INFUSING THE CRITICAL OUTCOMES INTO REPORT

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    Western Cape Education Department
     Wes-Kaap Onderwysdepartement
     Isebe IeMfundo leNtshona Koloni




Transition Guidelines: Grades 10 & 11

    ACCOUNTING HG & SG
           With effect from January 2004




                 Copyright reserved

    DIRECTORATE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT




         Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                           1
                                                    SECTION B

                                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

NO.   ASPECT                                                                    PAGE

1     Benefits to Accounting from the C2005 background                          2

2     Bridging C2005 and the interim syllabus                                   2

3     OBE principles and its implications for teaching and learning             3

4     Infusing the Critical Outcomes                                            4-7

5     Grade 10 term planner                                                     8-11

6     Grade 10 year planner                                                     12

7     Grade 10 content and skills and notes to the educator                     13-22

8     Grade 11 term planner                                                     23-24

9     Grade 11 year planner                                                     25

10    Grade 11 content and skills and notes to the educator                     26-32

11    Designing a learning experience (lesson plan) - Grade 10                  33-34

12    Designing a learning experience (lesson plan) - Grade 11                  35-37

13    Principles of assessment                                                  38

14    Examination and CASS requirements                                         39

15    CASS requirements – Grades 10 and 11                                      40-41

16    Components of school based assessment (SBA/CASS) and ADDENDUM A-F         42-54


                                       Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                              1




              From the
      DIRECTORATE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT


               Learner
                To O F
D E P A R T M E N T the E D U C A T I O N
              Educator:


     Tell Me and I Forget ...

Show Me and I Remember ...


           BUT....
        INVOLVE ME

 Phasi g UNDERSTAND!!
andnI in OBE into Grade 10, 11 & 12
        COMPUTYPING


          Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                 2

  BENEFITS TO ACCOUNTING FROM THE C2005 BACKGROUND
 Learners have been exposed to alternative teaching, learning and assessment strategies.

 Learners have been orientated to co-operative learning strategies.
.
 Learners have been exposed to project work, self and peer assessment.

 Learners have been nurtured in problem solving and critical thinking skills.

 Learners were expected to take responsibility for their own learning.

 Learners have been exposed to entrepreneurial skills and should therefore have a more
  holistic view to business studies.

 Learners have been introduced to basic accounting principles via real life situations, e.g.
  market day.



BRIDGING C2005 AND THE INTERIM SYLLABUS.

Before commencing with the Grade 10 syllabus learners need to have sound knowledge in
the following:

Basic accounting concepts

Completing source documents

Recording of elementary transactions in the Cash Journals, Debtors‟ Journal and Creditors
Journal

Posting from the Cash Journals to the General Ledger and to the subsidiary ledgers

The Accounting Equation


The approach used as can be seen from the pacesetters is that the above be incorporated in
a holistic way rather than first completing the above and thereafter continuing with Grade 10
content.

By trying to keep pace with the year planner, educators should complete the necessary
knowledge, skills, values and attitudes in the given time.

Where learners have dealt with the above aspects thoroughly in Grades 8 and 9, the year
planners should be adjusted accordingly.


                             Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                3

The following key outcomes-based principles together with the Critical Outcomes should
underpin the teaching, learning and assessment that take place in the Accounting classroom.



OBE PRINCIPLE                 IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING

High expectations, high        Learners should be encouraged to perform at their highest
standards                       level at all times.

                               Educators should create an enriching and stimulating
                                environment.

                               Educators should expose learners to challenging and
                                enriching learning experiences.

                               Educators should motivate learners and celebrate
                                achievements.

Design down, deliver up        Bear the Critical Outcomes in mind when design learning
                                experiences.

                               Develop a strategy to guide and support the learner in
                                working towards the achievement of the outcomes.

Clarity of focus               Learners should know what the outcomes of
                                lessons/learning experiences are and what they are
                                working towards.

                               The assessment process should be transparent whereby
                                the criteria is made known to the learners.

                               Regular feedback should be given towards guiding and
                                supporting the learners to develop their full potential.

                               Educators should reflect in order to improve the
                                effectiveness of their teaching.

Expanded opportunities         Educators should provide learners with multiple
                                opportunities to achieve an outcome.

                               A variety of teaching and learning strategies should be
                                used to accommodate the diversity of learners.

                               A variety of assessment strategies should be used.




                            Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
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INFUSING THE CRITICAL OUTCOMES INTO REPORT 550 ACCOUNTING SYLLABUS

The Learning Outcomes of the Accounting curriculum are strongly linked with the Critical Outcomes in the following ways:

CRITICAL OUTCOMES             ACCOUNTING CONTRIBUTION                      POSSIBLE TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES
CO1    Identify and solve     Learners engage with critical and/or         Learners should be challenged with problems/issues where
       problems, and make     creative thinking when doing                 they could apply their acquired knowledge and skills. These
       decisions using        projects, group work, drawing up             problems/issues should be related to real life situations. The
       critical and creative  source documents, writing up of              enquiry approach is an important strategy for learners‟
       thinking               subsidiary journals, posting to              learning.
                              ledger accounts, preparing and
                              analysing financial statements.
                              They engage in critical thinking
                              when reflecting on their own and
                              others work.
CO2     Work effectively with Learners develop an understanding            Working co-operatively in groups and/or pairs gets learners
        others as members of of each other through their                   to talk and think logically. Learners should be encouraged to
        a team, group,        interaction in class and in activities       help and be helped by others.
        organisation and      of peer assessment and co-                   Learners learn that working together leads to growth of all
        community             operative learning.                          involved, and also leads to the solving of problems and
                                                                           tasks, which on their own may have been impossible.
                                                                           Working in pairs can be applied when learners have to:
                                                                            Answer questions (answer questions posed by educator
                                                                               to each other, those who do not know have the
                                                                               opportunity to find out from a peer)
                                                                            Teach one another new concepts (explain new concepts
                                                                               to one another in pairs, ask where there are any
                                                                               uncertainties)
                                                                            Checking understanding of home work task beforehand
                                                                               (each pair explains to each other what needs to be done,
                                                                               questions or unclear issues are directed at
                                                                               educator/other peers for clarity)



                                             Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                5
                                                                           Marking of homework (pairs mark each others‟
                                                                              homework, discuss mistakes, educator answers
                                                                              unresolved questions)
                                                                           Remedial work after tests/examinations (provide an
                                                                              opportunity for pairs to/groups to work through questions
                                                                              while other peers and educator answers unresolved
                                                                              questions)
CO3   Organise and              Learners develop disciplines such         Organising and managing themselves responsibly is a skill
      manage themselves         as accuracy, sound judgement,             that learners can use throughout their lives. It is one that
      and their activities      accountability, responsibility and        should be encouraged and nurtured in the Accounting class.
      responsibly and           time management.                          In order to be effective as an Accounting learner, learners
      effectively                                                         need to organise their files/portfolios well. They should
                                                                          always be aware of the following principles in Accounting:
                                                                           Accuracy
                                                                           Speed
                                                                           Neatness
CO4   Collect, analyse,      Identify and interpret documents             This outcome has profound implications in the teaching of
      organise and criticallyrelating to different transactions.          Accounting. Learners will constantly be required to analyse
      evaluate information   Collect and analyse data from a              transactions and later in the year financial statements.
                             variety of sources and recording             Critical decisions follow analysis of transactions and
                             them correctly in accounting records         financial statements.
                             and projects.
CO5   Communicate            Learners engage in extended lines            Different forms of communication should be encouraged in
      effectively using      of logic and arithmetic reasoning. In        the Accounting class. Through working co-operatively with
      visual, symbolic       written and oral communication               peers, learners will engage in verbal communication a lot of
      and/or language skills extensive use is made of accounting          the time. They should be aware that Accounting is a very
      in various modes.      terminology. Accounting data is              important and specific form of communication.
                             effectively communicated by
                             drawing up written presentations
                             e.g. financial statements.




                                            Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                6
CO6   Use science and          Learners are exposed to the correct        Learners should be made aware of Accounting software
      technology effectively   use of calculators to solve arithmetic     packages, and where possible be allowed to operate such a
      and critically showing   problems and to the computer for           package.
      responsibility towards   the completion of projects.
      the environment and
      the health of others.
CO7   Demonstrate an           Learners are lead to realise that          Learners should be encouraged to think holistically. They
      understanding of the     accounting is but one discipline of        should see Accounting in its relation to Economics, Business
      world as a set of        the economic and management                Economics, Computyping, etc. They must realise the value
      related systems by       sciences. The learner should be            of the skills, knowledge, values and attitudes acquired in the
      recognising that         equipped with accounting                   Accounting class.
      problem-solving          knowledge and methodology
      contexts do not exist    compatible to general accepted
      in isolation.            accounting principles.
DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES
DO1   Reflect on and                                                      Learners have different learning styles. To accommodate
                               The learner should be able to apply
      explore a variety of                                                the diversity of learners, educators should engage in
                               the theory in a practical content.
      strategies to learn                                                 different teaching strategies.
                               Learners should be able to master
      more effectively.
                               the different facets of accounting         In Accounting however, it is important that learners are
                               through continuous practising.             continually engaged in the actual ‘doing’ of Accounting
                                                                          exercises.
                               Learners should be able to
DO2   Participate as                                                      In the Accounting class, the educator and the learners form
                               understand and adapt to their social
      responsible citizens                                                a community. As such all members, i.e. learners and
                               environment through meaningful
      in the life of local,                                               educator should take responsibility for the well-being of the
                               interpretation of accounting
      national and global                                                 community and its surroundings, i.e. the Accounting room.
                               information that they will come
      communities.                                                        Involve learners in the tidying of the room, making the room
                               across in future. To encourage             attractive, etc. When learners are involved in decision
                               sound judgement in decision-               making and the running of the Accounting room, they will
                               making to the solution of problems.        take ownership of „their‟ room and will take pride in its
                                                                          appearance and the atmosphere prevailing in the class.




