified by age
    • First generation - 6;
    • Second generation - 7; and
    • Third generation - 13.

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       Classification by Nature of
          academic disciplines

   Universities may be categorised according to
    their academic programmes into:
    • Conventional – offer most disciplines;
    • Specialised – oligo- or mono-disciplinary;
       •   Military
       •   Agriculture;
       •   Management;
       •   Technology;
       •   Education.

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Elements of University Educational

• Main functions of a university:
    • Teaching
    • Research, and
    • Community Service

• University education:
    • Imparts in learners:
        • Knowledge
        • Skills, and
        • Attitude
    • Prepares learners for:
        • Challenges of life; and
        • Service to society.
• Component elements of academic environment
  must be right for effectiveness

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      Elements of University Educational
              Delivery (cont’d)

   Elements of university educational delivery:
     • Are the requisite structures, resources and services for
       achievement of the university’s mission.
     • Include;
         •   Adequate funding;
         •   Qualified & experienced staff;
         •   Well provided library;
         •   Suitable lecture spaces (classrooms, theatres);
         •   Well equipped clinics, studios, laboratories;
         •   Suitable staff offices;
         •   Recreational facilities; and
         •   Sensible planning & good management; among others.

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      Elements of University Educational
              Delivery (Cont’d)

   Academic Brief:
    • Is an academic plan of programmes and services;
    • Documents the university’s:
        •   Philosophy
        •   Mission
        •   Aims and Objectives
        •   Academic pattern
        •   Curriculum
        •   Organisational Structure, and
        •   Future growth and development.

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      Elements of University Educational
              Delivery (Cont’d)

   Academic brief: cont’d
    • Mission and Objectives should be within the framework of the
      National Policy on Education;
    • Academic content and resources should be as provided in the
      relevant Minimum Academic Standards documents, e.g.:
        •   Curricula;
        •   Library resources;
        •   Academic Spaces;
        •   Staffing and appropriate staff mix;
        •   Offices and recreational facilities;
        •   Funding; among others; and
    • Should be the basis for the physical development plan.

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                   Concept of Quality

   Quality is conceptualised as:
    • Degree of excellence; level of value in a product
    • A grade of achievement, a standard against which to judge
      others – Robin Middlehurst(1992)
    • Degree of worth– Chambers Super Mini Dictionary
    • Being multidimensional; and embracing all functions,
      resources and activities of a university including teaching,
      academic programmes, research and scholarship, staffing,
      students, building facilities, equipment, and service to the
      community and the academic environment – UNESCO.
   Assurance:
    • That which denotes feeling of certainty or confidence.

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            Concept of Quality (cont’d)

   Quality of a university may be measured by:
    • How well the graduates are being prepared for life and for
      service to society in various capacities;
    • How well prepared learners are for university education;
    • How good and effective the teachers are at teaching them;
    • How adequate and accessible are the resources needed for
      effective teaching and learning;
    • How good the products of research are; among others.

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                    Concept of Stability

   Stability:
    • Quality or state of being steady and not changing or being
      disturbed in any way; - Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary
    • In context of university – is ability to maintain constancy of
      the character, processes and purpose of its academic
    • E.g., stable academic calendar – September to June;
    • Predictable start and ending of session, semester and

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    Maintenance of Academic Quality
        I(a): Role of Government

   By the Nigerian Constitution, the Federal Government has exclusive
    responsibility for quality of tertiary education in the country.

   The Federal Government has, by Act 16 of 1985, empowered the
    National Universities Commission to ensure quality of university
    education in Nigeria on its behalf.

