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Market Steer Essentials (PowerPoint)

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					Market Swine Essentials




           Texas 4-H and Youth Development
Topics to Discuss
The following topics will be discussed:
• Selection
• Where to purchase pigs
• Validation
• Facilities and Equipment
• Nutrition, Management and Exercise
• Health
• Fitting and Showing
                    Texas 4-H and Youth Development
        Selection
Classification
• Up to ten breeds may be classified depending on
  show
   –   Berkshire               - Poland China
   –   Chester White           - Spot, Yorkshire
   –   Duroc                   - Dark Crossbred
                               - Crossbred
   –   Hampshire
   –   Landrace
• Some shows combine other purebreds into OPB
• Agents should become familiar with classification
  guidelines

                          Texas 4-H and Youth Development
      Selection
• Classification cont.
• Classification relies on genetics and
  physical characteristics such as:
  – Color markings
  – Physical structure
  – Set of the ear
  – Breed character
• Be familiar with the consequences of
  classifying out of a show.
                         Texas 4-H and Youth Development
   Selection cont.
Age and Weight of Market Hog
• Current trend is fast-growing hogs with plenty of rib shape and
  capacity.
• Most market hogs are five and half to six and half months old
  when shown.
• All shows have minimum and maximum weight limits, most have
  weigh back rules.
• Agent should become familiar with weight limits




                                Texas 4-H and Youth Development
Selection cont.
Quality Considerations
• Selection criteria include: muscle,
  structural correctness, style and balance,
  and growth potential
• Pigs might be tender footed when
  selecting depending on the type of floors
  they are on.
• Important to select for soundness
• Lameness in young pigs will typically
  increase as the pigs get older.
                     Texas 4-H and Youth Development
     Where to
   Purchase Pigs
• Private treaty is becoming more and
  popular over sales
• Pigs will generally be between 40 and 75
  lbs. when purchased.
• Buying off the farm allows individual to see
  sows, visit about genetics, vaccination
  schedule, etc.
• When going to farm be on time, alert the
  breed if you have been on any other farms,
  always wait for the breeder before stepping
  into the barn

                      Texas 4-H and Youth Development
     Validation
• State Fair of Texas – June deadline
• Major Winter Shows (Fort Worth, San
  Antonio, San Angelo, Austin, and
  Houston) – November deadline
• Most county shows require either county
  or state tags.
• Tags for the State Fair of Texas are
  ordered the last of April
• San Angelo pigs must have been born
  and bred in Texas
                    Texas 4-H and Youth Development
    Facilities and
     Equipment
• At least 20 sq. ft. of spacer per pig
• Barn should be well ventilated, well
  drained, and open to south or east
• Shade is essential
• Keep cool during summer and warm
  during winter
• Can be kept on cement or dirt floors
• Avoid slippery flooring, sharp edges, etc.

                      Texas 4-H and Youth Development
   Facilities and
    Equipment
• Feeders should be hung at a height
  which equals top of pigs’ shoulder
• Most market hogs are individually
  housed to monitor weight gain and feed
  consumption
• Fresh water is very important
• Nipple waters or trough waters may be
  used

                    Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  Facilities and
   Equipment
• Other equipment needed includes:
  – Brush                            – Water bucket
  – Show stick                       – Show box
  – Pipe or whip                     – Portable livestock
  – Shovel                             scale
  – Electric clippers with           – Extension cord
    proper combs and cutters         – Heat lamp
  – Syringes and needles             – Electric fan
  – Small portable feed trough



                          Texas 4-H and Youth Development
Nutrition, Management
     and Exercise
• No magic formula for champioins
• The total feeding programs creates success
  this includes: feeding schedule, exercise
  program, careful observation
• Five basic nutrients include: water, protein,
  carbohydrates and fats (energy), minerals
  and vitamins
• Balanced commercially prepared ration
  should be prepared
• Should be at least 16 to 20 percent
• Do not constantly change rations
                       Texas 4-H and Youth Development
Nutrition, Management
     and Exercise
• Do not make abrupt changes in feeding
• Pigs should consume around 4-6.5 lbs
  per day, split between two feedings
• Weigh pig regularly
• Protein requirements decrease as pig
  grows
• Exercise builds up endurance, tones
  muscle, and requires exhibitor to work
  with animal