                                            Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
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                                Accounting is dynamic of nature.
DO3   Be culturally and                                                    Knowledge about and respect for all the cultures and
                                Learners should be able to apply
      aesthetically sensitive                                              religions of our country, and internationally, need to be
                                general accepted accounting
      across a range of                                                    encouraged in the Accounting class.
                                practices to accommodate formal
      social contexts.
                                and informal economic sectors in a
                                simplified way.
                                To expose the learner to the wide
DO4   Explore education                                                    Learners are continuously made aware of different
                                variety of career opportunities in the
      and career                                                           opportunities for learners who offer the skill of Accounting.
                                business and commercial sectors,
      opportunities                                                        Projects can be given where the learners investigate job
                                e.g. banking, debtors clerks,              opportunities for the Accounting learner, and in so doing will
                                creditors‟ clerks, etc.                    be made aware of just how useful the subject is. Attending
                                                                           career exhibitions and visits to tertiary institutions and very
                                                                           importantly to Accounting firms have great value for learners
                                                                           to experience in an authentic way that career opportunities
                                                                           are available to them.
                                Through the accounting component,
DO5   Develop                                                              Accounting deals with everyday real life situations. It is thus
                                learners will learn how to initiate
      entrepreneurial                                                      an ideal tool in the development of entrepreneurial activities.
                                projects and manage finances and
      opportunities
                                marketing skills.




                                             Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                8
ACCOUNTING GRADE 10

FIRST TERM

1.    CONCEPTS

      Assets, Liabilities, Owner‟s equity, Receipts and Payments.

2.    CASH RECEIPTS JOURNAL – TRADING CONCERN

2.1   Transactions – (limited to Capital contributions, Rent income and Sales)
2.2   Documents
2.3   Recording
2.4   Posting
2.5   Double entry principle according to accounting equation

3.    CASH PAYMENTS JOURNAL – TRADING CONCERN

3.1   Transactions – (limited to purchase of fixed assets, payment of operating and capital
      expenses and drawings)
3.2   Documents
3.3   Recording
3.4   Posing
3.5   Double entry principle according to accounting equation

4.     CASH RECEIPTS JOURNAL AND CASH PAYMENTS
      JOURNAL AND TRIAL BALANCE

4.1   Recording of transactions
4.2   Posting to General Ledger
4.3   Introducing opening balances and totals
4.4   Prepare Trial Balances

5.    DEBTORS’ JOURNAL & DEBTORS’ ALLOWANCES JOURNAL

5.1   Source documents
5.2   Recording of transactions
5.3   Posting to Debtors‟ Ledger
5.4   Posting to General Ledger
5.5   Receipts from debtors (excluding discount) - CRJ
5.6   Analysis of transactions
5.7   Writing up and Interpretation of Debtors‟ Accounts

6.    CREDITORS’ JOURNAL AND CREDITORS’ ALLOWANCES JOURNAL

6.1   Source documents
6.2   Recording of transactions
6.3   Posting to Creditors‟ Ledger
6.4   Posting to General Ledger
                            Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                  9
6.5     Payments to Creditors (CPJ) – excluding discount
6.6     Analysis of transactions
6.7     Writing up and interpretation of Creditors accounts

SECOND TERM

7.      CASH JOURNALS

7.1   Extension of Cash Journals – additional entries
7.1.1 credit card transactions
7.1.2 discount allowed when debtors‟ accounts are settled
7.1.3 discount received when creditors‟ accounts are settled
7.1.4 cheques received dishonoured (no discount allowed)
7.1.5 fixed deposit – creating, termination (maturing) and interest on fixed deposit
7.1.6  loans: amount received, repayments and interest on loan
7.1.7  Entries from bank statement
      bank charges
      interest received on current account
      interest on bank overdraft
7.1.8 carriage on purchases
7.2   Posting to subsidiary ledgers
7.3   Posting to general ledger – special attention to posting of discount totals
7.4   Analysis of transactions

8.      GENERAL JOURNAL

8.1     Bad debts
8.2     Withdrawal of merchandise from stock at cost by proprietor
8.3     Interest on debtor‟s accounts in arrears
8.4     Discount allowed cancelled
8.5     Correction of errors where the correct amount is posted to the correct side of
        the wrong account
8.6     Posting to subsidiary ledgers
8.7     Posting to general ledger
8.8     Analysis of transactions

9.      BAD DEBTS RECOVERED

9.1     Source document
9.2     Recording
9.3     Posting
9.4     Analysis

10.     REVISION




                              Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                               10
THIRD TERM

11.    TRIAL BALANCE AND FINAL ACCOUNTS

11.1   Drawing up of Trial Balance from list of balances
11.2   Correction of errors in Trial Balance
11.3   Closing transfers in journal and posting to ledger accounts
        debtors allowances to Sales account
        balance of the Trading account to Profit and Loss account
        other income accounts and operating expenses accounts
          to the Profit and Loss account
        transfer of balance on the Profit and Loss account to Capital account
        transfer of Drawings account to Capital account
11.4   Drawing up of Trading account and Profit and Loss account from Trial Balance
11.5   Post-Closing Trial Balance

12.    YEAR-END ADJUSTMENTS, POST-ADJUSTMENT TRIAL BALANCE,
       FINAL ACCOUNTS AND POST-CLOSING TRIAL BALANCE

12.1 General accepted accounting practice (GAAP) – principles
12.2 Recording of adjustments in:
12.2.1 General Journal
12.2.2 Posting to General Ledger
12.3 Specific adjusments:
12.3.1 Depreciation:
         fixed instalment method or fixed percentage on cost price
         on carrying value or diminishing (reducing) balance method
12.3.2 Accrued operating expenses (expenses payable)
12.3.3 Accrued income (income receivable)
12.3.4 Prepaid expenses
12.3.5 Income received in advance
12.4 Prepare the Post-Adjustment Trial Balance
12.5 Preparing of final ledger accounts, i.e. Trading account and Profit and Loss
       account by means of closing transfers.
12.6 Prepare Post-Closing Trial Balance
12.7 Reversal entries at beginning of financial year




                            Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                               11
FOURTH TERM

14.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

14.1 Preparation of financial statements:
14.1.1 Income statement for given period from:
        a given pre-adjustment trial balance and additional information in respect of
          adjustments
        a post-adjustment trial balance
14.1.2 Balance sheet at a stated date from:
        a given pre-adjustment trial balance and additional information in respect of
          adjustments
        a post-closing trial balance

15.    ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
       (Only for Higher Grade)

15.1   Percentage gross profit on turnover
15.2   Percentage gross profit on cost of goods sold (mark-up)
15.3   Percentage net income on turnover
15.4   Total expenses as a percentage of turnover
15.5   Return on owner‟s equity
15.6   Degree of solvency
15.7   Liquidity ratios




                            Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                          12
                                              ACCOUNTING HG & SG - GRADE 10

