IFL World War II part 5 by kimho

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Preparation Course
World History and Geography

NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.)


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                                                  Disclaimer
The views expressed in this presentation are solely personal
   views of the author, they DO NOT reflect the official
   position(s) of the General Department of Policy and
   Foreign Affairs OR the Ministry of National Defense of
   Cambodia.




by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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World War II Ended




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Causes of the Cold War
  World War II ended without much resolutions to many
     problems in South-East Asia, Eastern Europe, Korea,
     and the Middle East.

  Just like in WWI and WWII, these unsolved problems
     created frictions between the US and the Soviet Union.

  Also after WWII, decolonization, the creation of new
     states with contending nations, the division of sphere of
     influence, and ideological conflicts brought the US to
     the Cold War against the Soviet Union.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Again and Again and Again…
 But this time was different




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Causes of the Cold War
  Even before WWII ended, the civil war in Greek broke
     out between the communist elements and the non-
     communist elements.

  When WWII ended, questions arose over the status of
     conquered countries. While the US wanted self-
     determination for those countries, the Soviet Union
     wanted sphere of influence. That created mistrust and
     friction between the two power.


by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Causes of the Cold War
  After the end of WWII, President Truman initiated a
     “Truman Doctrine” to support all non-communist forces
     starting with the Greek.

  In March 1948, the government in Czechoslovakia was
     overthrown by a communist take over.

  Germany was initially divided into three sectors: Soviet,
     British and American. The Soviet Union denied the
     French participation, but Britain and the US created a
     sector within their own for France.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Causes of the Cold War – The Berlin Wall
  Because people ran away from the hardship in East
     Germany into the more prosperous West Germany, the
     Soviet Union demanded a Western control. But the West
     still upheld self-determination.

  As a retaliation, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on
     Berlin in May 1948.

  The Allies concluded that the Berlin Blockade (24 June
     1948 – 12 May 1949) was proof that Stalin wanted to
     dominate all of Europe.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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 Berlin Airlift




by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Causes of the Cold War – Economic and Military
  In 1947, to prevent a second Great Depression, the
     Marshall Plan was announced. This was aid packages to
     the Western European countries.

  In April 1949, representatives from twelve countries met
     in Washington, DC, to discuss the creation of a collective
     security system, or North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

  The 12 countries are: USA, France, Holland, Belgium,
     Iceland, Italy, Portugal, Norway, Denmark, Luxembourg,
     UK, Canada.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Causes of the Cold War – Economic and Military
  In 1952, in response to NATO, Eastern European countries
     started to rearm with the support of the Soviet Union. But no
     treaty existed as yet.
  In 1954, NATO admitted West Germany and allowed German
     rearmament, which alerted the East, espeically Poland.
  In 14 June 1955, 7 countries formed a collective security
     alliance signed at Warsaw. The Warsaw Pact included:
     Albania, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, Poland,
     Czechoslovakia, and the USSR.
  In 1956, the Warsaw Pact troops first demonstrated their
     power in putting down an uprising in Hungary.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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The Arab-Israeli conflicts (1): War of Independence (1948)
  Britain was left with a mandate to control and area
   called Palestine after WWI.

  After WWII, Britain were beaten by local irregular
   forces and were forced to leave Palestine independent.

  However, the United Nations partitioned Palestine
   between Arabs and Jews and that sparked the war in
   1948 between the Arabs and Israel, the new Jewish state.

  Each side went to find their own superpower bosses, the
   US (Israel) and the USSR (Arabs).

by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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 The Arab-Israeli conflicts (2): Suez Crisis (1956)

  The second major war was the closing of the Suez canal
   and the intervention of France, Israel, and Britain in
   1956.

  That was the “Suez Crisis”.


  Nasser was able to rally support behind him by
   exaggerating the conflicting relationship with Israel. He
   always talked about pushing Israel to the sea.




by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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 The Arab-Israeli conflicts (3): Six Days War (1967)
  In the years following the Suez or Sinai War, Egypt used
   the threat to Israel to increase popular support for the
   regime.
  Following this constant threat, Israel became paranoid
   and in 1967, it decided that it had to preempt Egypt or
   risk getting itself destroyed.
  The preemptive war took Egypt by surprise and
   eventually Israel controlled most of the land of Egypt as
   a result of that war.
  The war was so successful that it took only 6 days to
   complete. International pressure mounted and forced
   Israel to stop.


by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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  The Arab-Israeli conflicts (4): Yum Kippour War(1973)
 As a result of the loss of land and humiliation resulting from
    the war, Egypt launched a third war, the 1973 “Yum Kippour
    War” which almost overran Israel.

 While the 1973 war with Israel was damaging for the image of
    Egypt as regional power as it was always defeated in War.

 This forced the Egyptian
regime to find a solution.
Nasser was wad already dead
 in 1970 and Sadat came to
power.



by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Result of the 1973 War
Egypt and its allies were successful in the early period but
 then was pushed back by Israel because they failed to
 cooperate to attack Israel.

Egypt did gained surprise and took some land as a result,
 especially the Sinai peninsula.

The result of the war was the Camp David peace accord
 which created peace between Egypt and Israel, essentially
 a peace between the Arab world and Israel.

The peace was essentially an attempt by both the US and
 the Soviet Union to prevent escalation.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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  Decolonization
Communist Offensive




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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 End of the War in the Pacific
  After the atomic bombs were dropped in Japan, the
   Soviet Union started their invasion of Manchuria and
   the Korean Peninsula.

  In 1946, the Soviet left Manchuria but transferred arms
   to the Chinese communist who later forced the
   Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek to Taiwan in
   October 1949.

