IFL World War II part 3 by kimho

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Preparation Course
World History and Geography

NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.)


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                                                  Disclaimer
The views expressed in this presentation are solely personal
   views of the author, they DO NOT reflect the official
   position(s) of the General Department of Policy and
   Foreign Affairs OR the Ministry of National Defense of
   Cambodia.




by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Living Space Ideology
   Treaties of Peace
     Pacts of War
        Crises
         War




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Failure of the treaty approach
  The interwar years (1919-1939) saw the greatest effort to
     control armaments and to discourage war by treaties.

  The Treaty of Versailles limited the Weimar Republic from
     having armies over 100,ooo soldiers, big battleships, and
     other weaponry. An Inter-Allied Military Control
     Commission (IMCC) was created to oversee the process.

  The Treaty of Versailles relied on the cooperation between
     Allies, especially the US. Since it also binds the US with the
     League of Nations, the US declined to take part in that treaty.
     Germany did not respect that anyway.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Failure of the treaty approach – German Issues
  1921: The United States withdrew from the Rhineland

  1923: Germany defaulted on reparations from France and
     England. France occupied the Ruhr.

  1924: The Dawes Plan allowed Germany to get loans from
     the US to pay for the reparations. France withdrew
     troops from the Ruhr.

  1925: Germany signed the Pact of Locarno to recognize
     border to the west and not to take the border in the east
     by force.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Failure of the treaty approach – Germany’s reparations
  1926: France sponsored Germany to be a member of the
     League of Nations (Germany was initially barred from
     joining the LON).

  1929: The Young Plan made it easier for Germany to pay
     the reparations.

  1930: Last remaining French troops withdrew from the
     Ruhr. The IMCC made its last report on Germany and
     then dissolved.


by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Failure of the treaty approach – Germany’s reparations
  1929: Start of the Great Depression in the US. The crisis
     slowly spread to Europe.

  1932: Germany ceased reparations due to the Great
     Depression.

  1933: The Weimar Republic collapsed after being unable to
     control hyperinflation and unemployment as a result of the
     crisis. Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power.

  October 1933: Hitler pulled Germany out of the League of
     Nations and the World Disarmament Conference. Rumor
     began to spread that Nazi Germany began rearming.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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The Second War of the German Unification?
  1935: Italy invaded Ethiopia, LON condemned, Italy withdrew
     its membership.
  March 1935: Germany disavowed the Versailles Treaty and
     started to rearm.
  June 1935: Hitler signed a treaty with England to limit
     German warships to 35% of the British. Britain took it as an
     act of goodwill.
  Early 1935: The plebiscite in Saarland returned it to Germany.
     But in March 1936, German troops marched into the
     Rhineland which was established as a demilitarized zone by
     the Versailles Treaty.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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The Second War of the German Unification?
  1936: Hitler and Mussolini had pledged through the
     “Axis Pact” that Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy would
     support each other’s foreign policy.
  Early 1938: Hitler forced Austria (now a country of only 6
     millions people) to join the German union.
  Late 1938: Hitler demanded the cession of the
     Sudetenland where 1/5 of the total population were
     German. The Conference of Munich in September gave
     the land to Germany in exchange for no more German
     incursion in Europe.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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The Second War of the German Unification?
  British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain came back to
     England saying that he had just “brought the peace in our
     time”.
  Hitler, on the other hand, viewed that as a weakness and
     decided that he would attack the Allies.
  March 1939: Germany finalized the absorption of
     Czechoslovakia.
  May 1939: Anglo-French appeasement policy failed and
     Germany issued demands for Poland.
  23rd August 1939: Hitler made a 10 years non-aggression pact
     with the Soviet Union.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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WWII Proper – Eastern Front
  Night of 31st August 1939: 1,512,000 German troops or 62
     divisions massed on the German-Polish border.
  1st September 1939: Germany invaded Poland.

  3rd September 1939: France and England formally
     declared war on Germany.
  9th September 1939: German troops arrived outside of
     Warsaw.
  17th September 1939: The Red Army attacked Poland
     from the East.
  27th September 1939: Poland surrendered to Germany.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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WWII Proper – Eastern Front
  Under German occupation, Jews in Poland and other
     countries were persecuted and sent to concentration
     camp. The most notorious camp was Auschwitz.
  The Soviet Union moved on to invade Latvia, Lithuania,
     and Estonia. The Soviet Union also fought with Finland
     (November 1939), in what was known as the “Winter
     War”.
  The Soviet Union was the chief supplier of oil and grain
     to the Third Reich who can alleviate the negative impact
     of the British naval blockade.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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WWII Proper – Western Front
  Germany feared that neutral Norway and Denmark
     might disturb the flow of supply in war-making
     materials to Germany, in case the British navy violated
     the neutrality of the two countries.

  Therefore, Germany will go first.

  9th April 1940: The “Phoney War” ended in the West
     when Germany invaded Denmark and Norway.

  Success came within hours, unlike the war in 1864.


by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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WWII Proper – Western Front
  10th May 1940: Germany attacked France and the British
     Expeditionary Force (BEF).

  The French fixed defense was at the Maginot Line along
     the Franco-German border. The BEF was defending half
     of Belgium (by making use of rivers).

  The German instead attacked through the Ardennes
     forest and encircled Paris.

  Using the Blitzkrieg tactics that had defeated Poland
     before, France fell in six weeks.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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WWII Proper – Western Front
  22th June 1940: A general armistice went into effect
     between France and Germany when Petain came to
     power after the French government fled from Paris. That
     was the “Armistice of Compiegne”.
  The resulting French government was based at the city
     of Vichy and France was known as the Vichy
     government.
  21st July 1940: Hitler ordered the OKW (Oberkommando
     der Wehrmacht) to prepared plan of invasion of the
     Soviet Union in 1941.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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Battle of Britain: 12th August – 27th September 1940




by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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WWII Proper – Back to the Eastern Front
  22th June 1940: A general armistice went into effect
     between France and Germany when Petain came to
     power after the French government fled from Paris. That
     was the “Armistice of Compiegne”.
  The resulting French government was based at the city
     of Vichy and France was known as the Vichy
     government.
  21st July 1940: Hitler ordered the OKW (Oberkommando
     der Wehrmacht) to prepared plan of invasion of the
     Soviet Union in 1941.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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WWII Proper – Back to the Eastern Front
  3:30 AM, 22th June 1941: Germany invaded the Soviet
     Union (Spring time). 3.3 millions German troops were
     allocated to the campaign and Hitler predicted the war
     would be over within a month.
  October 1941: Battle of Vyazma-Bryansk, German victory
     opened the way to Moscow.
  7th November 1941: After the battle, raining season
     began. The unpaved way became quagmire. Germany
     had to wait until cold weather came. But Russian winter
     was another obstacle far worse than rain itself.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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WWII Proper – Germany became bogged down
  16th November 1941: The Battle of Moscow began. By
     December, some German units were cut off from their
     supplies.
  Army Group Center had suffered since the battle began,
     250,000 casualties from wounds and cold weather. Since 22nd
     June, Germany lost a total of 750,000 troops, 75,000 motor
     vehicle, and 180,000 horses.
  7th December 1941: Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, bringing the
     US into the war. At the same time, Hitler suffered setbacks in
     North Africa. At the end of 1941, Germany was on the
     defensive on all fronts.
by NHEM Boraden, PhD (A.B.D.), Political Science and National Security Affairs, University of Delaware
Assistant to the Minister of National Defense




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