                                                                        FIRST TERM

 WEEK 1      WEEK 2      WEEK 3        WEEK 4        WEEK 5        WEEK 6        WEEK 7       WEEK 8       WEEK 9       WEEK 10      WEEK 11    WEEK 12
Concepts     CRJ &        CRJ &         CPJ &         CPJ &          CRJ &         CRJ &      CJ & CAJ     DJ, DAJ,      DJ, DAJ,
             Posting     Posting &      Posting      Posting &        CPJ           CPJ        CPJ &       CJ, CAJ,        CJ,
                         Analysis                    Analysis       Posting       Posting      Posting        &         CAJ, CRJ,
                                                                      Trial         Trial                  Posting        CPJ &
                                                                    balance       balance                                Posting
                                                                      SECOND TERM
 WEEK 1      WEEK 2      WEEK 3        WEEK 4        WEEK 5        WEEK 6        WEEK 7       WEEK 8       WEEK 9       WEEK 10      WEEK 11    WEEK 12
DJ, DAJ,     DJ, DAJ,    CRJ & CPJ     CRJ & CPJ     CRJ & CPJ     CRJ & CPJ      General      General      General
   CJ,          CJ,      (additional   (additional   (additional   (additional    Journal,     Journal,     Journal,     Revision    Examina-   Examina-
CAJ, CRJ,    CAJ, CRJ,       cash          cash          cash          cash       Postings     Postings     Postings                   tions      tions
  CPJ &        CPJ &      transac-      transac-      transac-      transac-      Analysis     Analysis     Analysis
 Posting      Posting       tions)        tions)        tions)        tions)
   Trial        Trial     Postings      Postings      Postings      Postings
 balance      balance     Analysis      Analysis      Analysis      Analysis
                                                                        THIRD TERM
 WEEK 1      WEEK2       WEEK 3        WEEK 4        WEEK 5        WEEK 6        WEEK 7       WEEK 8       WEEK 9       WEEK 10      WEEK 11    WEEK 12
    Trial       Trial      Adjust-       Adjust-       Adjust-       Adjust-      Adjustm-      Adjust-     Financial    Financial
 Balance      Balance      ments         ments         ments          ments         ents         ments     Statements   Statements
  Closing     Closing     Journal       Journal       Journal        Journal       Journal      Journal
 transfers   transfers     Ledger        Ledger        Ledger        Ledger        Ledger       Ledger
   Final       Final        Post-         Post-         Post-         Post-         Post-        Post-
 accounts    accounts    adjustment    adjustment    adjustment    adjustment    adjustment   adjustment
                            Trial         Trial         Trial         Trial         Trial        Trial
                          Balance       Balance       Balance       Balance       Balance      Balance
                                                                      Final         Final        Final
                                                                    accounts      accounts     accounts
                                                                      FOURTH TERM
 WEEK 1      WEEK2       WEEK 3        WEEK 4        WEEK 5        WEEK 6        WEEK 7       WEEK 8       WEEK 9       WEEK 10      WEEK 11    WEEK 12
 Financial   Financial   Financial      Analysis     Revision      Revision      Examina-     Examina-     Examina-
Statements     state-      state-          and                                     tions        tions        tions
              ments       ments        interpreta-
                                        tion (HG
                                         ONLY)



                                                     Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                              13


                                    GRADE 10 ACCOUNTING (2003)

           CONTENT                INDICATORS OF ACHIEVEMENT                                 NOTES TO THE EDUCATOR
                                    Learners should be able to …
Concepts                         understand the differences between the different             When explaining these basic
                                  accounting concepts and their relevance in preparing          accounting concepts to learners, relate
                                  the different journals.                                       them to everyday and real examples in
                                                                                                order for learners to make meaning of
                                          assets
                                                                                                it.
                                          liabilities
                                          owner‟s equity
                                          receipts
                                          payments




Cash Receipts Journal (CRJ)      understand the principle of issuing receipts for all         When explaining the CRJ, make it
(trading concern)                 monies received, except for cash sales (which are             relevant by using real examples.
                                  controlled by means of cash invoices or cash register         (applicable to all journals).
                                  totals).
                                                                                               Provide learners with real examples of
                                 check subsidiary journal totals by means of horizontal        source documents, i.e. receipt, cash
                                  and vertical additions, i.e. casting and cross-casting.       invoice and cash register slip.
                                                                                                (applicable to all journals).
                                 complete the relevant documents w.r.t. Cash Receipts
                                  Journal.                                                     Learners need to understand that
                                                                                                entries are recorded from the
                                 handle deposits, which consist of a single amount and         duplicate source document.
                                  multiple amounts on the same day in respect of capital
                                  contributions, sales and rent income.

                                 record transactions from source documents and given
                                  transactions.

                                 post from the CRJ by applying the relevant accounting
                                  principles to identify the account to be debited and
                                  credited (not mechanically).


                                          Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                   14

                                      master the double entry principle continuously and not
                                       in isolation.

Cash Payments Journal (CPJ)           thoroughly understand the principle of issuing cheques
(trading concern)                      for monies paid.

                                      record the payment of capital expenses and operating
                                       expenses.

                                      Complete the cheque and cheque counterfoil.

                                      record transactions in the CPJ from source documents
                                       and given transactions.

                                      post from the CPJ by applying the relevant accounting
                                       principles to identify the account to be debited and
                                       credited (not mechanically).

                                      master the double entry principle continuously and not
                                       in isolation.

Combining Cash Receipts Journal,      distinguish between cash receipts and cash payments
Cash Payments Journal and Trial        in order to record in the appropriate journals.
Balance
                                      use prior knowledge by applying relevant accounting
                                       principles to post to the General Ledger.

                                      balance accounts in the balance sheet section and total
                                       accounts in the nominal section of the General Ledger.

                                      understand the concept of opening balances and totals.

                                      prepare a trial balance from the balances and totals in
                                       the General Ledger and also understand the reason for
                                       preparing the trial balances.




                                               Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
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Debtors‟ Journal (DJ)                  understand the reasons for having to prepare the             Learners need to understand that
debtors‟ allowances journal (DAJ)       Debtors‟ Journal and debtors‟ allowances journal.             entries are recorded from the duplicate
and receipts from debtors                                                                             source documents.
                                       complete the relevant source documents, i.e. credit
                                        invoice and credit note.

                                       record transactions in the DJ and DAJ from source
                                        documents and given transactions.

                                       know that posting to the debtors‟ ledger takes place on
                                        a daily basis.

                                       know that posting to the General Ledger takes place on
                                        a monthly basis.

                                       understand the double entry principle.

                                       understand that debtors settle their accounts promptly
                                        to secure the continuous inflow of cash.

                                       use prior knowledge to record the receipts from debtors
                                        in the correct journal, viz. CRJ.

                                       Master the double entry principle continuously and not
                                        in isolation.

                                       record transactions directly in the relevant accounts
                                        from totals of subsidiary journals and transactions.

                                       interpret debtors‟ accounts.

Creditors‟ Journal (CJ)                understand the reasons for having to prepare the             The learners need to know that the
Creditors‟ Allowances Journal           creditors‟ journal and creditors‟ allowances journal.         contra account when posting to the
(CAJ) and Payments to Creditors                                                                       Creditors‟Control account is not
                                       complete the relevant source documents, i.e. credit           creditors‟allowances.
                                        invoice and debit note (internal controls).
                                                                                                     The analysis of transactions should be
                                       know the difference between the debit and the credit          done on a continuous basis to enable
                                        note.                                                         learners to understand the accounting
                                                                                                      principles.


                                                Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
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                                record transactions in the CJ and CAJ from source              Whenever a new transaction is
                                 documents and given transactions.                               introduced to learners, the educator
                                                                                                 must make them aware of its effect on
                                know that posting to the creditors‟ ledger takes place on       the accounting equation.
                                 a daily basis.
                                                                                                Learners need to understand that
                                apply sound accounting principles when posting.                 entries are made from the original
                                                                                                 source documents.
                                know that posting to the general ledger takes place on
                                 a monthly basis.

                                apply sound accounting principles when posting.

                                understand that creditors should be paid timeously.

                                 know which document to use and apply prior
                                  knowledge to record payments to creditors in the
                                  correct journal, viz. CPJ.

                                analyse transactions and its effect on the accounting
                                 equation.

Extension of Cash Journals      know how to deal with credit card transactions.                Credit card transactions are regarded
                                                                                                 as cash sales from the business point
                                                                                                 of view.

                                know how to deal with levies on credit card                    Levies on credit card transactions
                                 transactions.                                                   must be treated as bank charges.




                                         Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                            17

Extension of cash journals      know how to deal with discount allowed when debtors‟      Discount allowed is recorded on a
(continued)                      accounts are settled.                                      receipt.and discount received is
                                                                                            recorded on the cheque counterfoil.
                                know how to deal with discount received when
                                 creditors‟ accounts are settled.                          The functions of the discount columns
                                                                                            in the CRJ and CPJ must be explicitly
                                                                                            stated.

                                                                                           Discount allowed and discount
                                                                                            received must be posted to two
                                                                                            separate accounts.


                                know how to record additional bank transactions:          Discount involved in dishonoured
                                                                                            cheques must be cancelled by means
                                        dishonoured cheques
                                                                                            of a journal entry.
                                        creating a fixed deposit
                                        termination and receipt of fixed deposits
                                        interest on overdraft
                                        interest on current account (favourable
                                         balance)

                                know how to record other income/revenue:
                                        Rent Income
                                        Interest on fixed deposit
                                        Interest on current account
                                        Interest received (debtors)




                                         Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                        18

Posting to subsidiary ledgers and         know how to deal with Loans received.                         Loans are treated as a long-term
the general ledger                                                                                        liability in the Balance Sheet
                                                   amount received
                                                   repayments
                                                   interest on loan
                                                                                                         Under the continuous (perpetual)
                                          know how to record Carriage on Purchases.                      inventory system the expense is
                                                                                                          debited against trading stock because
                                                                                                          it forms part of the calculation to
                                                                                                          determine the cost per unit.