   Pursuant to assurance of quality in Nigerian university education, the
    NUC has taken the following measures:
     •   1. Development of Minimum Academic Standards (MAS):
          • Content- based MAS first developed in 1989 for UG programmes;
          • Outcome-based Benchmark Statements (BS) developed in 2001 following
            Stakeholders Conference on Curriculum Review in April 2001;
          • Merger of MAS and Benchmark Statements in September 2004 to produce
            composite outcome- and content-based Benchmark-MAS (BMAS) for UG

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Maintenance of Academic Quality I(b):
   Role of NUC and Other Bodies

2. Law and guidelines for the establishment of New Private
•   In 1993, the Federal Government enacted a law by which only the FG may
    grant license for establishment of a private university;
•   Subsequently, the NUC constituted a Standing Committee on Establishment
    of Private Universities (SCOPU) to give effect to provisions of the law.
•   SCOPU:
     • Processes all applications;
     • Ensures that all the criteria/requirements are met;
     • Recommends approval for license

3. Guidance for New State Universities:
• Nigerian Constitution allows state governments to establish their own
• The NUC ensures that new state universities are furnished with the basic
   requirements for quality;
• Periodic monitoring and accreditation follows thereafter.

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Maintenance of Academic Quality I: Role of
     NUC and Other Bodies (cont’d)

4. Guidelines for the Establishment of New Academic
•   All Nigerian universities require prior approval of NUC before establishing
    new programmes;
•   NUC has developed guidelines and application formats for this purpose;
•   Adequacy of preparedness is assured through resource assessment prior to
    granting approval;
•   Periodic monitoring of the established programme then follows;
•   Accreditation assessment of the programme is eventually carried out when

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Maintenance of Academic Quality I: Role
   of NUC and Other Bodies (cont’d)

 5. Accreditation of Academic Programmes:
 • Academic programmes are mature for accredation from three
 • NUC has elaborate guidelines for accreditation of academic
 • MAS constitute the basis for assessment;
 • Peer assessment by university academics;
 • Formats for undergraduate accreditation are:
         •   Self-Study Forms (NUC/SSF)
         •   Programme Evaluation Form (NUC/PEF)
         •   Accreditation Panel Report Form (NUC/APRF)
         •   Accreditation Revisitation Form (NUC/ARVF)
         •   Manual on Accreditation Procedures (MAP).

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Maintenance of Academic Quality I: Role
   of NUC and Other Bodies (cont’d)

   6. Postgraduate Accreditation:
     • Guidelines and modalities for accreditation of postgraduate
        programmes are being developed.
     - Statutory professional boards do conduct professional accreditation.
   7. Ranking of Universities:
     • Aimed to generate healthy competition amongst universities;
     • Multiple performance indicators are now utilised.
   8. Support Mechanisms:
     • 8.1 Virtual Library:
         • To improve the quality of teaching and research through
           provision of online books, journals and other resources.
     • 8.2 Virtual Institute for Higher Education Pedagogy (VIHEP):
         • To provide Internet-based training that will improve quality of
           teaching and learning in Nigerian universities.

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Maintenance of Academic Quality I: Role
   of NUC and Other Bodies (cont’d)

   8. Support Mechanisms (cont’d):
    • Nigerian Expert Academics in the Diaspora scheme (NEADS);
         • Aims to engage such experts in Nigerian universities over short
    •   Nigerian Universities Research and Development Fair;
    •   Nigerian Universities Doctoral Thesis Award Scheme;
    •   Central Research Fund Scheme;
    •   National Training for Senior University Managers;
    •   Teachers Industrial Work Experience Scheme (planned);
    •   Sourcing special grants for the federal universities; among others.

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    Maintenance of Academic Quality I: Role
       of NUC and Other Bodies (cont’d)

        9. The University System Annual Review Meetings (USARM)
     •      Interactive meeting between NUC and University Management aimed
               •     Assessing the performance of the system with regard to
                     teaching, research and community service.
               •     Identifying the factors that inhibited optimal performance of the
                     system in achieving its goals and objectives.
               •     Assessing the internal and external efficiency of the system.
               •     Assessing the role of NUC in facilitating the delivery of quality
                     university education during the period under review.
               •     Presenting and reaching concensus on (defending) the
                     recurrent and capital budgets of the Federal universities and
                     institutions for the coming year preparatory to submission to
                     Government, and
               •     Discussing any other matters relating to university education in

