VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 23 POSTED ON: 9/9/2011
Market Swine Essentials Texas 4-H and Youth Development Topics to Discuss The following topics will be discussed: • Selection • Where to purchase pigs • Validation • Facilities and Equipment • Nutrition, Management and Exercise • Health • Fitting and Showing Texas 4-H and Youth Development Selection Classification • Up to ten breeds may be classified depending on show – Berkshire - Poland China – Chester White - Spot, Yorkshire – Duroc - Dark Crossbred - Crossbred – Hampshire – Landrace • Some shows combine other purebreds into OPB • Agents should become familiar with classification guidelines Texas 4-H and Youth Development Selection • Classification cont. • Classification relies on genetics and physical characteristics such as: – Color markings – Physical structure – Set of the ear – Breed character • Be familiar with the consequences of classifying out of a show. Texas 4-H and Youth Development Selection cont. Age and Weight of Market Hog • Current trend is fast-growing hogs with plenty of rib shape and capacity. • Most market hogs are five and half to six and half months old when shown. • All shows have minimum and maximum weight limits, most have weigh back rules. • Agent should become familiar with weight limits Texas 4-H and Youth Development Selection cont. Quality Considerations • Selection criteria include: muscle, structural correctness, style and balance, and growth potential • Pigs might be tender footed when selecting depending on the type of floors they are on. • Important to select for soundness • Lameness in young pigs will typically increase as the pigs get older. Texas 4-H and Youth Development Where to Purchase Pigs • Private treaty is becoming more and popular over sales • Pigs will generally be between 40 and 75 lbs. when purchased. • Buying off the farm allows individual to see sows, visit about genetics, vaccination schedule, etc. • When going to farm be on time, alert the breed if you have been on any other farms, always wait for the breeder before stepping into the barn Texas 4-H and Youth Development Validation • State Fair of Texas – June deadline • Major Winter Shows (Fort Worth, San Antonio, San Angelo, Austin, and Houston) – November deadline • Most county shows require either county or state tags. • Tags for the State Fair of Texas are ordered the last of April • San Angelo pigs must have been born and bred in Texas Texas 4-H and Youth Development Facilities and Equipment • At least 20 sq. ft. of spacer per pig • Barn should be well ventilated, well drained, and open to south or east • Shade is essential • Keep cool during summer and warm during winter • Can be kept on cement or dirt floors • Avoid slippery flooring, sharp edges, etc. Texas 4-H and Youth Development Facilities and Equipment • Feeders should be hung at a height which equals top of pigs’ shoulder • Most market hogs are individually housed to monitor weight gain and feed consumption • Fresh water is very important • Nipple waters or trough waters may be used Texas 4-H and Youth Development Facilities and Equipment • Other equipment needed includes: – Brush – Water bucket – Show stick – Show box – Pipe or whip – Portable livestock – Shovel scale – Electric clippers with – Extension cord proper combs and cutters – Heat lamp – Syringes and needles – Electric fan – Small portable feed trough Texas 4-H and Youth Development Nutrition, Management and Exercise • No magic formula for champioins • The total feeding programs creates success this includes: feeding schedule, exercise program, careful observation • Five basic nutrients include: water, protein, carbohydrates and fats (energy), minerals and vitamins • Balanced commercially prepared ration should be prepared • Should be at least 16 to 20 percent • Do not constantly change rations Texas 4-H and Youth Development Nutrition, Management and Exercise • Do not make abrupt changes in feeding • Pigs should consume around 4-6.5 lbs per day, split between two feedings • Weigh pig regularly • Protein requirements decrease as pig grows • Exercise builds up endurance, tones muscle, and requires exhibitor to work with animal Texas 4-H and Youth Development Nutrition, Management and Exercise • Should be at least 16 to 20 percent • Do not constantly change rations • Do not make abrupt changes in feeding • Pigs should consume around 4-8.5 lbs per day, split between two feedings • Protein requirements decrease as pig grows • Exercise builds up endurance, tones muscle, and requires exhibitor to work with animal Texas 4-H and Youth Development Health • Key to a healthy pig program is development of preventative health program • Erysipelas, atrophic rhinitis, circovirus, leptospirorsis, mycoplasma are a few viruses pigs should be vaccinated for • Pigs should be dewormed monthly (rotate wormers with at least one rotation of Atguard or Safeguad) • Ivemectin controls external parasites like lice and mange Texas 4-H and Youth Development Health • Observe daily for infections or viruses • Follow all state and federal laws when administering drugs • Feed labels cannot be altered by a producer or veterinarian and must be used according to the label • Most livestock shows strictly prohibit the use of performance enhancing drugs Texas 4-H and Youth Development Fitting and Showing • Skin care is very important for show preparation • Most market shows are water only • Hair care begins early on in the feeding period • Brush hogs twice a week • Be careful using oils on white hogs so they do not get sunburn • One weed prior to the show pigs should be clipped • Keep hair about ½ to ¾ inch in length • Can be done by using a #1 or #2 guard on clippers Texas 4-H and Youth Development Health cont. • When administering drugs follow all directions on drug labels to Quality Assurance. • The use of drugs in manner unintended violates laws set by the Food and Drug Administration • Texas livestock shows have strict laws for illegal drug use and will disqualify animals if illegal drugs are used Texas 4-H and Youth Development Fitting and Showing • Angora goats are shown in their natural state, never washed. • Important that fleece contamination by hay, dirt, etc. be kept to a minimum • When mohair gets long Angora goats tend to urinate on themselves, trimming prevents this. • Mohair can be worked so it will open easier when being evaluated. • Important to do properly otherwise can cause more harm than good. Texas 4-H and Youth Development Fitting and Showing cont. • No set rules for fitting Boer goats • Shorn slick a month or two before show • Boer goats generally washed before show • Both Angora and Boer should be halter broken and taught to lead. Texas 4-H and Youth Development Additional questions to address with Exhibitors • What are the goals of the 4-H member and family? • What shows or time of the year will you exhibit the project(s)? • Will you need assistance in locating and selecting your project? Texas 4-H and Youth Development Additional Resources for Market Swine Pork Information Gateway (http://tamu.porkgateway.org) TAMU Animal Science website (http://animalscience.tamul.edu) Raising Show Pigs By Ricky Thompson Texas 4-H and Youth Development Conclusions • All aspects of the selection process should be understood. (classification, age and weight, quality consideration) • Agents should help youth locate pigs and know the proper etiquette when visiting farms. • All pigs should be properly validated for each show they will be attending. • Proper facilities should be available. • Proper diets and nutritional information about feeding goats should be identified. • Health is one of the most important aspects of raising breeding goats. • All rules should be followed in regards to fitting prior to show. Texas 4-H and Youth Development
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