                                                                                                         Special attention needs to be given to
                                                                                                          the posting of the discount totals.



General Journal                           know that the general journal is used to record               This is the ideal opportunity to use co-
                                           transactions, which cannot be recorded in the other            operative learning techniques.
                                           journals.

                                          know that the general journal must have analysis
                                           columns for the debtors‟ control and creditors‟ control.

                                          journal entries should have a narration, which also acts
   Bad debts                              as authorisation for the transaction and as source
                                           documents.

                                          know when and why a debt is written off.

                                          calculate the amount to be written off.

                                          identify the subsidiary journal and the source document.

   Withdrawal of merchandise              know that the continuous inventory system is used and
    from stock at cost by proprietor        therefore withdrawal of stock will decrease the trading
                                            stock account.




                                                   Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                         19


   Interest on debtors accounts in      know that a debtor‟s account is in arrears when the
    arrears                               credit term is exceeded.

   Discount allowed cancelled           when a cheque is dishonoured on which there was a
                                          discount allowed, the discount must then be cancelled by
                                          means of a journal entry.

   Correction of errors                 correct an error where the correct amount was posted to
                                          the correct side of the incorrect account.

   Posting to subsidiary ledgers        post from the general journal to the subsidiary ledgers.

   Posting to the General Ledger         post from the general journal to the General Ledger.



   Analysis of transactions                                                                            Exercises on the analysis of
                                                                                                         transactions should be given
                                                                                                         continuously.

                                                                                                        Whenever a „new‟ transaction is
                                                                                                         introduced, its effect on the accounting
                                                                                                         equation should be dealt with
                                                                                                         immediately.

Bad Debts Recovered                       know the reason for this transaction.

                                            know that:
                                            -the source document is a receipt
                                            -it is entered in the CRJ

                                          record the entry.

                                          post to the General Ledger.

                                          analyse the transaction.




                                                   Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                 20

Trial Balance and Final           use prior knowledge to draw up a trial balance.
Accounts
                                  identify errors revealed by the trial balance.

Closing transfers                 record the closing transfers in the general journal.
                                           debtors allowances to sales
                                           transfer of gross profit to profit and loss
                                            account
                                           other income and operating expense accounts
                                            to profit and loss account
                                           transfer of net profit (loss) to capital account
                                           transfer of drawings to capital account
Trading account                   know that final accounts are prepared at the end of the
                                   accounting period after the nominal accounts were
Profit and Loss account            closed off.

                                  know that gross profit is calculated in the trading
                                   account and that net profit is calculated in the profit &
                                   loss account.

Pre-Adjustment Trial Balance      know the difference between the different trial balances.

Year-end adjustments              know the reason for year-end adjustments.                      Learners should be taught how to
                                                                                                   calculate depreciation on the different
                                  record the adjustments in the general journal.                  methods and know that it is an
                                                                                                   imputed expense (clarify the difference
                                           depreciation: fixed instalment method/fixed
                                                                                                   between imputed and operating
                                            percentage on cost price and on diminished             expenses).
                                            balance method/carrying value
                                           accrued operating expenses (expenses
                                                                                                  Learners should be taught about the
                                            payable)
                                                                                                   asset register.
                                           accrued income (income receivable)
                                           prepaid expenses
                                                                                                  Accrued income and prepaid expenses
                                           income received in advance                             form part of trade and other
                                                                                                   receivables/debtors whilst accrued
                                                                                                   expenses and income received in
                                                                                                   advance form part of trade and other
                                                                                                   payables/creditors.




                                           Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                 21


Post-adjustment trial balance      know that this trial balance is prepared after all         .
                                    corrections and year-end adjustments have been
                                    effected.

                                   this trial balance serves as a point of departure for
                                    drawing up the financial statements.

Final Accounts                     prepare the final accounts by applying prior knowledge.

                                   know that closing entries for the accumulated totals on
                                    nominal accounts to the final ledger accounts are done
                                    at the end of the financial year by journal entries.

                                   know that after the completion of the closing entries
                                    there should be no balances on nominal accounts.

Post-closing trial balance         know that this trial balance is extracted annually after
                                    the closing entries have been journalised and posted.

                                   know that this trial balance contains all the remaining
                                    balance sheet accounts in the General Ledger.

Reversal of entries                know that a reversal entry will be made in the general        Reversal of entries must be made for:
                                    journal.
                                                                                                   Prepaid expenses
                                   know that adjustments are written back at the beginning        Accrued expenses
                                    of the following accounting period.                            Accrued income
                                                                                                   Income received in advance
                                   do reversals and the posting thereof.

General Accepted Accounting        should know the purpose of GAAP.                              Deal with the concepts as background
Practice (GAAP)                                                                                    knowledge: entity, historical cost,
                                                                                                   going concern, matching principle ,
                                                                                                   principle of materiality and principle of
                                                                                                   prudence.




                                            Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                  22


FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND             know that financial statements contain meaningful            learners must be taught that whilst
NOTES                                 information about the business.                               final accounts are prepared at the end
                                                                                                    of an accounting period, financial
                                     prepare an income statement in the correct format.            statements can be prepared at any
                                                                                                    time.
                                     prepare a balance sheet in the correct format.
                                                                                                   Learners must be taught that the notes
                                     prepare notes to the financial statements.                    to the financial statements form an
                                                                                                    integral part of the financial statements
                                                                                                    and should be completed in
                                                                                                    accordance with the latest formats.

Elementary analysis and              calculate the following:                                     This will develop the logical thought
interpretation of financial                                                                         processes and ability of learners in
                                     percentage gross profit on turnover
statements (HG only)                                                                                respect of analysis and interpretation.
                                     percentage gross profit on cost of goods sold (mark-up)
                                     percentage net profit on turnover
                                                                                                   Learners should know the formulae
                                     total expenses as a percentage of turnover
                                                                                                    and be able to calculate the relevant
                                     return on owner‟s equity
                                                                                                    ratios, which should enable them to
                                     degree of solvency
                                                                                                    make, informed decisions.
                                     liquidity ratios
                                                                                                   You could make use of publicised
                                                                                                    financial statements.




                                              Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                               23
                                  ACCOUNTING GRADE 11

FIRST TERM

1.    SUBSIDIARY JOURNALS

1.1   Recording
1.2   Posting to general ledger
1.3   Preparing trial balance
1.4   Analysis of transactions

2.    WAGES AND SALARIES JOURNAL

2.1   Recording
2.2   Posting to general ledger

3.    FIXED ASSET DISPOSAL

3.1   Recording
3.2   Posting to general ledger

4.    PERIODIC INVENTORY SYSTEM

4.1   Recording in subsidiary journals
4.2   Posting to general ledger

5.    DEBTORS AND CREDITORS LEDGERS AND CONTROL ACCOUNTS

SECOND TERM

6.    BANK RECONCILIATION

6.1   Completion of Cash Receipts Journal and Cash Payments Journal
6.2   Preparing bank reconciliation statement

7.    FINAL ACCOUNTS OF SOLE TRADER

7.1   Journalising adjustments and posting to general ledger
7.2   Journalising closing transfers and posting to general ledger
7.3   Preparing post-adjustment and post-closing trial balances
7.4   Preparing final ledger accounts
7.5   Analysis of transactions according to accounting equation




                            Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                   24
THIRD TERM

8.     FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF SOLE TRADER

8.1     Income Statement
8.2     Balance Sheet
8.3     Notes to financial statements

9.     ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Determine and interpretation of:

9.1    net current assets
9.2    degree of solvency
9.3    degree of liquidity
9.4    degree of portability
9.5    rate of stock turnover

FOURTH TERM

10.    PARTNERSHIPS

10.1   Definition, advantages and disadvantages
10.2   Ledger accounts
10.3   Trading account
10.4   Profit and Loss account
10.5   Appropriation account
10.6   Income statement
10.7   Balance sheet
10.8   Notes to financial statements
10.9   Analysis and interpretation (HG ONLY)




                                Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                                  25
                                                     ACCOUNTING HG & SG - GRADE 11
                                                                               FIRST TERM

 WEEK 1          WEEK 2          WEEK 3        WEEK 4         WEEK 5        WEEK 6          WEEK 7          WEEK 8        WEEK 9       WEEK 10      WEEK 11     WEEK 12
Revision of     Revision of     Wages and       Wages          Fixed         Fixed           Fixed          Periodic      Periodic     Debtors      Debtors
 subsidiary      subsidiary      Salaries         and          Asset         Asset           Asset         inventory     inventory       and          and
  journals        journals       Journal        Salaries      disposal      disposal        disposal        system        system       Creditors    Creditors
    and             and                         Journal                                                                                 Ledger       Ledger
analysis of     analysis of                    posting to                                                                                and          and
transaction     transaction                       the                                                                                   control      control
     s               s                          General                                                                                account      account
                                                Ledger