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    Maintenance of Academic Quality I: Role of
            NUC and Other Bodies (cont’d)

   Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB)
    • Established by Act 2 of 1978 (as amended by Act 3 of 1999);
    • Responsibility of JAMB is to:
        • (a)    Ensure high quality matriculation examinations so that
          only those that are adequately prepared to benefit by university
          education do gain entrance to the institutions;
        • (b)    Ensure high quality of administration of the examination
          to minimize the exploits of cheats towards enhancing the
          quality of new entrants to the universities.

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Maintenance of Academic Quality II: Intra-
 institutional Quality Assurance Systems

   Intra-institutional Quality Enhancing Mechanisms:
    • Minimum requirement for admission:
        • To ensure that new entrants are adequately qualified;
    • Internal process for approval of new programmes:
        • Scrutiny by faculty boards and senate;
    • Internal programme monitoring:
        • Annual departmental, faculty and senate review;
    • External examiner system:
        •   Peer review of examinations;
        •   Ascertains that standards set are appropriate;
        •   Comprative standrad of student performance;
        •   Adequacy and fairness of exam and assessment processes.

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   Maintenance of Academic Quality II: Intra-
institutional Quality Assurance Systems (cont’d)

   Proposed Quality Assurance Office:
    • To coordinate all quality assurance activities;
    • To act as secretariat for Senate Quality Committee.
   Proposed Quality Committee:
    • To be a separate committee; or
    • To be part of the Development Committee;
    • To superintend all issues of quality and report to senate.
   Annual Internal Self-Review:
    • Universities urged to evolve objective means of self-study;
    • Universities requested to utilise their own experts for periodic
      evaluation of the performance of their academic programmes; and
    • To remedy identified deficiencies.

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    Maintenance of Academic Quality III :
            Role of Proprietors

   Proprietors should promote quality by ensuring:
     • Adequate core funding for their institutions;
     • Emplacement of a suitable administration for qualitative
       management of the institutions;
     • Provision of adequate administrative autonomy for effective
       administration of the institutions;
     • Emplacement of suitable academic structures for sustenance of
       quality & quality enhancement strategies;
     • That deficiencies identified by accreditation are remedied;
     • That academic programmes of their universities are adequately
       funded; and
     • That they take advantage of the advisory and regulatory services of
       the NUC and other Government agencies toward improvement of
       the performance of their universities.

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Maintenance of academic Quality III: Role
         of Proprietors (cont’d)

   Good Governance (Planning and Management)
    • Are essential ingredients for success of any human
    • Education is no exception.
   Proprietors must ensure good governance of their
   Strategic planning and management may carry an
    institution to improved performance and enhanced

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Maintenance of Academic Quality III : Role of

 • Strategic Planning and Management:
     • Strategic planning:
          • Provides opportunity for stocktaking and planning toward actualisation of a
            desired future state for the university;
          • Ensures that the university reshapes its institutional culture and diversifies
            its funding base;
          • Allows a university to respond quickly and appropriately to environmental
          • Increases institutional autonomy from the proprietor;
          • provides a conducive atmosphere for greater institutional stability.

     • Strategic Management:
                • Is goal-oriented management;
                • Is concerned with effectiveness through critically assessing and
                  reorganizing administrative structures;
                • Encourages initiative and rewards efficiency;
                • Consequently, the university would improve its productivity and
                  thereby be able to accomplish more in assuring quality.

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   Stability
    • Is the outcome of a suitable blend of several elements;
    • For a country, may be political, economic or social;
    • For a university, may be steady state of calendar, funding,
      management or policy environment;
    • Is indispensable to realisation of institutional goals,
      objectives and mission.