                    Texas 4-H and Youth Development
Nutrition, Management
     and Exercise
• Should be at least 16 to 20 percent
• Do not constantly change rations
• Do not make abrupt changes in feeding
• Pigs should consume around 4-8.5 lbs
  per day, split between two feedings
• Protein requirements decrease as pig
  grows
• Exercise builds up endurance, tones
  muscle, and requires exhibitor to work
  with animal         Texas 4-H and Youth Development
         Health

• Key to a healthy pig program is
  development of preventative health
  program
• Erysipelas, atrophic rhinitis, circovirus,
  leptospirorsis, mycoplasma are a few
  viruses pigs should be vaccinated for
• Pigs should be dewormed monthly (rotate
  wormers with at least one rotation of
  Atguard or Safeguad)
• Ivemectin controls external parasites like
  lice and mange

                       Texas 4-H and Youth Development
         Health

• Observe daily for infections or viruses
• Follow all state and federal laws when
  administering drugs
• Feed labels cannot be altered by a
  producer or veterinarian and must be
  used according to the label
• Most livestock shows strictly prohibit the
  use of performance enhancing drugs

                      Texas 4-H and Youth Development
Fitting and Showing
• Skin care is very important for show preparation
• Most market shows are water only
• Hair care begins early on in the feeding period
• Brush hogs twice a week
• Be careful using oils on white hogs so they do
  not get sunburn
• One weed prior to the show pigs should be
  clipped
• Keep hair about ½ to ¾ inch in length
• Can be done by using a #1 or #2 guard on
  clippers
                         Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  Health cont.
• When administering drugs follow all
  directions on drug labels to Quality
  Assurance.
• The use of drugs in manner unintended
  violates laws set by the Food and Drug
  Administration
• Texas livestock shows have strict laws
  for illegal drug use and will disqualify
  animals if illegal drugs are used

                     Texas 4-H and Youth Development
Fitting and Showing
• Angora goats are shown in their natural
  state, never washed.
• Important that fleece contamination by hay,
  dirt, etc. be kept to a minimum
• When mohair gets long Angora goats tend
  to urinate on themselves, trimming
  prevents this.
• Mohair can be worked so it will open easier
  when being evaluated.
• Important to do properly otherwise can
  cause more harm than good.

                      Texas 4-H and Youth Development
Fitting and Showing cont.

•   No set rules for fitting Boer goats
•   Shorn slick a month or two before show
•   Boer goats generally washed before show
•   Both Angora and Boer should be halter
    broken and taught to lead.




                       Texas 4-H and Youth Development
 Additional questions to
 address with Exhibitors


• What are the goals of the 4-H member and
  family?
• What shows or time of the year will you exhibit
  the project(s)?
• Will you need assistance in locating and selecting
  your project?




                         Texas 4-H and Youth Development
Additional Resources
  for Market Swine

       Pork Information Gateway
     (http://tamu.porkgateway.org)
    TAMU Animal Science website
   (http://animalscience.tamul.edu)
           Raising Show Pigs
          By Ricky Thompson


                   Texas 4-H and Youth Development
  Conclusions
• All aspects of the selection process should be
  understood. (classification, age and weight,
  quality consideration)
• Agents should help youth locate pigs and know
  the proper etiquette when visiting farms.
• All pigs should be properly validated for each
  show they will be attending.
• Proper facilities should be available.
• Proper diets and nutritional information about
  feeding goats should be identified.
• Health is one of the most important aspects of
  raising breeding goats.
• All rules should be followed in regards to fitting
  prior to show.
                          Texas 4-H and Youth Development

				
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posted:9/9/2011
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