                                                                             SECOND TERM
 WEEK 1          WEEK 2          WEEK 3        WEEK 4         WEEK 5        WEEK 6          WEEK 7          WEEK 8        WEEK 9       WEEK 10      WEEK 11     WEEK 12
   Bank            Bank           Bank            Final         Final         Final           Final         Revision      Revision     Examina-     Examina-     Examina-
Reconciliatio   Reconciliatio   Reconciliati     Ledger        Ledger        Ledger          Ledger                                      tions        tions         tions
    n               n              on          accounts of   accounts of   accounts of     accounts of                                                          Discussion
                                  * Class        a Sole        a Sole        a Sole          a Sole                                                             of question
                                    Test         trader        trader        trader          trader                                                                paper

                                                                               THIRD TERM
 WEEK 1           WEEK2          WEEK 3        WEEK 4         WEEK 5        WEEK 6          WEEK 7          WEEK 8        WEEK 9       WEEK 10      WEEK 11     WEEK 12
Final Ledger     Financial       Financial      Financial     Financial      Financial       Financial     Partnership   Partnership   Revision *
accounts of     Statements      Statements     Statements    Statements    Statements      Statements           s             s        * Control
    a Sole        for Sole        for Sole      for Sole       for Sole       for Sole        for Sole                                    test
    trader         traders         traders       traders        traders        traders         traders
 Analysis of                    * Class test                                 Analysis        Analysis
 trnsactions                                                                     and             and
                                                                           interpretatio   interpretatio
                                                                                 n of            n of
                                                                             financial       financial
                                                                            statements      statements
                                                                                                  *
                                                                             FOURTH TERM
 WEEK 1           WEEK2          WEEK 3        WEEK 4         WEEK 5        WEEK 6          WEEK 7          WEEK 8        WEEK 9       WEEK 10      WEEK 11     WEEK 12
Partnerships    Partnerships    Partnerships   Partnership    Revision      Revision       Examina-        Examina-      Examina-
                                                    s                                        tions           tions         tions


                                                             Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                        26

                                                  GRADE 11 ACCOUNTING

         CONTENT                           INDICATORS OF ACHIEVEMENT                                   NOTES TO THE EDUCATOR
                                             Learners should be able to …
Grade 10 revision of subsidiary
journals

Accounting concepts and              Understand basic concepts and principles.                              Continuous emphasis of the basic
principles                                                                                                    principles, concepts and
                                                                                                              procedure is imperative

Journals dealt with in Grade 10      record transactions in books of first entry.

Ledger accounts                      post to the general and subsidiary ledgers.

Trial balance                        prepare a trial balance.

Accounting equation                  analyse transactions in respect of:                                    This must be dealt with
                                                                                                              continuously.
                                     -accounting equation
                                      -relevant source documents and supporting vouchers
                                                                                                             Whenever a new transaction is
                                      -books of first entry
                                                                                                              introduced this must be
                                      -account debit and account credit-
                                                                                                              understood.
                                      -relevant financial statement
Wages and salaries journal           complete a wages journal.                                           Learners must understand the
                                                                                                           difference between wages and
                                     complete a salaries journal.
                                                                                                           salaries: wages – weekly, sometimes
                                                                                                           paid in cash
                                                                                                           salaries – monthly , paid by cheque
                                                                                                           However, payments are mostly
                                                                                                           electronic these days.

                                     complete a payments journal in respect of wages and salaries
                                      related payments including payments of creditors in respect of
                                      deductions.
                                     calculate deductions: pension contributions, medical aid               Details in respect of deductions
                                      contributions, unemployment insurance, income tax and                   and overtime must be given.
                                      membership fees (staff association).                                    Income Tax is limited to PAYE.

                                                  Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                  27

                               calculate employer‟s contributions.
                               post to the general ledger.                                         

Disposal of fixed assets       record the sale of fixed assets at the beginning of a financial            Stress the recording procedure:
                                year at book value or at a profit or at a loss].
                                                                                                      a)     Transfer the cost price of the
                                                                                                           asset sold from the asset account
                               record the sale of fixed assets at the end of a financial year at          to the asset disposal account.
                                book value or at a profit or at a loss.
                                                                                                             b)      Transfer the accumulated
                                                                                                           depreciation on the asset
                               record the sale of fixed assets during the financial year at book          concerned to the asset disposal
                                value or at a profit or at a loss (HG ONLY).                               account

                                                                                                              c)      Enter the sales
                                                                                                           transaction
                                                                                                           cash sale (CRJ)
                                                                                                           credit sale (general journal)
                                                                                                           trade-in (general journal)

                                                                                                              d)      Transfer balance on asset
                                                                                                           disposal account to the profit on
                                                                                                           sale or loss on sale account

                                                                                                              e)      Transfer balance on profit
                                                                                                           or loss on sale account to the profit
                                                                                                           and loss account at the end of the
                                                                                                           financial year

                                                                                                    When a sale is recorded during the
                                                                                                    financial year, the pro rata depreciation for
                                                                                                    current year to date of sale must be
                                                                                                    provided.

Periodic inventory system      record transactions from documents or stated transactions in               Explain when periodic system is
                                the books of first entry according to the periodic inventory                used: when it‟s difficult or not
                                system.                                                                     feasible to calculate the cost of
                                                                                                            individual items due to small
                                                                                                            value and high volumes of
                                                                                                            turnover such as in a supermarket
                                                                                                            or departmental store.

                                            Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                      28

                                Cash receipts journal and Debtors‟ journal .                            Omit cost of sales column

                                Cash Payments journal and Creditors journal                             The column for trading stock is
                                                                                                         replaced with purchases.

                                Debtors‟ allowances journal                                             Sales returns are entered in this
                                                                                                         journal.
                                                                                                         Omit cost of sales column
                                                                                                         Debit debtors‟ allowances
                                                                                                         account in the general ledger

                                Creditors‟ allowances journal                                           Purchases returns are entered in
                                                                                                         this journal.
                                                                                                         Credit the creditors allowances
                                                                                                         account in the general ledger

                                   record withdrawal of trading stock by the owner at cost in the      debit drawings, credit purchases
                                    General Journal according to the periodic stock system.
                                   record donations of trading stock in the General Journal            debit donations, credit purchases
                                    according to the periodic stock system.                              with the cost price

                                   analyse transactions according to the period stock system.

Debtors and creditors control      understand the purpose, functions and basic principles of
accounts                            control accounts.

                                   post to control accounts from books of first entry.

                                   reconcile control account balances with the total of balances
                                    on account in the debtors and creditors ledgers.
                                   transfer between debtors and creditors ledgers and relevant         Use journal entries.
                                    control accounts (HG ONLY).
                                   correct the following types of errors (HG ONLY).                    distinguish between different
                                                                                                         methods of correcting errors.
                                -errors on source documents
                                                                                                         Issuing an authorised journal
                                -recording errors
                                                                                                         vouches for correction of error
                                -incorrect posting from books of first entry
                                -incorrect additions




                                                 Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                          29

Bank reconciliation                     complete a cash receipts and cash payments journal from a          Where bank reconciliation was
                                         bank statement and prepare a bank reconciliation statement          not dealt with in Grade 10, you
                                         after comparing the relevant documents.                             have to start with Grade 10
                                                                                                             differences which include:
                                        complete a cash receipts and cash payments journal from a
                                                                                                             a)       cheques outstanding
                                         bank statement and prepare a bank reconciliation statement
                                                                                                             b)       deposits not yet credited
                                         after from stated transactions and other related information.
                                                                                                                      by the bank
                                              Differences and additional transactions:                       c)       bank charges including
                                                                                                                      levy on credit card
                                         a)       Post-dated cheques received
                                                                                                                      transactions
                                         b)       Post dated cheques issued                                  d)       stop orders
                                                                                                             e)       dishonoured cheques
                                         c)       Bank reconciliation statement of the previous month        f)       interest on bank overdraft
                                         d)       Cheques stopped (payment stopped)                          g)       bank statement credits
                                                                                                                      not yet entered in the
                                                      -replaced                                                       CRJ
                                                      -cancelled
                                         e)       errors in the CRJ and CPJ
                                         f)       Salary cheques not yet presented for payment

Cycles of accounting activity           understand how the accounting cycle of a business operates.

Accounting controls                     understand the general principles of internal control.

                                        understand the various internal control procedures for cash
                                         and stock.


Final accounts of sole proprietors
                                                                                                           continuous emphasis of the basic
Relevant concepts and principles
                                         understand relevant business and accounting concepts and            principles, concepts and
                                         principles.                                                         procedures is imperative.

Accounting cycle                        understand the accounting cycle.




                                                      Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                        30

Adjustments of service and            know the reasons for year-end adjustments.
trading business
                                      record the adjustments in the general journal.
                                      Grade 10 adjustments and the following additional:
                                           adjustment of trading stock (continuous and periodic)
                                           consumable stores on hand
                                           provision for bad debts: creation, increase and decrease
Closing transfers                     journalise closing transfers and post to ledger.

Post-adjustment and post-closing      prepare and know the difference between the different trial
trial balance                          balances.