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                 Elements of Stability

   Calendar Stability,
    • Exists when a university is able to operate normal
      uninterrupted schedule of activities, e.g. :
        •   September/October to June/July session;
        •   Uninterrupted 13 week semesters;
        •   Examination on due dates;
        •   Predictable date of completion of academic programme,
    • Benefits of calendar stability:
        •   Staff and student exchange programme is more feasible;
        •   Frees time between sessions to plan;
        •   Student and staff are refreshed for next session;
        •   Overall efficiency and performance are enhanced.

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         Elements of Stability: cont’d

   Financial stability:
    • Exists when funding is consistent, predictable and adequate;
    • A healthy funding pattern is characterised by steady
      increase not decline or wild swings;
    • Benefit is opportunity to plan and attain corporate objectives.
   Management stability:
    • Is manifest when university managers serve their full terms
      and the process of succession is predictable and smooth;
    • Frequent changes can lead to poor clarity of vision and

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         Elements of Stability: cont’d

   Policy stability:
    • Frequent shifts in Government policy can introduce instability
      in the university system. E.g.;
        • Incessant strikes in universities during the 1990s from non-
          implementation of agreements between government and the
          unions were due to frequent change of government then;
        • Inconsistencies in policy on wage differential between staff
          cadres led to work stoppages.
    • A stable policy environment is necessary for planning and
      healthy institutional development of a university.

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    Factors Militating against Stability

   Factors of instability include:
    •   Insufficient engagement of students;
    •   Intense union activism among staff and students;
    •   Unhealthy rivalry between unions;
    •   Cultism;
    •   Lack of transparency and accountability;
    •   Poor communication of Management intentions.
   These issues are more prevalent at public than at
    private universities.

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        Effect of instability on Quality

   Stable university:
    • Teachers complete curriculum;
    • Opportunity for exchange programmes;
    • Graduates have the expected competencies;
   Unstable university:
    • Teachers rush through curriculum which often is not
    • Students are poorly prepared for examinations and may
      resort to cheating;
    • Graduates are poorly trained.

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        Stability in Public Universities

   Public university system:
     • Has been operational for over 50 years;
     • Has in the past two decades been frequently disrupted from
       strike action by staff and unrest by students;
     • For long has had irregular academic calendar;
     • Has had poor opportunity for staff and student exchanges;
     • Lost considerable teaching time;
     • Has seen destruction of facilities for teaching and research;
     • Has been poorly funded leading to inadequate facilities;
     • Has had frequent changes in institutional leadership;
   Overall result has been poor quality of university products.

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       Stability in Private Universities

   Private universities:
     • Are easier to manage because they are smaller;
     • Proprietors exert more influence on their governance;
     • Proprietors more strictly enforce compliance with institutional norms
       by staff and students;
     • Usually run normal harmonised academic calendar;
     • Are financially stable, charge enough fees to cover running costs;
     • Have better opportunity to plan;
     • Have challenge of funding infrastructure to grow;
     • Tend to be more stable, efficient and effective than their public
     • Hold greater promise for quality and excellence.

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   The human resource of any country is its greatest asset;
   Appropriate deployment of the right quality and quantity of
    human resources could catalyse national prosperity;
   Poor quality university education could scuttle or delay
    economic take-off of Nigeria;
   Nigerian universities must therefore strive to:
     • establish and maintain stability as an ingredient of quality;
     • continually produce qualitative graduates with the requisite
       knowledge, skills and attitudes to drive national development;
     • Conduct research relevant to national development;
     • undergo strategic planning for better focus, management and
       accretion of resources;
     • Admit only the best amongst the qualified candidates;
     • Keep student enrolment within their carrying capacities – for better
       quality and to obviate anti-social habits;

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                 Conclusion cont’d

   Private universities must learn from the mistakes of
    public universities;
   Public universities must undergo objective corporate
   Globalisation:
    • characterised by speedy international movement of people,
      information, goods and services;
    • Has created an environment of global competition;
   Only the globally competitive institutions will survive,
    grow and flourish.

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   Thank you for your attention.

   God Bless.

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