  Mao Tse-tung proclaimed the People’s Republic of
   China. Later, China signed mutual aid pact with the
   Soviet Union.

by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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 End of the War in the Pacific – New Wars began
 Korean War 1950-53
  When the Soviet retreated from the Korean Peninsula
   in 1948, they left behind a People’s Republic under
   Kim Il Sung.
  The Allies supported the Republic of Korea and it was
   divided with North Korea in 1949 at the 38th Parallel.
  By 1950, both Korea claimed legitimacy in an eventual
   unification.
  On June 25th, 1950, 9 divisions and 135,000 troops of
   the North Korean People’s Army (NKPA) invaded the
   South.


by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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 End of the War in the Pacific – New Wars began
 Korean War 1950-53
  Initial surprise pushed the South Koreans and the
   Allies until the southern city of Pusan.
  On 15th September, 1950, the Allies consolidated after
   arrival of new units from Japan and landed at Inchon.
  On 25th September, 1950, Seoul was recaptured by the
   Allies.
  1st October, 1950, MacArthur ordered an invasion of
   the North.
  24th November 1950, MacArthur approached the Yalu
   river and believed the war would be over by Christmas.


by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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 End of the War in the Pacific – New Wars began
 Korean War 1950-53
  26th November, 1950, an estimated 300,000 troops of
   the Chinese People’s Volunteers crossed the Yalu river
   and beat the US and UN forces back.
  The US, UN, and Allies forces retreated until early
   January 1951 when it stabilized the front 70 miles south
   of Seoul.
  The Allies (UN+US) pushed back and recaptured
   Seoul on 14th March, 1951. Confusion on the Allies
   occurred as to whether continue to invade the North.
  On 23rd June 1951 agreed to find a solution to the
   conflict.

by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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 End of the War in the Pacific – New Wars began
 Korean War 1950-53
  On 8th July 1951, the belligerents met at Kaesong and
   was later moved to Panmunjom.

  But no agreement could be reached for the conflicts.
   And fighting continued for two more years.

  After the death of Stalin on 5th March 1953, the
   Armistice talked progressed and was finally signed at
   Panmunjom on 27th July 1953.



by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Vietnam: The US went too far
  Up until this point, the Soviet Union never went to war
     directly. The US, however, went to war openly in Korea
     and even against the Chinese.

  The war in Korea was largely a success for the US who
     can protect a non-communist country from communist
     aggression.

  When Vietnam was about to fall, the US came in again
     in the hope of replicating the success in Korea.


by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Vietnam: The US went too far
  Beginning in 1954, the US started deploying “military
     advisers” to Vietnam to assist the South Vietnamese
     government in fighting the insurgency. The Kennedy
     administration reformed the organization in 1962.

  However, a combination of coups and corruptions within
     the South Vietnamese government severely weakened
     the military. The personnel in the above organization
     increased from less than 1,ooo to 11,300 in 1963.


by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Vietnam: The US went too far
  In early 1965, the US started deploying the combat units.
     By the end of 1965, the Johnson administration have
     deployed 185,000 troops.

  At its peak in 1968-1969, the number of US troops in
     Vietnam swelled to half a million men (543,000).

  In 1968, during the Tet new year, the North Vietnamese
     army launched a surprise attack that overran many
     symbolic places in South Vietnam, including the US
     embassy.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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From Vietnam to Afghanistan
  The incident was widely reported in the US media and
     the US public began to turn against the war.

  The US finally started pulling out of Vietnam in 1969. In
     1975, Saigon fell to the communist rule.

  Since Vietnam, the US was averse towards intervention
     abroad.

  On the other hand, the Soviet Union was eager to do so.
     In 1978, a leftist government came to power in
     Afghanistan and enacted any reforms.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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From Vietnam to Afghanistan
  One of the reforms was the emancipation of women,
     much to the dismay of the Taliban who were mostly
     against such an idea.

  When the rebels advanced on the countryside, the
     government called for Soviet help, which the latter
     eagerly provided in 1979.

  While the rebels were beaten at first, the US started to
     supply then with weapons and the Soviet eventually
     withdrew in 1988.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Wealth determines success in an ideological conflict
  At the time, the Soviet economy reached its limit. To
     make matters worse, while supporting a major war in
     Afghanistan, the Soviet also had to support Vietnam and
     Cambodia in another war in Indochina.

  In March 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the
     USSR. He adopted “glasnost” (openness) and
     “perestroika” (political and economic restructuring).

  He also undid many causes of the Cold War.


by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Wealth determines success in an ideological conflict
  1. Gorbachev resumed negotiation with the US on the
     reduction of nuclear weapons.

  2. Gorbachev allowed the Berlin Wall to be dismantled
     on 9th November 1989, which marked the end of German
     division, and the Cold War.

  3. Many Eastern European countries and former satellite
     states also gained independence.




by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Wealth determines success in an ideological conflict
  Most military figures in the Gorbachev cabinet were not
     very happy with the breakup and staged a coup that
     failed in August 1991.

  Between August 20 and 31st 1991, states under the Soviet
     Union started to secede. December 25th 1991, Gorbachev
     resigned. December 26th, the Soviet parliament passed a
     resolution admitting the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
     On 31st of December 1991, all residual functions of the
     state ceased. The Soviet Union was dissolved.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Main characteristics of the Cold War
  The Cold War was an “ideological” conflict between the
     two superpowers at the time, the United States and the
     Soviet Union. There are at least five main characteristics
     of the Cold War.
        No fighting

        Alliance system

        Hostility and Détente

        Ideology determines alliance

        Covert War

by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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