Trading account                       prepare final ledger accounts from given trial balances and
                                       additional information.
Profit and loss account

Accounting equation                   analyse all transactions in respect of:
                                           -its effect on the accounting equation
                                           -relevant source documents
                                           -relevant books of first entry
                                           -relevant entries in the ledger accounts
Financial statements of sole          prepare the income statement.                                      Learners need a thorough grasp
proprietors                                                                                                of final accounts before
                                      Prepare the balance sheet.
                                                                                                           commencing with this section of
                                      prepare notes to the financial statements.                          the work.

                                                                                                          Learners should be taught that
                                                                                                           the notes to the financial
                                                                                                           statements form an integral part
                                                                                                           of the financial statements and
                                                                                                           should be completed in
                                                                                                           accordance with the latest
                                                                                                           formats.




                                                   Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                      31

Analysis and Interpretation of      determine and interpret net current assets.                     This will develop the logical
financial statements (HG ONLY)                                                                        thought processes of learners.
                                    determine and interpret degree of solvency.
                                    determine and interpret degree of liquidity -                   Learners should know the
                                     -current ratio                                                   formulae and be able to calculate
                                     -acid test ratio                                                 the relevant ratios, which should
                                                                                                      enable them to make informed
                                    determine and interpret degree of profitability -
                                                                                                      decisions.
                                     -percentage gross profit to turnover
                                     -percentage net income to turnover
                                     -percentage net income to opening owner‟s equity
                                     -percentage net income to average owner‟s equity
                                    determine and interpret rate of stock turnover.
Partnerships                        know what a partnership is.
                                    know the advantages and disadvantage of partnerships and
                                     the need for partnership agreements.
Additional ledger accounts          draw up ledger accounts unique to partnerships -
                                     -partners‟ capital accounts
                                     -salary accounts
                                     -interest on capital accounts
                                     -drawings accounts
                                     -current accounts (dr and cr balances)


Trading account                     complete final ledger accounts bearing in mind adjustments      all the adjustments dealt with
                                     and stipulations.                                                under sole proprietors are
Profit and loss account                                                                               applicable here.

Appropriation account

Income statement                    complete the financial statements of a partnership.

Balance sheet

Notes to financial statements




                                                 Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                                     32

Analysis and interpretation of      analyse and interpret financial statements using formulae.      Include ratios treated under sole
financial statements (HG ONLY)                                                                        trader plus:
                                                                                                      -total amount earned by each
                                                                                                      partner
                                                                                                      -percentage return earned by
                                                                                                      each partner on his investment in
                                                                                                      the partnership
                                                                                                      debt/equity ratio




                                                 Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                33
ACCOUNTING LEARNING EXPERIENCE

Designing a learning experience from a topic of the interim syllabus using OBE principles.

GRADE 10

TOPIC

Year-end adjustments and financial statements

TOTAL ESTIMATED TIME:              3 Hours

1. LEARNING OUTCOMES

Learners will be able to:
      know the reason for year-end adjustments.
      enter the adjustements in the journal.
      post from the journal to the general ledger.
      explain the effect of the adjustments on the financial statements.
      analyse the transactions and the effect it has on the accounting equation.

2. WHAT THE EDUCATOR WILL DO

     Design appropriate learning activities in order to realise the intended learning
      outcomes.

     Facilitate group work activities, simulations

     Design and apply assessment strategies

     Manage time

3. WHAT THE LEARNER WILL DO

     Explain the concepts to one another

     In groups or pairs learners will discuss the different adjustments from the given
      exercises before attempting to record these in the journal

     When the teacher has given learners the opportunity to give feedback to the class and
      when he/she is confident that all learners understand what and how to do it, the class
      will then proceed with the practical application.

     Enter the transactions in the general journal


                             Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                 34
     Post from the journal to the General Ledger

     Explain the effect of the adjustments on the financial statements.
     Analyse transactions and its effect on the accounting equation

4.   HOW THE LEARNERS WILL BE ASSESSED

     Learners will be given recognition for prior learning
     Self/Peer/Group/Educator assessment
     Simulations
     Oral questions and answers by learners
     Test and class quiz

5.   RESOURCES

     Stationery
     Text book
     Calculator
     Appropriate exercises

6.   HOW THE CLASSROOM WILL BE ORGANISED

     Desks to be arranged in horse shoe groups of four (two side by side and head on with
      another two – learners sides pointing towards the front of the classroom.)

7.   HOW EXPANDED OPPORTUNITIES AND SPECIAL NEEDS WILL BE CATERED FOR

     Additional exercises to be given to those learners who need more opportunities.




                              Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                 35
ACCOUNTING LEARNING EXPERIENCE FOR GRADE 11

Designing a learning experience from a topic of the interim syllabus using OBE principles.

GRADE 11

TOPIC

Year-end adjustments and Financial Statements of Partnerships.

TOTAL ESTIMATED TIME:              15 Hours

4. LEARNING OUTCOMES

Learners will be able to:
      Record of transactions typical to partnerships
      Know the reason for year-end adjustments.
      Record the adjustments and appropriation in the journal.
      Post from the journal to the general ledger.
      Record the effect of the adjustments and appropriation in the financial statements.
      Analyse the transactions and their effect on the accounting equation.
      Analyse and interpret financial statements. (HG only)

5. WHAT THE EDUCATOR WILL DO

      Design appropriate learning activities in order to realise the intended learning
       outcomes.
           1.   Choose relevant exercises
           2.   Prepare memo for the exercises
      Facilitate group work activities, simulations
           3.   Group learners into manageable numbers
           4.   Provide each group with a memo
      Design and apply assessment strategies
           5.   Give credit for satisfactory completion of homework
           6.   Have controlled class work exercises
      Manage time




                              Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                                 36


6. WHAT THE LEARNER WILL DO

     Enter the transactions in the general journal
     Post from the journal to the General Ledger
     Explain the effect of the adjustments on the financial statements.
     Analyse transactions and their effect on the accounting equation
     Learners must be able to use the memo to
     Explain the concepts to one another
     Discuss the different adjustments from the given exercises in groups or pairs
     Journalise the adjustments
     Give feedback to the class
     Learners will proceed with more exercises

8.   HOW THE LEARNERS WILL BE ASSESSED

     Learners will be given recognition for prior learning
     Self/Peer/Group/Educator assessment
     Simulations
     Oral questions and answers by learners
     Test and class quiz

9.   RESOURCES

     Stationery
     Text book
     Calculator
     Appropriate exercises
     Worksheet /Memo

10. HOW THE CLASSROOM WILL BE ORGANISED

     Desks to be arranged in groups of four




                              Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                             37

11. HOW EXPANDED OPPORTUNITIES AND SPECIAL NEEDS WILL BE CATERED FOR

   Additional exercises to be given to those learners who need more opportunities. The
    following SKVA‟s are obtained in the exercises.

    Skills:
    Analysis
    Interpretation
    Application
    Recording
    Mathematical ratios

    Knowledge:
    Principles of Accounting regarding partnerships
    Accounting Equation
    Bookkeeping

    Values and Attitudes:
    Honesty
    Fairness
    Clarity of thought
    Accountability




                          Transition guideline – Grade 10 and 11
                                           38


                                  ASSESSMENT

Assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning. It provides the Accounting
educator with a means of determining the learners‟ understanding of the subject,
whether there has been progress, and diagnosing problems to improve future
performance. It is a systematic gathering of information about what learners know
and are able to do.




                     Continuous Assessment (CASS) is
                     planned, systematic and the ongoing use
                     of assessment strategies to assist learner
                     progress




In Outcomes Based Education effective assessment will be underpinned by the
following principles:



 Appropriateness      The methods and techniques must be appropriate to the
                      knowledge, skills or attitudes to be assessed as well as the
                      developmental level of the learner

 Fairness             The method of assessment does not present any barriers to
                      achievements, which are not related to the evidence.

 Manageability        The methods used are cost effective and do not interfere with
                      learning.

 Integration into     Evidence collected is integrated into the learning process
 work/learning        where this is appropriate

 Validity             The assessment is fit for purpose.

 Authenticity         The assessor is satisfied that the work being assessed is
                      attributable to the person being assessed.

 Systematic           Planning and recording is sufficiently rigorous to ensure that
                      assessment is fair.

 Open                 Learners can contribute to the planning and accumulation of
                      evidence. Learners understand the purpose of assessment as
                      well as the assessment process and the criteria that will
                      apply.



                            Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                                          39
                   EXAMINATION                             CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT
                   NO. OF      TIME ALLOCATED              ACTIVITIES                              MARKS
                   MARKS
GRADE 10 – JUNE    HG – 300    2½ hours                    At least:                    25 marks   150 (75x2)
                   SG – 200                                1 controlled test
                   Reduced to                              At least:                    25 marks
                   150                                     2 classroom activities
                                                           At least:                    25 marks
                                                           1 learner file and learner
                                                           involvement assessment
GRADE 10 – FINAL   HG – 400     3 hours                    See Grade 10 breakdown                  HG – 200
                   Reduced to                                                                      SG – 150
                   200
                   SG – 300
                   Reduced to
                   150
GRADE 11 – JUNE    HG –300      2½ hours                   At least:                    25 marks   HG – 100
                   SG – 225                                1 controlled test                       SG – 75
                                                           At least:                    25 marks
                                                           2 classroom activities
                                                           At least:                    25 marks
                                                           1 learner file and learner
                                                           involvement assessment
GRADE 11 – FINAL   HG – 400     3 hours                    See Grade 11 breakdown                  HG – 100
                   Reduced to                                                                      SG – 75
                   300
                   SG – 300
                   Reduced to
                   225




                                           Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                              40


                                    GRADE 10

CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT (CASS) OR School Based
Assessment (SBA) = 50%
                                                                     Marks
                               Learner Portfolio
Assessment area
                                Requirements
                                                                HG           SG

Examination (raw mark)                   1                      40           30

Controlled tests                         3                      40           30

Classroom activities                     6                      40           30

Daily learner involvement          Assessment                   40           30
                                 recorded at least
                               three times per year

Project with a research                  1                      40           30
component including an oral
presentation of the project

Total CASS Mark                                                200           150



                                                          400 reduced   300 reduced
Total Examination Mark
                                                             to 200        to 150

                       TOTAL                                         100%




                               Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                              41




                                    GRADE 11

CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT (CASS) OR School Based
Assessment (SBA) = 25%
                                                                     Marks
                               Learner Portfolio
Assessment area
                                Requirements
                                                                HG           SG

Examination (raw mark)                   1                      20           15

Controlled tests                         3                      20           15

Classroom activities                     6                      20           15

Learner involvement                Assessment                   20           15
                                 recorded at least
                               three times per year

Project with a research                  1                      20           15
component

Total CASS Mark                                                100           75



                                                          400 reduced   300 reduced
Total Examination Mark
                                                             to 300        to 225

                       TOTAL                                         100%




                               Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                             42
EXAMINATIONS

   Examinations during the year serve as a preparation for the final examination.
   The duration and mark allocation suggested for examinations is indicated in the given
    table.
   Internal school moderation of the question paper and answer scripts must be
    undertaken.
   When calculating the examination mark to be included in CASS, the raw mark must be
    used. This would be the mark the learner has achieved in the June/September
    examination only excluding all continuous assessment marks.


CONTROLLED TESTS

   Controlled tests should be done by all classes in the same grade on the same day.
   All learners should do the same test.
   Internal school moderation of question paper and answer scripts should be
    undertaken.
   Controlled tests should be done under examination conditions.
   Questions should comply with final examination standards.
   Where there is more than one educator, agreement should be reached on the scope
    and time of the test.
   The duration of controlled tests should be one hour. The mark allocation should be:
    HG – 100 (minimum)
    SG – 75 (minimum)


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES/TASKS

   This refers to daily classroom activities/tasks.
   These activities should be conducted during class time.
   Each educator will be responsible for the planning and implementation of his/her own
    class‟s activities/tasks.
   These activities/tasks should be given on a regular basis and at the discretion of the
    educator.
   There is no limit to the number of activities/tasks given and assessed, but marks
    should be awarded for a minimum of six activities/tasks.
   Examples of such activities are inter alia: unannounced marking of homework (e.g.
    proof-reading), class work, textbook exercises, open book tests, etc.
   The activities should include the full scope of the syllabus.




                              Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                                43
PROJECT

Learners should be given the necessary guidance prior to commencement of the project and
progress should be monitored.
When preparing a project, consider these minimum requirements.

     A front page.
     A table of contents (where applicable).
     Contents:     Typed: 3-4 pages
                    Written: 5-6 pages

     Text must be divided into paragraphs
     Text references and bibiliography must be indicated.
     Pictures, photos, diagrams and graphs may be included.
     The project must be bound or stapled in an acceptable way.
     Projects can be completed either individually or in groups, with a maximum of 4
      learners. (Ideally 2-3 learners per project)


LEARNER INVOLVEMENT
     This component includes completion of class activities, learner‟s attitude and
      participation in classroom activities, punctuality, initiative, resourcefulness, neatness,
      thoroughness and attention to detail.
     This component should be assessed at least once per term.
     Criteria for the assessment of this component is included as addendum B.3
     Evidence of the assessment of this component must be included in the learners‟
      portfolios. Addendum B.3 can be used for this purpose. Addendum B.1 can be used by
      the educator for recording the assessment of this component in the Educator‟s records.




                                 Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                                 44
ADDENDUM A

MODERATION CHECKLIST

ACCOUNTING: CASS PORTFOLIOS

GRADE:

NAME OF SCHOOL:

DISTRICT/EMDC:

PROVINCE:

NAME OF MODERATOR:                                        DESIGNATION:

1. JUNE EXAM
1.1   Educator Portfolio
    o Question paper set according to
      examination guidelines
    o Evidence of memorandum
    o Accurate recording of marks
1.2   Learner Portfolio
    o Evidence of June examination in
      learner‟s portfolio


2. CONTROLLED TESTS                               YES       NO        COMMENT

2.1     Educator Portfolio
    o Evidence of three question papers
    o Evidence of memoranda to 3 tests
    o Accurate recording of marks
2.2     Learner Portfolio
o       Evidence of controlled tests available
   in learner‟s portfolio


3.     CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES                       YES       NO        COMMENT

3.1    Educator Portfolio
o      Evidence of a minimum of six class
   activities
o      Evidence of assessment instruments
   of six tests
o      Evidence of accurate recording of
   learners' test marks



                                 Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                                45

3.2     Learner Portfolio
      o Were class activities evenly spread
        throughout the three terms?

4.    LEARNER INVOLVEMENT                         YES       NO        COMMENT
4.1   Educator Portfolio
    o Evidence of continuous assessment
      having taken place
    o Evidence of accurate recording of
      learners' learner involvement marks
4.2   Learner Portfolio
    o Evidence of continuous assessment
      of learner involvement having taken
      place

5.      PROJECT                                   YES       NO        COMMENT
5.1     Educator Portfolio
      o Evidence of project being set
        according to criteria
      o Evidence of assessment rubric
    o Evidence of accurate recording of
      learners' project marks
5.2   Learner Portfolio
    o Evidence of projects according to set
      criteria
    o Projects assessed according to set
      rubric
6.   GENERAL REMARKS




SIGNATURE OF MODERATOR                                            DATE




SIGNATURE OF EDUCATOR OR                                          DATE
DISTRICT REPRESENTATIVE
                                 Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                      9
                                      8
                                      7
                                      6
                                      5
                                      4
                                      3
                                      2
                                      1
                                                                         #




                                     12
                                     11
                                     10
                                                                                                                                                GRADE:
                                                                                                                                                         ACCOUNTING
                                                                                                                                                                      ADDENDUM B.1




                                                                         NAME OF LEARNER




                                          Marks 
                                          5
                                                     Doing homework regularly

                                                     Learner involvement in daily




                                          5
                                                     classroom activities
                                                     Has the necessary textbooks
                                                                                                                    st




                                          5
                                                     and exercise books in class

                                          5         Makes the necessary corrections
                                                                                                                 1 TERM




                                          5

                                                    Class attendance and punctuality
                                                                                           ASSESSMENT CRITERIA




                                                     Completeness and neatness of
                                          5




                                                     work
                                                                                                                                                                                     46




                                          5




                                                     Doing homework regularly

                                                     Learner involvement in daily
                                          5




                                                     classroom activities

                                                     Has the necessary textbooks
                                          5
                                                                                                                    nd




Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                                     and exercise books in class
                                          5




                                                    Makes the necessary corrections
                                                                                                                          LEARNER INVOLVEMENT

                                                                                                                 2 TERM




                                          5




                                                    Class attendance and punctuality
                                                                                           ASSESSMENT CRITERIA




                                                     Completeness and neatness of
                                          5




                                                     work
                                          5




                                                     Doing homework regularly

                                                     Learner involvement in daily
                                          5




                                                     classroom activities

                                                     Has the necessary textbooks
                                          5
                                                                                                                    rd




                                                     and exercise books in class
                                          5




                                                    Makes the necessary corrections
                                                                                                                 3 TERM




                                          5




                                                    Class attendance and punctuality
                                                                                           ASSESSMENT CRITERIA




                                                     Completeness and neatness of
                                          5




                                                     work
                                          90




                                                     FINAL MARK

                                                     CONVERTED MARK
                                                                   47
ADDENDUM B.2
LEARNER INVOLVEMENT ASSESSMENT GRID

NAME OF LEARNER

GRADE

TERM



CRITERIA                                                                    SELF         PEER   EDUCATOR   FINAL

Doing homework regularly

Learner involvement in daily classroom activities
Has the necessary textbooks and exercise books in class

Makes the necessary corrections

Class attendance and punctuality
Completeness and neatness of work
TOTAL (OUT OF 30 MARKS)




                                                    Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                                                              48
ADDENDUM B.3
CRITERIA FOR ASSESSMENT OF LEARNER INVOLVEMENT
(These aspects should be negotiated with the learners to establish the standards expected)


CRITERIA                 5                         4                           3                          2                         1
                         Excellent                 Exceeds requirements        Meets the requirements     Does not meet             Very little effort – needs
                                                                                                          requirements – needs      substantial support
                                                                                                          support
                         Homework always done      Homework not done           Homework usually done      Homework quite often      Homework seldom done
Doing homework
                         – even after absence      only under exceptional      – excuses mostly           not done – poor
regularly
                         due to illness            circumstances               acceptable                 excuses offered
                         Always participates       Participates                Participates adequately,   Does not often            Very seldomly
                         most enthusiastically –   enthusiastically most of    co-operates at times.      participate, not always   participates, rather
                         keen interest and         the time, positive                                     well-behaved, does not    disruptive and shows a
Learner involvement in   knowledge of the          attitude, has a strong                                 always co-operate well    complete lack of
daily classroom          subject. Made an          influence on the                                       and does not show         interest.
activities               invaluable contribution   classroom atmosphere.                                  much interest in the
                         to the classroom                                                                 subject.
                         atmosphere -
                         exemplary attitude.
                         Always – no exceptions    Books always available      Books mostly available     Books are quite often     Books seldom available
Has the necessary
                                                   – only not available in     – has acceptable           not available –           – poor excuses offered
textbooks, exercise
                                                   exceptional                 excuses when not           sometimes with
books and writing
                                                   circumstances with          available                  unacceptable excuses
materials in class
                                                   acceptable excuses
                         Corrections always        Corrections only in         Corrections mostly         Corrections quite often   Corrections seldom
                         meticulously done         exceptional                 done – when not done,      not done –                done – with
Makes the necessary
                                                   circumstances not done      acceptable excuses         unacceptable excuses      unacceptable excuses
corrections
                                                   – acceptable excuses        given                      given
                                                   given
                         Always punctual – no     Only in exceptional         Sometimes not punctual Quite often not punctual       Very often not punctual
Class attendance and     exceptions               circumstances not           - with exceptional            – with unacceptable     – with no or
punctuality                                       punctual – with             excuses                       excuses                 unacceptable excuses
                                                  acceptable excuses
NOTE: When there is no evidence of any of the above criteria, a zero (0) may be allocated for that particular criteria.




                                                            Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                                 49

ADDENDUM C

EXAMPLES OF PROJECTS

GRADE 10 - EXAMPLE 1

Study and then compare any four products provided by two financial institutions.

Research

Visit the two financial institutions and find out which products they offer. Some of the
products you could consider are:

   current accounts – overdraft facilities, debit order facilities, etc.
   personal loans – limits, security required, etc.
   mortgage bonds – interest over 20 years, etc.
   credit card facilities – special services, interest, etc.
   deposits – interest, etc.

Interview customers of the institutions to find out what they think of the personal financial
services of that institution.

Required

1.    Write a full report on each product/service of the institutions.
2. Compare the product/service of the two institutions.
3. Write a report on the interviews with the clients.
4. Analyse the financial statements of the institutions, commenting on their soundness
    and liquidity. (HG ONLY)

GRADE 10 – EXAMPLE 2

“Plastic money” Very few people today use cash for daily transactions. Research the use
of „cards‟ in daily transactions, including the following aspects.

 History of use of cards
 The difference between the different cards including credit cards, debit cards and
  charge cards.
 How does one go about applying for these cards. (copies of applications forms may be
  attached. What are the criteria for the issuing of the different types of cards?
 Interest rates of the different cards
 What are the advantages of each of them
 What are the disadvantages of each of them




                                  Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                                50

GRADE 11 – EXAMPLE 1

Compare the perpetual (continuous) and periodic inventory systems. Select two
organisations of which one is using the perpetual (continuous) inventory system and the
other the periodic inventory system. Visit these two organisations and write a report on
how these two systems work in practice.

Instructions

1.       Study the theory underlying the two systems and indicate the following:

    What are the major differences between the two systems
    What are the advantages of each system
    What are the disadvantages of each system
    Indicate the purpose of physical stock taking in each system
    Indicate the method used in each system to determine the value of trading stock in
     each system.

2. Visit the two businesses and write a report on what you encountered in respect of each
   system with emphasis on the following:

        The type of system used
        Control measures used
        Ordering procedures
        Stock turnover rate

GRADE 11 – EXAMPLE 2

When deciding on starting a business one of the decisions you have to make is the form of
ownership of your business. Each form of ownership has its own advantages,
disadvantages, requirements, etc.

Iinstructions

Research the following forms of ownership.
   Sole Trader
   Partnership
   Close Corporation
   Company

1.       You are required to report on:
        Ownership
        Advantages
        Disadvantages
        Unique features
        Legal requirements

2.       Compare the accounting procedures of the Sole Trader and Partnership



                                 Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                                                                 51
ADDENDUM D

RUBRIC FOR ASSESSMENT OF PROJECT

CRITERIA           5                                   4                              3                         2                          1
                   Excellent                           Exceeds                        Meets the                 Does not meet              Very little effort –
                                                       requirements                   requirements              requirements – needs       needs substantial
                                                                                                                support                    support
PLANNING           Most practical planning             Very good, practical           Good planning             Planning schedule not      Planning schedule
                   schedule, independently drawn       planning schedule, with        schedule, with a only a   totally practical - a      totally impractical -
                   up by learner                       only minor adjustments         small number of           reasonable degree of       totally new planning
                                                       necessary                      adjustments necessary     adjustments needed         necessary
QUALITY OF         Wide variety of sources used        More than required             Adequate number of        Less than adequate         Only school text
RESEARCH                                               number of sources              sources used              number of sources          book(s) used
                                                       used                                                     used
CONTINUOUS         A lot of information collected on   More than adequate             Adequate information      Less than adequate         Very little information
COLLECTION         a continuous basis / submitted      information collected /        collected on a            information collected /    collected/ due dates
OF                 before due dates                    submitted before/on            continuous basis /        very few due dates met     seldom honoured
INFORMATION                                            due dates                      submitted on due dates
AND MATERIAL
FINAL              Unique presentation of              Original presentation -        Standard presentation -   Requirements have          Minimal input has been
PRODUCT:           extremely high quality              based upon existing            content is relevant and   been adhered to            given
ORIGINALITY /                                          ideas                          interesting
CREATIVITY
FINAL              In-depth presentation pertaining    Relevant and well              Relevant content,         Some part of content is    Very little effort made -
PRODUCT:           to real world practice / evidence   researched                     shows good insight,       relevant - partly copied   content mostly copied
QUALITY OF         is shown of insight into            presentation - Learner         area of research          directly from sources -    directly from sources
CONTENT            relationship between subject        demonstrates very              adequately covered        insight lacking
                   theory and real world practice      good insight
TECHNICAL          Proof of pride and very hard        Excellent presentation - Good final project          Minimal effort made -          Very little effort made -
QUALITY            work - impressive final product     made full use of                                     presentation still             untidy, shabby
(Appearance /                                          available                                            acceptable                     presentation
display /                                              sources/technology
accuracy /
neatness
NOTE: When there is no evidence of any of the above criteria, a zero (0) may be allocated for those particular criteria.




                                                             Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                             52

ADDENDUM E

ASSESSMENT FOR PROJECT

NAME OF LEARNER

GRADE

DATE SUBMITTED

TOPIC OF PROJECT



CRITERIA                                               MARK AWARDED

                                   Self            Peer/Group Consensus Educator


1. Planning

2. Quality of research

3. Continuous collection of
   information and material
4. Final product:
   Originality/creativity

5. Final product:
   Quality of content
6. Technical quality


Total out of 30


Converted to:




NAME OF EDUCATOR                                    DATE




                              Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                          53
ADDENDUM F



                 DECLARATION OF AUTHENTICITY


NAME OF SCHOOL
NAME OF LEARNER
GRADE




I hereby declare that ALL ITEMS contained in this portfolio, are my own, original
work and that where I made use of any source, I have acknowledged this. These
items have also not previously been submitted for moderation.




Signature of LEARNER:                           DATE:




As far as I know, the above statement by the learner is true and I accept that the
work offered is his/her own.




Signature of EDUCATOR:                          DATE:




                           Transition Guidelines - Accounting
                                           54

                              ACCOUNTING CASS

                         Checklist for learner portfolio

Name of learner



Grade



Portfolio    Assessment activity                    Checked
Index
                                                    Self        Educator

A            Declaration of authenticity

B            Checklist

C            Examination(s)

D            Controlled tests (minimum of 3)

E            Classroom activities (minimum of
             6)

F            Project (one with assessment)

G            Learner involvement (evidence of
             1 assessment per term)




                           Transition Guidelines - Accounting

				
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